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JOURNAL  OF  MATERIA  MEDICA, 


▲ND 


PHARMAOEXJTIO  FORMULARY. 


DBTOTKD    TO 


OATBUA  MEDieAf  PBAEMAOT,  taOOmi^  M^ 


JOSBPBC  SiLTSS,  "hSL  33^  ancL  HI.  .^  TIX^I^KlNr* 


VOLUME    I.— NEW     SERIES. 

PRINTBD   AND  PITBLISHVD 

BY     TILDEN    &    COMPANY, 

NKW   LBBAMOK,    K.    T. 

1859. 


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Jotimals,  &o.,  Beceived  Since  the  Last  Issue. 


Anna]  de  Ohimie,  Paris. 

'BQHetin  G^n^nle  de  Th^M)6iitidiiQ,  Paris. 

AbeSUe  M^cale,  Paris. 

Bulletin  de  l*Acad^mie  de  Medicine,  Paria 

Comptes  Renders,  Paris. 

Journal  de  Phannacie,  Paris. 

Journal  de  Chimie  M^dicale,  Paris. 

Repertoire  de  Pharmacie,  Paris. 

London  Jjancet 

London  Journal  of  Pharmacy. 

Chemist  London. 

Chemical  Gasette,  London. 

Journal  and  Transactions  of  the  Maryland  College  of  Pharmacy. 

American  Journal  of  Pharmacy,  Philadelphia. 

The  Druggist^  s  Circular  and  Chemical  Gazette,  New  York. 

British  and  Foreign  Medlco-Chirurgical  Review,  New  York. 

American  Journal  of  the  Medical  Sciences,  Philadelphia. 

Journal  of  the  Franklin  Institute,  Philadelphia. 

American  Medical  Gazette  and  Journal  of  Health,  New  York. 

Boston  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal. 

The  American  Journal  of  Sciences  and  Arts,  New  Haven,  Ct. 

The  Southern  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,  Augusta,  Ga. 

The  Medical  and  Surgical  Reporter,  Philadelphia. 

Medical  News  and  Library,  Philadelphia. 

St  Louis  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal. 

The  Virginia  Medical  Journal,  Richmond,  Va, 

The  American  Medical  Monthly,  New  York. 

Nashville  Journal  of  Medicine  and  Surgery. 

Dental  Cosmos. 

The  Charleston  Medical  Journal  and  Review. 

The  Cincinnati  Lancet  and  Observei . 

The  New  Orleans  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,  New  Orleans. 

The  College  Journal  of  Medical  Sciences,  Cincinnati. 

Now  Orleans  Medical  News  and  Hospital  Gazette,  New  Orleans. 

The  Chicago  Medical  Journal,  Chioago. 

The  Pacific  Medical  Journal,  San  Francisco,  Cal. 

Atlanta  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,  Atlanta,  Ga. 

The  Savannah  Journal  of  Medicine. 

The  Peninsular  and  Independent  Medical  Journal,  Detroit,  Mich. 

The  Medical  Journal  of  North  Carolina,  Edenton,  N.  C. 

Nashville  Monthly  Record  of  Medical  and  Physical  Science. 

Semi-Monthly  Medical  News,  Louisville,  Ky. 

Cuicinnati  Eclectic  and  Edinburgh  Medical  Journal,  Cincinnati. 

The  Druggist,  Cincinnati. 

Belmont  Medical  Journal,  Brid^port,  Ohio. 

Eclectic  Medical  Journal  of  Philadelphia. 

Cleveland  Medical  Gazette. 

Cincinnati  Medical  News. 

Hunt^s  Merchants'  Magazine. 

The  New  York  Medical  Press. 

Oglethorpe's  Medical  and  Surgical  Jonmal,  Savannah,  Ga. 


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THE 


JOURNAL  OF  MAtolA  MEDICA 

PHARMAOEUTIO   FORMULARY. 
Vew]  JAHUABY,  1859.  [Seriet. 


Remarks  on  the  Therapeutic  Resources  famished  by  the 
Indigemous  Materia  Medica  of  the  United  States. 

BY  CHARLES  A.   LEE,    M.  D. 

I  propose  to  present  to  your  readers  a  compreiiensive  synopaii 
of  the  known  indigenous  medicinal  plants  of  the  United  State^ 
with  such  details  in  regard  to  their  practical  uses  as  your  limits 
may  allow.  My  aim  will  be  to  aid  in  the  development  of  a  home  ^ 
Materia  Medica,  having  lopg  been  -satisfied  that  we  are  far  more 
dependent  on  foreign  countries  for  drugs  than  is  necessary,  and 
that  the  time  is  not  remote  when  the  American  practitioner  will 
be  able  to  dispense  with  a  great  proportion  of  medicinal  substances 
now  imported  firom  abroad.  No  branch  of  medical  science  has 
been  more  zealously  or  successfully  prosecuted  within  the  last 
quarter  of  a  century  than  the  Materia  Medica,  and  there  is  no  de- 
partment of  our  science  whose  investigation  promises  more  im- 
portant results,  or  which,  at  the  present  moment,  employs  so  many 
ardent  and  enlightened  cultivators  as  this.  These  researches  pen- 
etrate and  take  hold  of  every  department  of  nature,  animal,  vege- 
table, and  mineral ;  but  as  the  vegetable  kingdom  furnishes  the 
greatest  portion  of  our  therapeutic  resources,  it  is  to  this  source 
our  attention  is  chiefly  to  be  directed.  Take  our  own  great  State 
of  New  York,  for  example :  we  number  about  fourteen  hundred 
and  fifky  known  species  of  flowering  plants,  of  which  two  hundred 
are  herbaceous — ^we  have  two  hundred  and  fifty  species  of  woody 
plants,  including  eighty  that  attain  the  size  of  trees — ^wehave  over 


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2  Lee  on  Indigenous  Materia  Medica. 

one  hundred  and  fifty  species  of  plants  that  are  known  to  possess 
medicinal  properties,  many  of  them  of  great  value.  Of  exotics 
now  naturalized  we  have  one  hundred  and  sixty  species,  many  ©f 
which  have  been  introduced,  accidentally  with  grasses  and  other 
agricultural  products  from  abroad.  Of  such,  also,  are  nearly  all 
the  weeds  that  prove  so  troublesome  to  the  fiirmer.  To  the  same 
source  we  are  also  indebted  for  many  of  our  useful  species,  as  most 
of  our  grasses,  which  spring  up  spontaneously  on  every  hand.  01 
Ferns  we  have  about  sixty  species  belonging  to  the  flora  of  the 
State,  some  of  which  are  known  to  be  medicinal.  Our  Mosses^ 
Liverworts^  Lichens^  and  Seaweeds^  have,  as  yet,  been  but  very  im-r 
perfectly  investigated,  though  many  of  them  would,  undoubtedly, 
furnish  valuable  contributions  to  medicine.  When  these  shall 
have  been  more  carefully  studied  and  more  fiilly  known,  we  shall 
no  longer  send  to  Iceland,  Ireland  and  the  East  Indies  for  mucil- 
aginous mosses  and  other  remedies  of  this  dass.  Our  Fungi  are 
extremely  numerous,  constituting,  probably,  at  least  three  thousand 
species,  but  few  of  which  have  been  thoroughly  studied.  Here, 
then,  is  a  wide  field  for  botanical  and  therapeutical  research.  At 
present  our  knowledge  scarcely  suffices  to  enable  us  to  distinguish 
such  as  are  poisonous  irom.  those  which  are  edible  and  nutritious, 
and  yet  the  botany  of  this  State  has,  as  yet,  been  but  imperfectly 
explored.  Thousands  of  cryptogamic  plants  yet  remain  undis- 
covered, besides  many  of  the  phenogambus  order.  The  geological 
features  of  our  State  are  greatly  diversified,  its  range  of  tempera- 
ture is  great,  and  the  geographical  distribution  of  plants  is  equally 
extensive,  being  governed  by  both  these  circumstances.  Already 
we  can  number  more  species  than  are  found  in  the  whole  of  New 
England;  but  we  have  mountainous  and  alpine  regions  in  the 
State  of  New  York,  elevated  some  six  thousand  feet  above  the 
ocean,  which  furnish  an  alpine  vegetation  almost  unexplored. 
Many  plants  on  our  Atlantic  border  are  found  nowhere  else  in 
our  State,  and  the  same  remark  will  apply  to  the  Valley  of  the 
Hudson  and  to  our  mountainous,  western  and  northern  regions. 
On  the  borders  of  our  northern  lakes,  as  has  been  noticed  by  Prof. 
Torrey,  there  are  marine  plants  growing,  showing  that  these 
waters  were  formerly  saline.  Of  the  Dicotyledonous  orders  in  the 
State  of  New  York,  the  Eanunculacece  constitute  about  one 
thirty-eighth  of  the  flowering  plants ;  the  Oructferce  one  forty-fifth ; 


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Lee  on  Indigenous  Materia  Medico,  3 

the  Legumincsex  one  twenty-sixth ;  the  Rosacece  one  twenty-fifth ; 
UrnbdUfercB  one  thirtieth ;  Coniferce  one  ninth ;  Ericacece  one  thirty- 
fourth;  LainaUB  one  thirty-second;  Scrophulariaceoe  one  thirty- 
ninth.  Of  the  monocotyledinons  plants  there  are  but  three  large 
orders,  viz.:  Orchidaceae^  forming  about  one  thirty-ninth  of  our 
flowering  plants ;  Cyperaceoe  one-ninth,  and  Oramineae  one- twelfth, 
which  proportions  vary  but  little  from  the  average  of  the  whole 
flora  of  North  America.  The  southern  portion  of  our  Union  is 
still  more  fruitful  in  medicinal  plants  than  the  northern  or  middle 
section.  This  might  have  been  expected  from  its  different  climatic 
conditions  and  geological  and  geographical  features. 

A  veiy  slight  acquaintance  with  the  subject  must  satisfy  every 
intelligent  mind  that  the  resources  of  the  vegetable  kingdom,  so 
fiur  from  being  exhausted,  have  hardly  yet  been  called  into  exist- 
ence. Whatever  may  be  the  demerits  of  the  so-called  Eclectic^ 
Botanic,  and  Thomsonian  schools,  they  at  least  deserve  the  praise 
•f  having  developed  to  a  considerable  extent  the  therapeutic 
properties  of  many  of  our  indigenous  plants,  and  by  their  experi- 
ments on  the  sick  have  enabled  us  to  form  some  estimate,  however 
imperfect,  of  their  just  value.  Every  departanent  of  nature,  doubt- 
less, abounds  in  remedies  of  great  value,  as  yet  undiscovered,  and 
there  is  great  plausibility  in  the  opinion  advanced  by  some,  that 
every  country  spontaneously  furnishes  remedies  for  those  maladies 
to  which  the  people  of  the  soil  are  naturally  subject,  and  that 
foreign  drugs  would  soon  oease  to  be  imported,  if  the  properties 
•four  own  plants  were  more  thoroughly  understood.  It  seems  a 
very  just  remark  of  Lindley,  that  the  heat  of  a  country,  its  humid- 
ity, particular  localities,  food,  and  the  social  habits  of  a  people,  will 
predispose  them  to  varieties  of  disease  for  which  the  drugs  of  Eu- 
rope offer  no  suflScient  remedy,  and  will  render  that  which  is  relied 
upon  in  one  country  unworthy  of  dependence  in  another. 
Emetic  plants,  for  example,  are  more  abundant  in  warm  than  in 
cold  climates,  and  they  are  more  frequently  indicated  in  the  former. 
Many  similar  examples  might  be  given,  were  it  necessary,  furnish- 
ing weighty  inducements  for  the  inhabitants  of  any  given  country 
or  locality  for  exploring  diligently  the  therapeutic  resources  of 
their  particular  section.  When  we  consider  that  more  than  one 
thousand  plants  of  the  United  States  are  known  to  possess  medi- 
cinal qualities  of  value,  and  that  but  very  few  of  them  have  be«i 


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4     ,  Lee  on  Indigenous  Materia  Afediocu 

investigated  with  any  considerable  care,  either  as  regards  their 
physiological  or  therapeutical  properties,  we  shall  need  no  ad- 
ditional argument  to  urge  the  cultivators  of  medical  science 
to  enter  with  renewed  energy  upon  this  almost  unexplored  field. 
It  may  be  urged  that  our  Materia  Medica  is  already  too  extensive, 
and  needs  abridgment  rather  than  extension,  but  this  superficial 
objection  vanishes  when  we  consider  that  the  medicinal  proper- 
ties of  no  two  plants  are 'precisely  similar,  and  that  the  great 
object  in  view  is  not  the  multiplication  of  comparatively  inert 
articles,  but  the  ascertainment  of  the  mast  valuable  of  those 
which  can  fulfil  certain  indications  with  the  greatest  promptness 
and  certainty.  We  are  not  of  the  modem  school  that  deny  that 
there  is  any  such  art  as  that  of  medicine,  or  who  would  make  it 
to  consist  merely  in  watching  the  progTCss  of  disease,  unmodified 
by  remedies  ;  who  believe  that  nature  needs  no  assistance,  or  that  her 
consei*vative  efforts  require  no  guidance,  stimulus,  or  restraint 
Unless  we  have  entirely  mistaken  the  modus  operandi  of  medicines 
and  their  therapeutic  powers,  they  are  capable  in  given  conditions 
and  under  favorable  circumstances,  as  set  forth  by  Copland,  of  ac- 
complishing the  following  ends : — 

1.  Restoring  vital  and  nervous  ix)wer  when  primarily  deprassed, 
as  by  shock,  mental  and  physical,  sedative  and  noxious  causes, 
etc.,  etc. 

2.  Promoting  the  various  secreting  and  excreting  functions,  in 
ether  words,  the  function  of  depuration. 

3.  Equalizing  the  vascular  and  vital  actions  throughout  the 
organism. 

4.  Moderating  exceasive  secretion  and  excretion,  or  restraining 
excessive  discharges. 

5.  Allaying  existing  nervous  excitement,  unnatural  function,  or 
irregular  action. 

6.  Allaying  or  moderating  increased  vascular  action,  or  remor- 
ing  vascular  disorder. 

7.  Correcting  or  counteracting  morbid  states  of  the  blood. 

8.  Allaying  morbid  irritation. 

9.  Altering,  or  more  completely  changing  morbid  states  of  in- 
dividual tissues,  or  the  structures  generally. 

10.  Preventing  or  removing  exhaustion  in  its  various  forms. 

11.  Removing  congestions  of  blood. 


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\  Arnica  in  Tinnitus  Annum  6 


^ 


12.  Enabling  organic,  nervous  or  vital  power  to  resist  the  slow 
extension  of  disease,  or  overcome  its  more  rapid  advances,  and  to 
throw  off  parasitical  and  other  formations. 

13.  Kestoring,  as  far  as  may  be  restored,  impaired  or  lost 
function. 

14.  Palliating  urgent  or  distressing  symptoms,  either  when  they 
cannot  be  removed,  or  in  order  to  obtain  time  to  ascertain  their 
sources,  and  for  the  removal  of  these  sources,  or  pathological 
causes. 

16. .  Exciting  and  directing  the  mental  emotions  so  as  to  prevent 
the  extension  or  aggravation  of  disease,  and  to  insure  or  hasten 
recovery. 

It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  these  special  principles  of  thera- 
peutics are  to  be  carried  out  and  these  indications  fulfilled  only 
by  the  administration  of  drugs,  for  they  imply  the  judicious  use 
of  all  known  therapeutic  agents,  as  loss  of  blood,  baths,  counter- 
irritants — all  psychical  as  well  as  physical  appliances.  Still,  most 
of  them  do  require  the  employment  of  medicines  proper,  and  no 
calm,  unbiased  observer  can  doubt  that  the  latter  are  powerfully 
^cient  in  their  accomplishment.  A  more  particular  consider- 
ation of  this  subject  would  lead  us  into  a  discussion  of  the  various 
modes  in  which  medicines  affect  the  solids  and  fluids — ^the  vital 
properties  of  the  different  organs  of  the  body — but  all  this  must 
be  left  till  we  come  to  speak  of  the  individual  articles  of  our  in- 
digenous Materia  Medica. 


-^«  ^ 


Arnica  in  Tinnitus  Anrinm. 

BY    DR.    A.     YOUNG,     OF    KAINE. 

There  seems  to  be  an  imperfect  knowledge  respecting  the  spe- 
cific energy  of  Arnica  in  this  country.  I  find  no  notice,  whatever, 
in  all  our  medical  literature,  of  the  developments  made  by  Mr. 
Wilde,  in  his  **  Diseases  on  the  Ear,"*  on  the  use  of  Arnica  for  that 
very  distressing  complaint — ^buzzing  and  singing  noises  in  the 


*  Practical  observations  on  Aural  Surgery  and  the  Nature  and  Treatment  of 
Diseases  of  the  Ear,  by  William  R.  Wilde,  of  Dublin.  Reprinted  in  this  country 
by  Blanchard  k  Lea. 


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6  Amioa  m  T^mnitus  Aurtum. 

ear.  The  remarkable  energy  of  this  plant  on  the  oerebro-spinal 
system,  and  its  specific  power  over  ^ntft/^,  should  be  made  known 
to  practitioners ;  and  I  do  this  simply  £rom  the  fact  that  it  is  used 
so  little  by  the  profession,  and  only,  as  our  many  publications  say, 
"  as  a  domestic  remedy  in  sprains,  bruises,"  &c.  Mr.  Wilde  says 
(page  103):  "The  only  medicine  I  know  of  which  appears  to  ex- 
ercise an  influence  over  tinnitus  aurium^  is  Leopard's-bane, — 
Arnica  Montana^ — formerly  much  in  use  for  rheumatic  affections, 
and  as  an  external  application  in  sprains  and  bruises."  On  pages 
248-9,  he  says:  "I  have  found  the  preparations  of  Arnica  Mon- 
tana of  decided  benefit ;  indeed,  it  is  the  only  medicine  which  I 
am  acquainted  with  that  seems  to  possess  a  specific  power  over 
this  annoying  and  usually  most  intractable  complaint  The  pre- 
paration which  I  find  to  be  the  most  efficacious,  is  the  tincture,*  of 
both  flowers  and  leaves,  which  the  patient  should  commence  with 
by  taking  fifteen  drops  in  a  tablespoonful  of  the  infusion  of  Ar- 
nica, with  some  cordial  tincture,  three  times  a  day.  After  a  few 
days  the  dose  should  be  increased  one  or  two  drops  daily  till  it 
reaches  thirty,  or  even  more,  unless  headache  or  giddiness  be 
produced,  when  we  should  at  once  lessen  the  dose,  or  omit  the 
medicine  altogether  for  a  short  tima  The  state  of  the  bowels 
should  be  carefully  attended  to  during  the  administration  of  thig 
drug." 

He  well  remarks,  however,  in  order  to  secure  the  best  effects^ 
that  "the  original  disease  which  produced  it"  (the  tinnitus),  must 
be  removed,  or  at  least,  a  decided  amelioration  of  any  inflamma- 
tory action  which  may  be  going  on. 

We  have  had  patients  with  a  most  annoying  tinnitus,  and  un- 
accompanied with  deafiiess,  in  which  we  have  found  the  Fluid 
Extract  of  Arnica  (Tilden's)  highly  beneficial.  We  commenced 
with  six  drops, — ter  de  di^ — ^increasing  one  drop  each  day  till  the 
patient  took  thirty  drops.  The  improvement  was  good,  and  is 
permanent  to  this  day.  We  shall  have  occasion  to  refer  tb  this 
matter  again  soon. 

*  To  make  the  tincture,  take  one  ounce  and  a  half  of  the  flowers  to  a  pint  ol 
rectified  spirits  of  wine,  macorate  for  fourteen  days,  and  strain. 


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Hyoscyamus  Niger.  J 

Hyosoyanms  Nigger. 

{Oontinued  frcrm  page  164.) 

OoRREcr  definitions  lie  at  the  basis  of  the  exact  sciences,  while 
in  all  other  than  the  exact  sciences,  the  classification  must  be  more 
or  less  xinreliable,  and  subject  to  change  from  the  inaccuracy  of  the 
terms  employed,  which  is  a  necessary  condition  to  an  experimental 
science,  one  which  advances,  not  by  results  flowing  out  from  cer- 
tain fixed,  established  principles,  but  by  having  its  principles 
modified  and  corrected  by  the  development  of  facts,  hitherto  \m 
known,  which  must  be  accounted  for,  and  which,  in  fact,  consti 
tute  the  essence  of  its  growth.  In  the  science  of  mathematics  all 
reasoning  depends  on  the  hypothesis  employed.  '  A  certain  defi 
nition  given  to  a  straight  line  or  a  circle,  correct  reasoning  about 
the  properties  of  either  is  true,  not  necessarily  in  fact,  but  accord- 
ing to  the  definition.  It  cannot  be  proved,  neither  is  it  asserted 
that  either  the  straight  line  or  circle  exist  The  reasoning  is 
purely  hypothetical.  But  in  physias  and  the  natural  sciences,  the 
case  stands  entirely  different ;  the  operation  is  the  reverse.  The 
ooUeotion  of  fects  precedes  the  classification,  and  the  definition  of 
a  thing  or  class  of  things  is  the  defining,  limiting,  including  all 
that  should  be  included,  and  excluding  all  that  should  be  excluded. 
Except  when  everything  is  known  that  can  be  known  of  a  science, 
the  definitions  are,  in  a  manner,  arbitrary,  and  by  no  means  easy 
to  be  made,  and  cannot  be  expected  to  be  universally  adopted 
The  correct  classification  of  articles  in  the  Materia  Medica  has  two 
difficulties  to  contend  against ;  inaccuracy  in  the  definitions  given 
to  their  general  therapeutic  properties ;  the  constant  changes  that 
are  being  made  by  the  developments  in  the  science  of  medicine, 
both  in  die  rejection  of  old  modes  of  application  and  the  substitu- 
tion or  addition  of  new.  However,  the  latter  difficulty  could  be 
more  easily  made  way  with,  if  what  is  meant  by  the  use  of  the 
general  terms,  such  as  diaphoretic,  sudorific,  narcotic,  anodyne,  so- 
porific, anti-spasmodic,  etc.,  was  definitely  fixed  and  universally 
acknowledged  by  authors  and  the  profession  at  large. 

This  whole  difficulty  may  be  aptly  represented  by  noting  the 
difference  between  the  work  of  classifying  any  article  of  the  vege- 
table Materia  Medica  botanically  and  therapeutically.  In  the  for- 
mer case,  with  the  plant  in  perfection,  it  is  an  eacy  matter  to  de-* 


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8  Byoscyamus  Niger. 

cide  whether  it  is  Phenogamous  or  Cryptogamoufl,  Angiosperm 
or  Gymnosperm^  Polypetalous,  MonopetaloTis  or  Apetalous ;  and 
80  on  till  it  ifl  generic«ally  and  specifically  fixed ;  but,  on  the  other 
liand,  to  classify  it  therapeutically,  there  are  needed  years  of  care- 
ful experiment  and  observation  under  all  possible  conditions  of 
place,  constitution,  form  and  amount,  for  facta  necessary  thereto. 

This  inaccuracy,  referable  to  both  necessity  and  carelessness, 
has  reacted  on  the  profession  to  such  an  extent,  that  by  want  of 
a  careful  discrimination  and  limitation  of  these  general  terms, 
what  would  be  of  immense,  nay,  almost  incalculable  value,  has 
been  well  nigh  rejected  and  made  a  matter  of  inferior  moment. 
The  inquiry  is  not,  when  investigating  a  new  remedy  or  the  ad- 
vance of  an  old,  what  is  the  general  range,  when  does  it  come  into 
relation  with  others ;  but  to  what  particular  cases  is  it  applied, 
how  is  it  used:  useful,  practical,  labor*saving  questions  enough, 
but  unscientific,  and  to  the  thinking,  rational  practitioners  wholly 
nnsatisfactoiy.  It  may  be  well  enough  for  the  professedly  scientific 
books  to  state  that  an  article  is  at  once  cathartic,  emetic,  alterative, 
anthelmintic,  hydragogue  and  sialogogue,  but  these  books  are  not 
consulted  to  discover  this  as  a  matter  of  information,  influencing 
practice,  but  to  discover  in  what  diseases  it  has  proved  successful 
and  in  what  it  maybe  relied  upon  as  pretty  nearly  a  specific.  The 
new  books  teach  little  else  than  certain  collated  fiwrts  without 
any  attempts  at  generalization,  careful  or  otherwise.  "  What  is 
writ,  is  writ  "'in  medicine.  There  is  a  morbid  fear  of  change,  and 
the  dogmas  of  the  past  are  clung  to  with  an  astonishing  tenacity. 

CJoming  within  lie  general  scope  of  the  foregoing  remarks,  but 
yasily  less  so  than  a  multitude  of  others,  is  the  agent  imder  con- 
mderation.  Having  in  a  previous  article  considered  the  Hyoscya- 
mus  in  its  special  application  to  particular  diseases,  let  us  now  in- 
quire into  the  opinions  that  have  been,  and  are  now  held,  in  regard 
to  its  general  properties,  then  the  various  definitions  of  the  terms 
employed,  and  seek  to  fix,  by  its  physiological  and  medicinal  proper- 
ties, its  true  place  in  the  Materia  Medica. 

Cullen  classes  it  among  the  sedantia^  i.  e.  "  those  medicines  whicli, 
directly  and  without  evacuation,  diminish  the  motions  and  powers 
of  the  nervous  system."  "  This,  like  other  narcotic  substances,  will 
sometimes  moderate  and  restrain  hemorrhage,  but  we  are  persuadc^l 
that  except  when  the  hemorrhage  manifestly  depends  upon  a  par 


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Hyoscyamxjts  Niger,  '  9 

ticular  irritation,  this,  or  any  other  narcotic  may  be  very  hurtfuL" 

"  We  have,  indeed,  found  the  hyoscyamus  to  be  often  an  agree- 
able and  soporiferons  medicine,  and  we  have  frequently  found  it 
such  in  persons  who,  from  particular  circumstances,  did  not  agree 
with  opium,  and  particularly  because  it  was  less  binding  to  the 
belly  than  opium.  We  must,  however,  remark  here,  that  it  is  al- 
most only  when  the  extract  of  henbane  is  employed  in  large  doses, 
that  its  laxative  effects  are  very  remarkable." 

Pliny  speaks  of  its  virtues  in  various  ways : — Suocus  hyoscyami 
etiam  sanguinem  excreantibus,  nidor  quoque  accenisi  tussientibus. 
Succus  hyoscyami  cum  axungia  articulis.  Hyoscyamum  genitali- 
bus  medetur. 

Forskahl  mentions  this  medicine  as  being  brought  from  Greece 
to  Egypt  in  his  day  and  administered  to  procure  sleep ;  adding, 
that  it  might  with  safety  be  given  to  children. 

According  to  Royle,  it  is  narcotic,  anodyne  and  soporific; 
available  for  a  variety  of  cases  where  we  wish  to  relieve  pain,  allay 
irritability,  and  procure  sleep ;  having  the  advantage  of  not  con- 
stipating the  bowels  like  opium,  and  hence  it  is  frequently  used 
with  calomel,  purgatives  and  anti-spasmodice. 

Mr.  A.  T.  Thompson  says,  that  united  with  colocynth,  he  has 
found  hyoscyamus  particularly  useful  in  colica  pictonum. 

Munay,  in  his  App.  Medic.,  Vol.  1,  p.  655,  has  treated  fiilly  of 
hyoscyamus  and  its  use  in  convulsions,  palpitation,  mania  and 
melancholy.  With  regard  to  its  anodyne  properties,  he  says : — 
Opio  ipso,  in  somno  et  quiete  induoenda,  aliquando  potentius  fuit. 

Bigelow  speaks  of  it  as  having  been  given  in  colic,  particularly 
colica  pictonum,  in  rheumatism,  hysteria,  and  some  puerperal 
complaints;  and  externally,  as  forming  a  useful  anodyne  applica- 
tion in  hemorrhoids,  chordee,  and  painful  ulcerations. 

Dunglison  marks  it  as  narcotic,  anodyne,  anti-spasmodic,  anu 
slightly  stimulant 

Pereira  gives  it  as  anodyne,  soporific,  anti-spasmodic  and  seda- 
tive, and  in  fomentations,  as  a  topical  sedative  and  anodyne. 

Dr.  Good  declares  that  hyoscyamus  has  a  tendency  to  check  the 
pulse,  and  sometimes  ta  put  a  total  stop  to  the  heart's  action  with 
a  deadly  shock,  and  to  kill  the  patient  in  a  moment ;  classing  it 
with  digitiUis  and  prussic  acid,  as  used  expressly  on  account  of  this 
property. 


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10  SyodCj/amu8  Niger. 

Dr.  Wood  says  it  ranks  among  the  narcotics,  and,  in  its  remedial 
operation,  is  anodyne  and  soporific.  It  is  at  present  used  to  relieve 
pain,  procure  sleep,  or  quiet  irregular  nervous  action ;  and  it  is 
not  supposed  to  exercise  any  specific  curative  influence  over  par- 
ticular diseases.  The  diseases  to  which  it  is  applicable,  it  would 
be  useless  to  enumerate,  as  there  are  few  complaints  in  which  cir- 
cimistances  might  not  call  for  its  employment 

According  to  the  experiments  of  Orfila,  the  juice,  or  extract 
from  the  leaves,  stems,  and  especially  the  root,  produces  in  animals 
a  state  of  sopor,  much  purer  than  that  caused  by  opium ;  most 
active  when  applied  to  the  jugular  vein,  less  so  when  applied  to 
^he  cellular  tissue,  and  still  less  when  introduced  into  the  stomach. 

In  a  treatise  on  vegetable  poisons,  Mr.  Wilmer  has  related  the 
history  of  six  persons  in  a  family  who  were  poisoned  by  eating  at 
dinner  the  roots  of  hyoscyamus  by  mistake,  instead  of  parsnips. 
Several  were  delirious  and  danced  about  the  room  like  maniacs; 
one  appeared  as  if  he  had  got  drunk,  and  a  woman  became  pro- 
foundly and  irrecoverably  comatose,  dying  next  morning.  In  her 
case,  emetics,  clysters,  and  external  stimuli  failed. 

Another  author  says: — It  causes  all  the  phenomena  of  narootio 
poisoning,  such  as  results  from  other  solanaceous  plants,  particu- 
larly congestion  of  the  vessels  of  the  brain  with  coma. 

The  concurrent  testimony  of  these  writers  is,  that  the  chief 
property  of  hyoscyamus  is  narcotic ;  where  they  differ,  is  in  as- 
cribing to  it  other  propertiea  If,  then,  this  term  is  appropriately 
applied,  what  is  the  meaning  of  the  definitive  word — narcotic? 
Assuredly,  if  hyoscyamus  is  a  pure  narcotic,  all  the  efiects  pro- 
duced on  the  animal  organism,  physiological  and  medicinal,  by 
the  administration  of  hyoscyamus,  are,  as  a  whole,  narcotic,  i.  e. 
excluding  none  and  including  no  others,  in  all  the  stages  from  the 
symptoms  produced  by  small  doses  up  to  those  produced  in  the 
last  stages  by  poisonous  doses.  If  all  these  are  to  be  included, 
then  it  is  a  pure  narcotic,  and  is  the  standard  of  the  class ;  but  if 
it  possesses  certain  properties  universally  manifesting  themselves 
in  the  first  stages  of  its  operation,  and  has  them  in  common  with 
some  other  agents,  with  which  its  after  operations  do  not  coincide, 
then  these  first  properties  constitute  the  ground  of  the  classifica- 
tion. In  this  case  it  is  narcotic,  but  it  has  other  properties  in  ad- 
dition. This,  then,  is  a  matter  of  classification  on  which  there  ought 
to  be  authoritative  decision. — {lb  be  condnued.) 


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Indigenous  versus  Foreign  Medicines.  11 

Indigenous  verstiB  Foreign  Medicines. 

BY    BDWABD    PARRI8H. 

THiere  are  some  practitioners  who  seem  to  value  no  medicine 
wWcli  lias  not  oome  across  the  great  deeg,  or  at  least  been  brought 
by  some  long  route  from  a  foreign  clime — ^they  have  an  especial 
choice  for  something  from  old  England  or  France,  esteeming  the 
productions  of  these  countries,  as  they  do  their  people,  a  leeiie  bet- 
ter than  anything  that  can  be  grown  on  this  democratic  soil. 
Then,  on  the  other  hand,  we  have  a  class  of  philosophers  who 
are  so  intensely  American  as  to  assume  the  position  of  know- 
nothings  in  regard  to  the  productions  of  foreign  countries ;  they 
are  so  impressed  with  the  value  of  our  indigenous  Materia  Medica^ 
for  instance,  that  they  cannot  imagine  what  is  the  use  of  import- 
ing such  things  from  abroad. 

The  doctrine  that  every  locality  produces  medicines  adapted  t# 
the  diseases  to  which  it  is  subject  suits  the  views  of  this  latter 
class — a  doctrine  which  would  exclude  us  from  the  use  of  opium, 
Peruvian  bark,  the  spices,  and  hundreds  of  invaluable  remedies, 
many  of  which  have  no  counterparts  on  our  soU. 

Now,  it  seems  to  me,  there  is  no  philosophy  in  either  of  these 
viewa  The  obvious  design  of  Providence  in  the  distribution  of 
natural  objects  over  aU  parts  of  the  world  is  to  promote  commerce, 
that  great  dvilizer  of  mankind,  and  in  proportion  as  our  know- 
ledge extends  and  our  views  expand,  we  shall  be  led  to  avail  our- 
selves of  the  resources  which,  by  the  imgrudging  bounty  of  nature, 
are  spread  broadly  over  all  lands  for  the  promotion  of  human 
comfort  and  the  cure  of  disease.  In  England,  the  idea  that  Great 
Britain  is  the  imiverse,  and  especially  that  this  barbarous  land  is 
scarcely  worthy  the  notice  of  a  gentleman  or  savant,  though  by 
no  means  universal,  is  certainly  entertained  by  a  considerable 
class,  who  are  not  without  their  prototype  in  America. 

It  will  be  remarked,  however,  that  the  intense  nationality  of 
feeling  here  alluded  to  pertains  chiefly  to  the  productions  of 
human  skill  and  ingenuity.  The  idea  of  the  natural  superiority 
of  our  country  over  another  is  too  repugnant  to  common  sense  to 
be  intelligently  entertained,  but  the  prejudice  spends  itself  chiefly 
in  disparaging  productions  which  display  intellectual  superiority 
or  manual  skill  or  taste.    Here  our  toady  is  at  home,  and  in  his 


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12  Belladonna  in  Secretion  of  MiJk, 

ignorant  self-sufficiency  exposes  himself  to  tlie  ridicule  of  sensible 
men. 

The  capabilities  of  mind  are  the  same  in  all  countries,  though 
it  is  more  tramelled  in  some  than  others.  So  universally  diffused 
are  its  gifts  that  no  civilized  nation  can  claim  that  it  is  not  greatly 
indebted  to  all  others ;  in  this  view,  we,  in  America,  must  own 
ourselves  as  having  less  right  to  be  boastful  than  our  transatlantic 
brethren.  In  natural  productions  we  can  beat  the  world,  but  in 
the  laborious  cultivation  of  science,  Europe  has  imjx)sed  a  debt 
upon  us  which  many  years  of  our  material  progreas  will  not  suffice 
to  repay. 

The  scientific  physician  and  pharmaceutist  should  be  above  the 
petty  prejudices  and  rivalries  of  sects  and  nations,  and  being  in 
the  true  sense  of  the  word  an  eclectic,  should  own  himself  to  be 
a  citizen  of  the  commonwealth  of  science — a  servant  of  humanity. 
The  true  spirit  of  Americanism  is  universal  and  all-embracing, 
and  when  its  zeal  shall  be  moderated  by  experience,  we  may  hope 
it  will  produce  a  liberality  in  science  and  practical  life  which  will 
give  it  a  deserved  preeminence. 


Belladonna  in  Arresting  the  Secretion  of  Milk. 

BY  H.   CLAY  SANFORD,    EDDYVILLE,    IOWA. 

I  have  read  in  your  journal  some  very  flattering  notices  of  the 
eflect  of  Extract  of  Belladonna  in  arresting  the  secretion  of  milk ; 
but  I  have  seen  no  c^ise  where  it  has  been  tried  on  one  mammary, 
allowing  the  other  to  secrete  and  be  nursed  from. 

I  attended  Mrs.  M —  a  few  days  ago,  and  on  account  of  large 
cicatrices  formed  by  a  previous  ulceration,  and  the  entire  loss  of 
the  nipple  from  the  left  gland,  she  was  very  uneasy,  fearing  that 
she  would  have  again  to  undergo  all  her  former  agony  in  having 
another  abccas  and  ulcerations.  Under  this  fear  she  early  men- 
tioned the  matter  to  me,  and  inquired  if  there  was  Jiny  preven- 
tive. I  must  confess  I  did  not  encourage  her  much,  but  allaying 
her  fear  as  much  ag  possible,  I  determined  to  try  the  eflect  of  tlie 
Nightshade,  as  I  had  seen  it  recommended. 

Accordingly,  as  soon  as  her  child  was  born,  I  made  a  solntiijtn 
of  Extract  of  Belladonna,  about  one  scruple  to  an  ounce  of  wufer. 


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Apocynum  as  an  Anti- Periodic,  18 

and  directed  that  this  should  be  well  applied  to  the  aperture  of 
the  nipple,  and  around  as  far  as  the  areola  extends,  once  a  daj, 
and  if  any  hardness  or  swelling  supervened,  to  apply  it  twice 
daily.  On  the  third  day,  about  two  tablespoonfuls  of  milk  were 
drawn  from  this  breast  with  the  pump,  as  there  had  been  that 
morning  a  little  hardness  on  one  side.  After  this,  nothing  fur- 
ther was  done,  except  the  application  once  a  day.  The  fifth' 
day  this  breast  was  soft  and  flabby — the  other  having  an  abund- 
ance of  milk  for  the  child.  Then  the  gland  had  almost  resumed 
a  normal  position,  without  milk,  and  without  the  least  pain  to  the 
patient  at  any  time. 


Ax>ooynuni  Caimabinxim  as  an  Anti-Periodic. 

The  anti-periodic  propertie.s  of  this  valuable  plant  have  rt.s3ent-' 
ly  invited  the  attention  of  the  medical  profession.  Dr.  Trent,  of 
Richmond,  Virginia,  in  a  communication  to  us,  mentions  his 
mode  of  using  it  to  bo  after  the  following  formula ; 

Pulverized  Apocynum  Cannabinum      -        -        -        One  Dram. 

CHI  Nigri  Piperiti Twelve  Droj)**. 

Make  into  twelve  pilb*.  Dose,  one  pill  every  two  hours  before  the  expected 
ditll,  until  four  pills  are  taken. 

Previous  to  the  administiation  of  the  Apocynum,  he  gives  twa 
compound  cathartic  pills.  He  has  reported  to  the  Southern  Med- 
ical and  Surgical  Journal  some  twelve  cases  of  intermittento 
treated  successfully,  and  having  since  then  treated  with  equal  suc- 
fcfis  six  cases,  confirms  his  opinion  of  the  valuable  anti-periodic 
properties  of  this  plant. 

The  recorded  experience  of  Dr.  Joseph  Parrish  in  an  aggi-ava- 
ted  case  of  ascites,  is  confirmed  by  Dr.  Samuel  C,  Waite,  of  Gou- 
vemeur,  St.  Lawrence  Co.,  N.  Y.,  in  the  case  of  a  lady  sixty  five 
years  of  age.  % 

Dr.  Knapp  foimd  it  useful  in  dropsy,  and  Dr.  Griscom  published 
in  the  American  Journal  of  Medical  Science,  xii.  55,  a  full  report 
of  his  obeeiTations,  confirming  this  opinion. 

Professor  Merrill  relates  a  case  of  ascites  in  a  boy  twelve  years 
old,  which  was  promptly  relieved  by  Apocynum  after  other  treat- 
ment had  foiled,  and  the  disease  had  progressed  so  fiir  in  spite  of 
it,  that  a  time  had  been  fixed  for  the  operation  of  tapping. 


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14  TrecUmerU  of  YeUow  Fever  by  Veratrum, 

Bradycrote  Treatment  of  Yellow  Fever  by  Veratrum  Viride. 

Drs.  O.  A.  White  and  Wm.  H.  Ford,  of  Charleston,  in  a  communioation  ad- 
dremed  to  the  Charleston  Medical  Journal  and  Review,  state  that  the  &talitj 
of  the  disease,  especially  the  last  season  in  Charleston,  was  the  cause  of  their 
distrust  in  received  modes  of  practice.  Dr.  Ford  proposed  to  reduce  the  fre- 
quency of  the  pulse,  '*at  the  febrile  onset,  as  speedily  as  was  prudent  to  a 
nuige  ten  beats  below  that  peculiar  to  the  person,  and  to  maintain  it  fifteen  or 
twenty  beats  below  the  same  standard,  according  to  the  intensity  of  the  access 
and  subsequent  symptoms.  Veratrum  was  selected  from  the  list  of  agents  whkh 
lower  the  heart's  action. 

The  sygtem,  therefore,  upon  which  we  decided,  was  diiefly  as  follows : — 

Ist  In  adults,  when  the  bowels  had  not  been  moved  for  some  days,  a  saline 
eaihartic  was  given,  and  if  the  headache  was  intense,  five  or  six  evacuations 
were  procured.  If  the  bowels  had  been  tolerably  regular  or  loose,  and  in  deli- 
cate women  and  children,  we  gave  an  efiScient  dose  of  calomel,  alone  or  combined 
with  some  other  gentle  purgative. 

2d.  As  early  as  possible  after  the  administration  of  the  cathartic^  and  odea 
during  its  action,  we  began  with  the  veratrum  for  the  primary  reduction  of 
the  pulse,  which  was  always  effected  within  seven  hours.  To  this  end  we 
prescribed  five  successive  doses,  the  first  four  of  which  were  given  «very  hour, 
and  the  last  from  an  hour  and  a  half  to  two  hours  afterwards,  irrespectively  of 
age  or  sex.  The  tincture  was  administered  without  combination,  mixed  in  a 
little  water,  for  adult  males  in  doses  of  firom  8  to  10  drops ;  («-4  or  6  minims;) 
for  women,  from  6  to  8  drops ;  for  children,  between  seven  and  fourteen  years, 
from  4  to  6  drops ;  for  those  between  three  and  seven  years,  from  8  to  6  drops ; 
and  for  all  under  two  years,  1  or  2  drops.  The  size  of  the  doses  was,  moreover, 
regulated  by  the  intensity  of  the  symptoms,  by  temperament^  irritability  of 
stomach,  and  the  previous  duration  of  the  disease.  By  the  administration  of 
Veratrum  in  this  nuumer,  the  pulse  wassooner  or  later  subdued,  and  as  it  sank, 
became  somewhat  irregular.  The  first  doses  of  Veratrum  were  often  vomited 
in  severe  cases,  but  the  succeeding  ones  were  oommonly  retained,  and  the  pa- 
tient did  not  again  vomit  until  the  pulse  was  reduced,  when  the  effect  of  the 
remedy  was  occasionally  marked  by  emesis.  This  vomiting  was  rarely  severe, 
Masing  of  itself  upon  a  temporary  discontinuance  of  the  medicine,  or  yielding 
readily  to  common  restoratives.  The  reduction  of  the  pulse  was  accompanied 
by  a  notable  cooling  of  the  body,  by  a  well  marked  diminution  of  the  headache, 
pain  in  the  back  and  limbs,  of  the  restlessness  and  anxiety,  of  the  frequency  of 
respiration,  of  the  congestion  of  the  skin,  flushing  of  the  fiice,  tumefaction  of 
&e  tongue,  and  injection  of  the  conjimctiva.  The  patient  felt  mudi  relieved, 
and  slept  tranquilly  as  soon  as  the  vomiting  had  ceased ;  nor  did  thesjrmptoms 
tend  to  hecur  for  some  hours,  as  they  would  always  do,  however,  if  the  drug 
were  not  again  prescribed. 

While,  therefore,  the  patient  was  in  this  condition,  the  ooncurrent  treatment 
was  at  once  instituted.     It  consisted : — 


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TteaimerU  of  TeOcw  Fever  by  Veratntm,  16 

3d.  «w  In  a  oontinued  exhibition  qf  the  Teratram,  bj  which  the  pulse  was 
maintained  throughout  the  disease,  and  until  the  tongue  began  to  clean,  fifteen 
beats  or  more  below  its  natural  range.  To  effect  this,  repeated  doses  half  as 
large  as  those  first  given,  but  not  unfrequentlj  quite  as  large,  or  nearly  so, 
were  administered  every  second  or  third  hour,  suspended  while  the  pulse  was 
low,  but  promptly  resumed  as  soon  as  it  showed  an  upward  tendency  by  a  rise 
d  ten  beats  or  more.  The  patient  was  therefore  seen  every  six  hours,  and 
much  more  frequently  in  urgent  cases,  for  it  was  easy  to  control  the  pulse 
when  once  reduced,  difiScult  to  reduce  it  a  second  or  third  time  when  by  neg- 
lect it  had  risen  beyond  one  hundred  beats  per  minute.  Careful  watching  was 
important,  firom  the  consideration  that  every  such  rising  of  the  pulse,  tending 
to  a  complete  retetablishment  of  the  fever  in  a  weakened  condition,  was  re- 
garded as  fblly  as  dangerous  as  a  second  or  third  paroxysm  in  bilious  rcmit- 
tant  ferer.  If  the  pulse  was  small  and  frequent,  the  Teratrum  was  administered 
in  small  and  frequent  doses.  If  diarrhea  occurred,  as  it  rarely  did,  it  was  re- 
strained by  mild  counter-irritants  and  astringents,  but  the  Ycratrum  was  on 
DO  aoooont  suspended,  and  the  pulse  was  continuously  influenced  by  small  but 
adequate  doses.  If  black  vomit  supervened  and  the  pulse  was  slow  the  Vera- 
trom  was  plainly  not  required ;  if,  however,  the  pulse  was  rapid,  the  Yeratrum 
was  oontinued  in  doses  proportioned  to  its  frequency,  which  were  usuaUy 
mall,  uid  were  repeated  every  two  or  three  hours.  Without  regard,  therefore, 
to  die  ordinary  accidents  of  the  disease,  whenever  it  was  required,  and  only 
then,  the  Yeratrum  was  uniformly  or  specially  administered  until  convalescence 
was  declared. 

(.  In  mercurialisation,  whidi  was  invariably  attempted,  calomel,  and  in  some 
iases  hydrarg.  cum.  creta.  was  pushed  in  moderate  doses  without  delay,  at 
•OOQ  as  catharsis  had  been  effected.  Hie  mercurial  was  discontinued  when  the 
gums  were  plainly  touched. 

4>  In  the  administration  of  a  saline,  (fiuretic  and  refrigerant  mixture,  specially 
directed  towards  the  kidneys  as  soon  as  the  intensity  of  the  symptoms  had  been 
•obdned. 

In  pregnant  women  the  Yeratrum  was  administered  as  nsoal,  but  in  doses 
io  regulated  as  to  av(»d,  if  possible,  any  vomiting,  the  pulse  being  nevertheless 
•ontrolled.  K  symptoms  of  abortion  had  already  set  in,  and  during  the  first 
three  days  of  the  disease,  they  were  in  every  case  effectually  arrested,  and  some- 
times did  not  again  recur ;  but  after  this  period,  if  a  general  internal  and  exter- 
nal congestion  had  supervened — if  the  pulse  had  become  quick  and  very  gmall^ 
and  if  the  oontractile  efforts  of  the  uterus  were  reestablished,  as  well  as  in  cases 
teen  late  where  they  first  presented  themselves  towards  the  termination  of  the 
disease — it  was  deemed  iqjudicious  to  continue  the  Yeratrum,  death,  in  such 
cases,  having  ensued  after  a  short  Ume.  We  have,  therefore,  observed  that  in 
aonvomitive,  but  bradycrote  doses,  the  Yeratrum,  in  this  disease,  has  appeared 
to  possess  anti-parturient  properties. 

During  convalescence,  quinine,  sulphuric  acid  and  iron  were  conjointly  pre- 
scribed. Quinine  was  strictly  avoided  in  the  commencement  and  progress  oi 
the  disease.     Nareotics  of  every  description  were  absolutely  discarded,  or  only 


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16 


Review  of  Dr.  TxMt/s  Materia  JfecU'ca.. 


administered  in  moderation^  when  convaleecence  was  fully  established.  Laxa- 
dyes  were  giTen  by  the  mouth,  if  deemed  requisite,  at  any  period  of  the  disease, 
but  per  anum  during  black  vomit.  Blisters  were  rarely  required ;  sinapisms 
were  of  advantage  in  aiding  the  retention  of  the  Ycratrum  when  first  adminis- 
tered, or  when  resorted  to  in  consequence  of  a  rise  in  the  pulse ;  and  they  were 
otherwise  variously  applied  as  in  ordinary  treatment.  Strict  abstinence  was 
enjoined  throughout  the  febrile  stage.  Stimulants  were  prescribed  in  very 
small  quantities,  and  were  rarely  required,  the  Yeratrum  being  discontinued  or 
alternated  with  them.  Convalescence  was  almost  invariably  prompt  and  un- 
complicated. Relapses  occurred  in  but  two  cases,  in  both  of  which  quinine 
had  been  omitted  during  convalescence.  Careful  notes  were  taken  at  the  bed- 
side, and  at  each  visit,  from  which  the  following  numbers  have  been  evolved. 
Patients  under  fourteen  years  of  age  were  classed  as  children.  Total  number 
treated  by  Veratrum,  117;  recovered,  102;  died,  15.  Adults,  80;  recovered, 
•6;  died,  14.     ChUdren,  87;  recovered,  36;  died,  1. 

The  first  case  was  treated  with  Veratrum  Viride  on  August  17th.  Th"e  sub- 
joined table  shows  the  mean  ranges  of  the  pulse  under  the  Veratrum  Viride^  as 
compared  with  its  mean  range  before  the  Veratrum  Viride  was  given. 


M«ftn  frequency  of  Pakie. 

When  V.  v.  first  given 
Seven  hours  after  -  - 
Remainder  of  disease  - 


ADULT  MALKS. 
Beats  per  Min. 

10^5  " 
61.8 
62.8 


ADULT   FEMALES. 
Beata  per.  Min. 

114.2 
66.2 
64.7 


CUILDBBH. 
Beats  pr.  Mio 

"137^5" 
71 

74.8 


Wb  have  received  the  following  communication,  in  answer  to  the  Review 
published  in  the  last  number  of  our  Journal.  We  give  it  place,  that  our 
readers  may  peruse  both  sides,  then  judge  for  themselves. 

Review  of  Dr.  Tully's  Materia  Medioa. 
We  like  this  Review  as  a  whole.  The  author  undertook  a  very  difficult 
task,  and  the  manner  in  which  he  has  accomplished  it,  proves  him  to  be,  we 
think,  one  of  oiu*  ablest  and  most  independent  medical  scholars.  That  it  is  difD- 
eult  to  review  a  work  like  Dr. "Tally's,  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  not  one  of  the 
editors  of  our  medical  journals  has  seen  fit  to  imdertake  it.  Here  is  an  original 
American  medical  work,  written  by  one  who  is  admitted  to  be  a  profound 
medical  scholar,  or,  as  our  Reviewer  expresses  it,  "  one  of  the  solid  men  of  the 
profession."  Many  months  have  elapsed  since  the  work  was  out,  and  yet  the 
guardians  of  our  medical  literature  are  silent  It  would  be  preposterous  to  sup- 
pose that  anything  but  the  difficulty  of  the  task  has  deterred  them.  In  our 
oountry,  where  newspapers  are  free,  journals  are  free,  and  men  arc  free ;  where 
it  is  considered  insulting  to  accuse  any  one  of  a  want  of  independence ;  where 
an  editor,  especially,  would  bo  indignant,  eve«  were  it  hinted  that  he  was  afVaid 


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Rexneio  of  Dr.  Tulh/'s  Materia  AfecUoa.  17 

to  express  his  opinion ; — I  say,  that  when  such  a  state  of  things  exists,  wo 
mnet  look  in  some  other  direction  for  a  solution  of  the  difSculty :  nor  can  we 
suppose  that  our  medical  editors,  the  shepherds  of  the  profession,  have  been 
wanting  in  yigilanoe.  If  the  new  work,  in  their  opinion,  is  a  wolf  in  sheep's 
dothing,  they  certainly  would  have  sounded  the  alarm ;  silence  imder  these 
drcumstances  would  be  treason,  and  we  cannot  admit  for  a  moment  that  so 
many  respectable  men  could  neglect  a  duty  so  important  It  is  not,  then,  want 
of  independence  or  want  of  Tigilance  on  the  part  of  our  medical  shepherds. 
I  cannot  believe  that  an  unworthy  motive,  a  desire  to  kill  by  neglect,  influencea 
them.     No,  it  must  be  the  difficulty  of  the  task  and  nothing  else. 

Although  we  like  this  Review  as  a  whole,  yet  we  do  not  agree  with  the  Re- 
viewer in  some  things.  He  has  doubts  about  the  advantages  of  Dr.  Tully*» 
nomenclature.  To  us  this  nomenclature  is  one  of  the. crowning  excellencies  of 
the  work.  In  regard  to  the  names  of  the  classes  being  derived  from  **  ancient 
lia3sical  Greek,"  it  seems  to  us  that  the  utility  and  propriety  of  such  a  deriva- 
tion was  settled  by  Linnaeus  a  century  ago.  Is  it  not  safe  to  follow  such 
aathority  ? 

Our  Reviewer  says  **  new  and  additional  names  do  not  give  new  knowledge — 
do  not  enlarge  our  ideas,  or  render  them  clear  or  more  accurate."  Let  us 
consider  a  few  facts  which  have  a  bearing  on  this  subject.  Formerly  an  ar- 
ticle in  common  use  by  physicians  was  called  white  titrwl,;  after  the  compo- 
sition of  it  was  discovered,  it  received  a  new  name — sulphate  of  zinc.  Now, 
does  not  this  new  name  give  "  new  knowledge  ? "  Docs  it  not  *'  enlarge  our 
ideas,"  and  render  them  clear  and  more  accurate  ?  No  one  acquainted  with 
chemistry  can  hesitate  a  moment  to  answer  this  question  in  the  affirmative, 
and  large  numbers  of  similar  new  names  might  be  mentioned,  which  would  go 
to  prove  that  nomenclature  was  of  primary  rather  than  **  secondary  "  import- 
ance. Our  Reviewer  admits  that  where  new  ideas  are  to  be  classified  for  the 
first  time,  it  is  "highly  proper"  that  they  should  be  furnished  with  names, 
mnd  that  these  names  should  be  regularly  and  classically  formed.  With  these 
exceptions,  how  many  new  names  have  been  added  by  Dr.  Tully  ?  We  oan 
find  none. 

We  agree  perfectly  with  the  Reviewer,  that  **  we  cannot  allow  that  anybody 
has  a  right  to  coin  "  names,  **  except  on  the  gravest  occasions  and  for  the  most 
argent  reasons."  We  leave  it  for  the  profession  to  decide  whether  or  not  Dr. 
Tally  is  anybody ;  and  whether  or  not  here  is  a  ^rava  occasion  and  a  most 
it^rpent  reoMn. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  Review  we  have  a  little  more  about  names  ;  and,  by 
the  way,  our  Reviewer  seems  to  dislike  new  names  quite  as  much  as  Dr.  Tully 
diritkes  the  anti-phlogistic  salts.  He  says,  "  we  do  not  like  the  terms  orof !  hetics 
and  antisbestics.  They  are  hard,  uncouth.  To  the  great  rnHJon'ty  of  nn^^lical 
oien  they  are  withoat  special  significance.  What  is  more,  they  seem  to  us  un- 
neeessary.  Names  when  not  needed  are  nnniitigated  nuisances ;  they  stand 
in  the  way  of  knowledge,  and  it  is  well  if  they  get  pitched  into  the  gutter. *• 
I^  us  consider  whether  the  new  names  or  the  anti-phlogistic  salts  deserve 
most  to  be  pitdied  into  the  guttfr;  though  Dr.  Tully  has  not  advised  this 

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18  Revievj  of  Dr.  TuU^s  Materia  Medico. 

summary  proce&s  in  regard  to  the  latter.  In  the  paragraph  above  the  one  we 
quote  from,  in  speaking  of  the  three  classes,  euphrenics,  oresthetics,  and  antiB- 
bestics,  he  sh}%  *'  I>r.  Tully  has  shown  three  powere  to  exist  where  but  one 
has  been  supposed."  Here,  then,  by  the  admission  of  our  Reviewer,  we  havei 
at  least,  two  new  cl&sses  to  be  named,  and  in  another  place  he  says  that 
•* where  new  ideas"  are  to  be  ** classified  for  the  first  time,"  it  is  "highly 
proper "  that  these  cla.sses  and  powers  should  be  furnished  with  names,  and 
that  these  names  should  be  regularly  and  classiodly  formed.  If  it  is  **  highly 
proper  "  to  do  this,  it  seems  to  me  not  well  if  these  names  get  pitched  into  the 
gutter.  Our  Reviewer  seems  to  have  a  strong  affection  for  the  word  stimulant^ 
and  thinks  it  will  not  be  "discarded."  We  presume  he  is  right,  and  we  always 
expect  <o  hear  physicians  talk  about  white  vitriol,  blue  vitriol,  and  j^reen  vitricJ; 
nervine,  arterial  and  aend  stimulants.  We  always  expci't  to  hear  sonic  phy- 
sicians say  that  they  *' bleed  to  invigorjtte,"  that  tiirtar  emetic  and  nitre  are 
stimulants,  (acrid,  I  suppose,)  iMxause  they  sometimes  produce  infiaiamation 
of  the  stomach  and  intostincs.  We^do  not  know  a  term  in  any  of  the  depart- 
mev^U  of  nuidicinc  which  ha<  produced  as  much  confusion  and  bad  pnvctice  aa 
the  term  stimulant;  it  has  been  applied  to  articles  of  opposite  powers  as  well 
as  to  those  which  resemble  each  other ;  in  a  word,  it  is  a  term  which  we  think 
should  be  discarded,  and  we  think  that  the  thruikK  of  the  profession  arc  due  to 
Dr.  Tully  for  his  efforts  to  rid  us  of  it. 

Our  Reviewer  remarks  that  anli-phlogistics  **are  not  fuvoi  ite  retiiedi«\s"  with 
Dr.  Tully.  It  is  quite  natural  for  one  to  dislike  anythinp;  which,  in  his  opinion, 
docs  injury  or  mischief.  I  once  heard  of -an  eminent  surj;«'un  who  always 
decried  the  use  of  rttd  precipitate  ointment,  because  he  Iiud  set»n  a  nund>cr  of 
cases  where  the  inappropriate  use  of  it  had  done  bunn.  Dr.  Tully  only 
condc!un.«  the  use  of  anti-phlogistic.s  during  the  prcvak'ux'  of  an  Jisthenic  dia- 
thesis ;  and,  admitting;  the  existence  of  this  diathesis  at  the  present  time,  few 
men  of  experience  will  disa?:rce  with  Dr.  Tully.  Ilcwtver,  the  practical  qucft- 
tion  to  be  dt  cided  Is,  whether  or  not  this  chan;;e  of  diath'  ^'.s  luis  taken  pl.xoc  ; 
and  we  are  sorry  tliat  our  Reviewer  did  not  di.scuss  this  point. 

Let  us  consider  a  few  lacts  which  «;o  to  prove  tlmt  such  a  chanjro  has  udien 
place.  Whenever  we  have  conversiMl  with  old  practitIonei*s  in  re;raixl  to  the 
treatment  of  acute  diseivses  fifty  years  apjo,  they  all  athnit  that  the  antiphlo- 
gistic practice,  which  Wivs  successful  at  that  time,  is  now  pcxitivcly  injuriout?. 
Some  account  for  this  fact  in  one  \say,  and  some  in  another.  It  is  supposed 
by  some  that  our  fathers  usodanti-phlogistics  unnecessarily,  and  hence  we  find 
that  about  thirty  yciirs  ago  a  great  deal  was  said  in  the  Athens  of  Anierit^ 
about  the  erpc-ctant  plan  of  treatment.  It  was  found,  then,  that  the  anti-phlo- 
gistic plan  did  barm  rather  tlian  good.  Cases  were  left  to  nature  and  did  well, 
at  least  much  better  than  under  the  depleting  system.  This  was  the  true 
origin  of  the  homoeopathic  system,  1  the  expectant  plan  was  known  in 
Europe  previous  to  this  time.  Subsequently,  in  the  same  place,  much  was  said 
about  9e\f4imited  dUeases^  and  more  recently  about  rational  medicine;  all, 
however,  going  to  show  that  the  anti-phlogistic  plan  was  a  pemk^ous  one.  Ne 
•tteoipt,  80  far  as  we  know,  was  made  to  aooount  for  this  failure  of  the  anii- 


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EcUkmaL  19 

phlogistie  plan  to  aire  ifiseaae.  Dr.  Ttill j  has  grren  us  a  philosophkal  rsasott 
for  this  fiulure.  If  anj  man  can  give  us  a  better  or  more  phiksophkal  <amp 
let  us  hare  it  Until  then^  we  aocept  the  explanation  of  Dr.  Tnllj,  and  belicff* 
it  oonduciTe  to  rational  and  successftil  practice. 

But  we  have  already  exceeded  the  limits  we  prescribed  to  oursehree,  and  wiB 
onljr  add,  that  we  hope  all  will  read  the  Review,  and  what  is  better,  read  ani 
Stodj  the  book,  and  "  master  its  principles.** 


Editorial 


The  published  proceedings  of  the  last  meeting  of  the  American  Pharmaoeo- 
tical  Association  furnish  additional  evidence  of  the  real  importance  of  tbt. 
Aflsociation  to  American  science,  and  demonstrate  the  activity  and  zeal  with 
wfcich  its  members  are  prosecuting  their  inquiries  into  the  various  departments 
eonnected  with  the  science  of  pharmacy.  Previous  to  the  establishment  of 
this  Association  as  a  distinct  body,  the  members  of  the  profession,  pursuit^ 
their  learned  and  untiring  researches,  had  been,  by  no  means,  idle  or  lacking 
in  zeal  in  cultivating  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  pharmacy  on  an  inde* 
pendent  basis.  The  results  of  these  investigations  have  been  made  known  to  tha 
public  mainly  through  the  medium  of  the  American  Journal  of  Pharmacy,  » 
periodical  devoted  exclusively  to  the  interests  of  this  branch  of  medicine,  whose 
pages,  since  the  year  1832,  have  been  adorned  with  many  of  the  most  valuable 
oontributions  to  medical  literature  ever  published  in  this  country.  The  object* 
that  the  Association  has  in  view  arc  to  encourage  and  foster  a  free  spirit  of 
inquiry  and  investigation,  and  to  diffuse  general  pharmaceutical  intelligence: 
No  branch  is  in  any  degree  slighted,  and  no  predominance  is  given  to  any  on* 
department  to  the  neglect  of  another.  Whatsoever  relates  to  the  general  ro- 
tations of  botany,  chemistry,  and  the  more  specific  indications  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  drugs,  their  analytical  composition,  their  reactions  and  combinations, 
and  in  whatsoever  direction  there  arc  opportunities  for  research  or  improve- 
ment, there  the  investigations  are  carried.  This  body  is  composed  of  the 
druggists  and  apothecaries  of  the  country,  and  meets  annually  to  hear  the  re- 
ports of  committees  and  individuals  on  the  assigned  Kubjects  of  the  previous 
year,  as  also  voluntary  contributions  on  topics  having  reference  to  tho  general 
aubject  of  pharmacy. 

One  great  object  to  be  attained  by  the  Association,  is  the  general  education 
of  the  dispensers  of  drugs,  that  those  who  deal  in  medicines  may  come  to  an 
accurate  knowledge  of  their  purity,  and  be  educated  into  a  thorough  under- 
standing  of  the  rationale  of  the  many  manipulations  belonging  to  theur  pro- 
fession, and  necessary  to  be  almost  d'^!^^  practiced  by  all  who  are  engaged  in  it 

Perhaps  in  no  country  in  the  worid  is  the  proportion  of  apothecaries  to  the 
population  so  great  as  in  ours ;  hence  the  responsibility  the  apothecary  incurs — 
not  the  lees  to  the  community  at  large  than  to  the  medical  profession.  In  the 
proMOutjon  of  his  regular  business,  understanding  his  position,  he  should  feel 


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20  Editorial 

'  it  a  duty  to  the  profession  and  the  community  to  aTail  himBelf  of  every  means 
in  his  power  to  thoroughly  qualify  himself.  It  is  not  enough  that  he  me- 
chanically discharges  his  daily  dispensing  duties,  hut  he  should  cultivate  a  taste 
for  scientific  investigation,  understand  the  changes  and  reactions  that  occur,  not 
only  as  a  matter  of  desirable  knowledge,  but  with  a  view  to  experiments  and 
disoovery,  and  communicate  his  observations  to  the  Association,  that  the  pro- 
fession at  large  may  be  benefited,  and  new  facts  not  previously  comprehended, 
but  of  great  value,  be  brought  into  notice,  thus  making  himself  an  instrument 
of  usefulness  to  the  people,  not  less  than  the  medical  profession. 

It  is  true  that  we  have  not  arrived  at  that  point  where  the  Association  can 
irtsist  on  those  qualifications,  as  is  the  case  in  some  of  the  countries  on  the 
continent  In  no  country  is  the  practice  or  qualifications  of  the  apothecary  so 
little  interfered  with  by  legislative  enactments  as  in  this :  he  is  left  entirely  to 
his  own  course,  and  subject  only  to  the  self  imposed  regulations  of  this  efficient,  en- 
ergetic, and  self-educating  association ;  and  our  hope  is  that  the  intelligence  it 
embodies,  arid  a  healthful  public  sentiment  will  produce  all  ?i5^///>/Z  regulations. 

The  conditions  for  graduation  at  the  Philadelphia  and  other  Colleges  of 
Pharmacy  are  much  more  severe  than  those  for  graduation  at  any  medical 
school  in  the  country ;  and  so  far  as  the  influence  of  those  interested  in  this 
particular  school  is  concerned,  it  Is  a  step  in  the  right  direction.  It  Is  an  un- 
doubted fact,  however,  that  the  graduates  of  this  or  of  other  schools  of  pharmacy 
constitute  but  a  small  proportion  of  those  engaged  in  the  sale  and  dispensino^ 
of  drugs.  The  intelligent  practitioners  of  medicine  can  but  heartily  sympa- 
thize with  any  movement  whatsoever  calculated  to  increa.se  the  skill  of,  and 
consequently  their  confidence  in,  the  apothecaries  and  dispensors  of  dinigs, 
whether  in  the  large  cities  or  the  provincial  towns,  and  particularly  will  they 
be  ready  to  encourage  an  association  numbering  on  its  roll  of  members  the 
best  pharmaceutists  in  the  land,  and  which,  hs  it  grows  more  mature,  will  be 
more  and  more  chary  of  its  interest  and  more  and  more  discriminating  in  its 
admission  to  the  ranks  of  membership. 

The  revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  is  a  matter  of  interest  to  every  apothecary  in 
the  country.  It  is  a  work  that  should  embody  a  list  of  materia  medica  and  mo- 
dicinal  preparations  suited  to  the  wants  of  every  section  of  the  country ;  and  it 
is  contended  that  intelligent  i4)othecaries,  daily  supplying  the  wants  of  phy- 
sicians, mu.st  necessarily  be  well  informed  of  the  wants  of  the  medical  profession. 
These  facts  communicated  to  the  committee  having  this  subject  in  charge  will 
greatly  assist  them,  and  make  it  a  complete  and  valuable  work. 

In  every  number  we  shall  publish  extracts  from  the  reports  of  the  various 
committees,  as  far  as  our  space  will  allow. 

**  The  Syllabus  of  a  course  of  study,  intended  as  an  aid  to  students  of  pharmacy 
who  cannot  avail  themselves  of  regular  instruction,"  by  Prof.  Procter,  is  very 
comprehensive,  and  shoWs  an  appreciation  of  the  young  student's  wants  and 
position,  which  should  oommend  it  to  their  especial  attention,  and  should  be 
studied  until  they  master  ltd  plans  and  teachings. 


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EdOoriaL  tt 

The  {H^fiktory  note  is  as  follows : — 

'*  The  American  Pharmaceutical  Association,  being  aware  of  the  limited  op^ 
portunitics  for  theoretical  instruction  which  appertain  to  the  pursuit  of  phar- 
macy, as  usually  conducted  out  of  the  large  cities  of  the  United  States,  as  well 
as  in  very  many  stores  within  those  limits,  have  deemed  it  advisable  to  issuo 
this  Syllabus  of  advices  and  studies  for  the  aid  of  all  those  beginners  or  ap- 
prentices whose  position  renders  such  aid  u^-cful  and  appropriate,  in  the  hope 
that  it  will  prove  a  valuable  help  to  them  in  the  prosecution  of  those  studies  so 
necessary  to  the  pharmaceutist  and  druggist,  and  without  which  no  dispensing 
^K>thecary  is  able  to  fully  meet  the  rightful  demands  of  the  medical  profession." 

EpinBuics  AUD  TUEiK  Causes. — Dr.  Southwood  Smith,  in  a  valuable  series  of 
lectures  delivered  by  him  in  Edinburgh,  on  the  subject  oi'  epidemics,  dwelt  with 
ooDsideraUo  particularity  on  Uie  fact  that  all  epidemic  diseases — the  plague. 
Made  death,  sweating  sickness,  cholera,  influenza,  &c. — are  fevers.  Choler» 
WIS  usually  preceded,  he  stated,  by  influenza;  and  if  the  patient  be  saved  thre* 
days,  the  fever  and  other  symptoms  are  curable.  He  argued  that  very  active 
animal  and  epidemic  poisons  are  generated  by  the  over-crowding  of  human  be- 
ings, and  when  to  this  are  added  deficient  electricity  in  the  atmosphere,  unu- 
snal  prevalence  of  mist,  haze  or  fog,  stillness  of  the  air,  and  augmented  baro- 
metric pressure,  then  there  existed  an  epidemio  oonatitution  of  things,  inducing 
cbolera. 

We  call  the  attentien  of  the  profession  to  the  treatment  adopted  by  Dr.  H. 
G.  Davis,  of  67  Union  Place,  New  York  City,  ui  Pottos  and  Hip  Joint  Disease, 
Lat«id  Ckirvatnre  of  the  Spine,  A^,  Ac. 

Our  atteation  has  been  called  to  the  success  of  his  treatment  by  a  friend 
who  has  had  a  little  boy  under  his  care.  The  apparatus  devised  by  Dr.  Davis^ 
aims  at  retaining  the  parts  in  their  natural  pontion,  thereby  preventing 
deformity,  and  it  allows  the  patient  to  take  out-door  exercise,  which  is  indis- 
pensable for  sustaining  general  health.  The  Doctor  has,  we  are  informed,  the 
approbation  of  leading  members  of  the  prolesaion,  and  among  others  upon  his 
circular,  refers  to  Dr.  Qurdon  Buck,  whose  recommendation  is  sufiKcient  to  es- 
tablish his  claims  to  the  confidence  of  those  requiring  treatment 

Communications  should  be  forwarded  so  as  to  reach  us  by  the  10th  of  the 
preceeding  month,  to  ensure  their  early  insertion. 

Subscribers  who  have  not  received  the  Journal  regularly  will  please  write, 
and  we  will  forward  the  missing  numbers. 

Physictans  who  wish  this  Journal  regularly  will  please  notify  us  to  that  ef", 
Cect  as  soon  as  possible.  > 

CoRKSsroHDEiiTa  wiU  oblige,  by  writing  plainly  their  names,  town,  county , 
and  state. 


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Pharmacy, 

Pharmacy. 

I  flfmii  •€  Ike  Itiifcrirararraie  of  PoCMtlnm  Mi  Iron.   Bj  ioMvk  R.  Tomig. 
Being  called  upon  io  prepare  a  formula  containing  the  rfd  iodide  of  mcrcur/ 
and  iodide  of  iron  In  solution,  to  be  used  in  c«Be6  of  secondary  syphilid  com- 
bined with  Acrofula^  the  following  Huggested  itself  as  being  a  good  one,  and  an 
•legant  mode  of  administering  the  iodides  in  combination. 

Iodine, 54  grains. 

Iron  FilingH, 32       " 

Red  Iodide  of  Mercury,  -       3       ** 

Iodide  of  Potassium,  li     ** 

Sugar, 3i  036.  avd. 

WaUr, 2     " 

Mix  the  iodine  with  three  drachms  of  the  water  and  add  the  iron ;  wheD 
combined  filter  into  the  syrup,  (which  is  made  with  an  ounce  and  a  half  of  the 
water ;)  the  red  iodide  of  mercury  and  the  io<b'de  of  potassium  arc  tritui*ated 
wHh  the  remaining  drachm  of  water  and  added,  the  whole  to  measure  four  fluid 
ounces.  A  little  orange  flower  water  added  makes  it  very  agreeable.  The 
dose  recommended  is  about  one  teaspoonful,  which  is  equivalent  to  one^ix- 
leenth  grain  of  the  rod  iodide  of  mercury,  and  two  and  three-quarter  grains  of 
the  iodide  of  iron. 
■tmala  for  CMnpevai  Itailpter  OtataMit. 

The  following  is  the  formula  for  the  compound  sulphur  ointment,  success- 
ftdly  employed  by  Messrs.  Startin  &  McWhinnie,  at  the  Hospital  for  Diseases 
of  the  Skin,  against  scabies,  fay  us,  and  true  ringworm,  diseases  which  depend 
upon  parasites  which  it  is  necessary  to  kill. 

Of  sublimed  sulphur,  half  a  pound ;  of  the  ammonia  chloride  of  mercury,  half 
an  ounce ;  and  of  Uie  sulphuret  of  mercury,  half  an  ounce ;  to  these,  well  nibbed 
together,  add  four  ounces  of  oUyc  oil,  sixteen  ounces  of  fresh  lard,  and  twenty 
nunims  of  creosote.  It  wilt  be  seen  that  we  have  here  in  combination  three 
different  drug^  each  possessing  great  efficiency  in  the  destruction  of  insect  and 
Aingus  life.  The  object  in  view,  that  of  obtaining  a  vigorous  compound,  which, 
at  Uio  same  time,  shall  not  be  irritating  to  the  skin,  is,  we  believe,  exceedingly 
well  atUuned — Medical  Times  and  Qazttte, 
Mlitve  eCIMte«eMi  mk  Caster  Oil  la  Sevfre  Baras  aal  SeslSs. 

Several  cases  of  severe  scalds  and  bums  arc  reported  by  the  surgeon  of  the 
Kings  €V>nege  Hospital,  in  which  a  mixture  of  collodeon,  two  parts ;  caslor 
oil,  oT)/Q  part,  was  painted  over  the  entire  surface  of  the  bum  several  times,  so 
as  to  form  a  complete  covering,  and  entirely  exclude  the  atmosphere,  withooi 
obscuring  the  surface  of  the  sore  from  view.  It  hos  a  pleasing  odor  whidi 
counteracts  the  unpleasant  emanation  generally  attendant  upon  burns,  lessens 
pain,  and  when  applied,  the  sloughs  appear  to  be  less  deep  than  usual. 
mfeertae  aai  ftiaala>  Sere  Xlpfles. 

Dr.  R  K.  Paine,  of  Jay,  Maine,  recommends  glyc<*rin<j  and  tannic  add, 
equal  parts,  as  the  be$t  aj>plicatwn  for  $or«  nipples  arid  e\'y>riationii  of  oher 
parts.    The  tannic  acid  readUy  disf^]v«^  in  the  g*yr4»rine. 


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Pharmacy.  48 

It  is  very  diflScult  to  pperent  super-oxygenization  of  sulphate  of  iron ;  whik, 
for  various  chemical  and  phannaoeuUcal  purpofies,  it  is  of  importance  to  have 
a  pure  sulphate  of  the  protoxide. 

11  Latour,  chemist*  recommends  to  dissolve  two  hundred  parts  of  pure 
proto  sulphate  in  one  hundred  of  boiling  distilled  water,  and  fifty  parts  of  sugar 
candy  in  thirty  of  boiling  distilled  water.     Mix.     Filter  rapidly,  and  crys- 
tatise  of  from  95  to  100  degrees.    The  crystals  are  oblique,   rhomboidal 
prisms ;  should  be  dried  on  paper,  and  kept  in  dry  bottles,  'closed ;  are  found  to 
eoQsist  of  sulphate  of  the  protoxide,  64.57 ;  water,  32.60 ;  sugar,  13.98. 
liaraBU  fl»r  aaklag  a  Symp  of  Pliospliatc  of  Iroa  aa«  AmmoBla.   By  Joscvli  Roberto. 
Take  of  Sulphate  of  Iron,        ....        278  Grains. 
Phosphate  of  Soda,         -        -        -        -     859      " 
Glacial  Phosphoric  Acid,     -        -  896      ** 

Liquor  Ammonias.         -        -  •     q.  s. 

Sugar, 5  1-2  Ounces. 

Water, q.  s. 

Dissohre  the  phosphate  of  soda  arid  the  sulphate  of  iron  separately,  mix  thor- 
BohitionB,  and  wash  well  the  resulting  phosphate  of  iron  ;  then  to  one-half  of  ~ 
the  phosphoric  acid  dissolved  in  one  ounce  of  water,  add  liquor  ammonia  until 
R  is  saturated.  To  the  other  half  of  the  phosphoric  acid  dissolved  in  a  like 
quantify  of  water,  add  the  moist  phosphate  of  iron,  and  dissolve  by  a  gentle 
heat  Then  add  the  solution  of  phosphate  of  ammonia  and  the  sugar,  and 
evaporate  to  seven  fluid  oimces. 

This  gives  a  syrup  containing  thirty-six  grains  of  phosphate  of  iron,  thirty^ 
eight  grains  of  phosphate  of  ammonia,  and  twenty-eight  grains  of  phosphoric 
add  to  the  fluid  oimce,  or  four  and  a  half  grains  of  the  iron  salt,  four  and  three- 
quarter  gnuns  of  the  ammoniacal  salt,  and  three  and  a  half  grains  of  the  acid 
to  the  teaspoonfuL 

The  preparation  seems  to  be  a  stable  one,  but  whether  it  be  a  chemical  com- 
pound in  which  the  iron  and  ammoniacal  salts  exist  as  a  double  phosphate  of 
iron  and  ammonia,  or  whether  the  mixture  be  merely  mechanical,  I  am  not  pre- 
paredi  to  aay — but  this  I  feel  confident  oi;  that  the  addition  of  the  phosphate  of 
ammonia  to  the  solution  of  the  soluble  phosphate  of  iron,  adds  greatly  to  the 
stability  of  the  salt,  and  seems  to  counteract,  in  a  remarkable  degree,  its  prono- 
nees  to  pass  into  its  insoluble  state. 

-  Of  the  therapeutic  value  of  the  preparation,  of  course,  I  can  say  nothing, 
but  merely  offer  it  as  a  syrup,  holding  in  solution  a  large  amount  of  phospha- 
tlcsalt-— ./bttr.  and  Tra7hs,  Maryland  (hi  Pharm.^  June^  1868. 
■l^rocyaaate  of  Itm  Ib  ffeuralgla. 

The  preparations  of  iron  have  obtained  great  reputation  for  the  cure  of 
neuralgia,  especially  the  hydrocyanate  of  iron,  which  has  been. used  by  M. 
M.  Dupay  and  Jdly,  in  the  following  form : — 

Hydcocyaaate  of  IcQB,        • 18  grains. 

Snlph.  Quinine,  18      *' 

Extract  Opium, 1      •* 

Ocmserve  Rose^ q.  s. 

Make  12  PlUa 


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24  Vaairum    Virick, 

Fluid  Extract  of  Veratrum  Viride. 

Tlie  atrontion  which  has  been  given  within  the  last  three  years  to  the  the- 
rapeutic propcTtiox  of  Vcratrum  Viride,  has  fully  confirmed  the  obseryalions  of 
Dr.  Tally,  as  stattxl  at  length  by  Dr.  Osgood  in  his  very  able  paper  upon  this 
agent,  published  in  the  American  Journal  of  Medical  Sciences  in  1835.  Re- 
cent observations  and  a  more  general  experience  have  extcndcKi  its  applica- 
tion. 

Its  properties  arc  a  resin  arid  an  aHiaiOidal  princi])le,  which  are  yielded  to 
alcohol  and  diluted  alcohol. 

Its  therapeutic  properties  are  stated  to  be  an  arterial  sedative  of  great  power — 
reducing  the  frequency  of  the  pulso  to  forty  per  minute — expectorant,  diapho- 
retic, alterative,  deobstruent,  emetic,  nervine,  somewhat  narcotic,  &c.  These 
properties  are  published  at  length  in  a  pamphlet  upon  its  powers  and  proper- 
tics. 

Having  for  some  time  prepared  a  fluid  extract  of  this  article,  I  state,  in 
answer  to  the  many  inquiries  made  as  to  the  strength  and  manner  of  preparing 
it,  that  each  fluid  ounce  represents  one  ounce  of  the  crude  root,  or  dram  for 
dram,  calculating  60  minims  or  120  drops  to  the  fluid  dram.  £ach  grain  is  re- 
presented by  one  minim  or  two  drops. 

The  root  is  digested  in  alcohol  of  90**  for  ten  days,  then  diluted  alcohol  is 
added  until  it  is  exhausted  of  all  its  medicinal  properties.  The  solutions  ar» 
evaporated  in  a  vacuum  at  100°,  and  alcohol  again  added  of  sufficient  specifie 
gravity  to  hold  its  medicinal  properties  without  deposition,  and  give  one  pint 
of  fluid  extract  for  every  pound  of  root  treated. 

In  all  oases  the  root  should  be  collected  in  the  fall,  immediately  as  the  leaves 
begin  to  wither.  Such  is  taken  as  the  standard,  and  all  other  roots  are  brougjit 
to  this  standard  by  careful  analysis,  that  the  preparation  shall  jipld  an  uniform 
or  equal  amount  of  active  constituents. 

Prepared  in  this  way,  the  dose  is  much  less  than  that  stated  for  the  tinctisre^ 
assuming  the  minimum  dose  of  the  tincture  to  be  four  drops.  The  dose  of  this 
preparation  should  be  two  drops,  as  all  the  trials  and  obs^vstions  we  have  msds 
show  it  to  possess  double  the  strength  of  the  tincture  as  reoommended  by  Nor- 
wood. The  opinion  of  physicians  generally  is  that  the  minimum  dose  should 
be  stated  at  one-half  of  that  we  have  uniformly  named.  We  have,  therefixe^ 
reduced  the  dose  to  commence  with  to  two  drops^  increasing  one  drop  everj 
portion  given ;  but  for  greater  convenience  and  certainty  of  administration  it  is 
suggested  to  combine  it  with  an  equal  measure  of  milk,  simple  syrup,  or  syrop 
of  squill,  and  give,  as  the  minimum  dose,  four  drops,  increasing  each  portion 
given  one  or  two  drops,  according  to  circumstances. 

In  combination  with  ipecac  or  compounds  of  cherry,  &a,  the  dose  is  easily 
and  accurately  regulated. 

An  over  dose  is  promptly  relieved  by  laudanum  or  brandy,  or  by  a  syrup 
of  sulphate  of  morphia  and  tincture  of  ginger.  In  fact,  morphia  and  laudnaum, 
in  sufficient  doses,  are  said  to  be  perfect  antidotes  to  the  ill  effects  of  an  over 
dose. 


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fbmmlot.  9^ 

ngOmAhiaW^  COKMAIi. 

Forniahed  by  Dr.  Davis,  Charleaton,  DL 

Rhubarb Right  Ounces. 

SafTron Two 

Oardamom  Seeds, " 

Kutinegs " 

8oda,aC. " 

Eeeence  Peppermint • " 

Sugar  (refined) .' Two  Pounda 

Bnmdj  and  water  q.  a.  to  obtain  the  strength. 

Doee — One  to  two  teaspoonsfViL 


UEPTAIVDRIA   CORDIAL. 

Furnished  by  Dr.  Datis,  Charleston,  HI. 

Leptandria Bight  Ounoeai 

Rhubarb Pour        " 

Bayberry "  " 

Oinger ; Two         " 

OoYeB One  Ounoe. 

Peppermint Two  Ounce& 

Myrrh "  " 

Soda,  a  C. "  •« 

Akohol  and  watar  ^  a.  to  obtain  Ui6  strength. 

Dose— One  to  two  teaspoonsfuL 


OHERRT  CORDIAL. 
Purmshed  by  Dk.  Datis,  Charieston,  DL 

wad  Oheny  Bark Sixteen  OtmosA. 

Poplar  Bark , ««  •• 

Somach  "    "  «« 

Peach  ICeats "  " 

Brandy  (good) One  Gallon. 

Sugar  (refined) Eight  Pounds. 

Dose— One  to  two  teaspoonsfuL 

One  ofthe  most  pleasant  and  efficient  remedies  ever  got  ixp  for  bowel  oomplsinti^ 
leqoiring  a  tonic  and  astringent  remedy. 


ANTI-BIU0U8  CATHARTIC  PILL. 
Furnished  by  Dr.  Myers,  South  Bend,  Ind. 

Pulv.  Rhubarb Two  Scruples. 

Podophyllin H  Scruples. 

Leptandrin One  Scruple. 

Extract  Kux  Vomica Twelve  Grains. 

Extract  Ilyoscyamus One  Dram. 

Oil  of  Aniso Eight  Drops. 

Syrup q.  a 

M    Make  sixty  pills. 


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36  Formuht. 


nrrvR  AjfD  agobpiul 


0a}ph*to  of  Qahiiiie One  Grain. 

Leptandrin « Thr^e  Grains 

FodopbylHn Qoaiter  Grain. 

Dose — Od«  pill  two  or  three  times  per  dej.  Dr.  Wtart. 


RBBIWATiaaf. 

ftootve  of  StTfctinee Odo  Ounce. 

M       (Smioiftiga Two  Ounoee. 

Huriate  of  Morphine Twelve  Graina. 

Doee — Thirty  to  nzty  dmpB,  fovir  timee  per  daj.  Dr.  Horim, 


Toma 

Famiebed  by  Asa  F.  Patten,  Warner,  Merrimack  Oa,  N.  H. 

Citrate  of  Iron,  eol Half  Dram. 

flolf^tiate  of  Iron Twenty  G 

"      of  Quinino Two  Scruplea 

Itople  Syrup Four  Ounoes. 

Oil  of  Saaiafras Ten  Drops. 

Mix   Take  from  one  to  three  teaepoonfuls  three  or  four  timet  a  day. 


DIARHHRA  PILL. 

JKl  AigmH Quarter  Grain. 

SQlpb.MerphiDe , BSghth        •* 

Pulverize  with  Gum  Arabic — Small  Pill. 

Doec — Ope  pill  two  or  three  times  per  day.  Dr.  PrtdL 


UniCX)RftIIBA. 

Ferri  et  Ammonieo  Sulpb Three  Orain«. 

Kuid  Sxtract  (XmiciAsga Thirty  Drops. 

•*       Cokttnba "  •• 

-       Oabebe Fifteen     " 

Vr,  TerreH 

KUXIR  OAUgATA  BAEX. 

Take  of  Calieaya  Bark Sixteen  Oanoes. 

•*       Orange  Peel Two  " 

*      Cardamom Two  DnutiA 

•*       Cinnamon,  (Ceylon,) One  Ounce. 

•*       Alcohol...... :.... 6iPinU. 

Water  q.  r.  to  difplaoe  f*^  pinU)  tinctsire,  then  add  throe  pints  of  nlmple  gyrup  and 
liall  a  piot  of  roee  water. 


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Correepondenoe. 

S4RAT0OA  Springs,  i>#c.  10,  1858. — Db.  Haiolton.— I  am  highly  pleased 
with  the  December  No.  of  your  Journal  It  ought  to  be  in  the  hands  of  crcry 
practitioner.     Consider  me  a  life  subscriber. 

Utica,  Dte,  7,  l«6a— Db.  M.  M.  Baoo.— Though  I  had  read  cursorily 
the  previous  No8.  with  interest  and  ptx>t)t,  yet  the  improved  appearance,  and 
the  additional  promises  of  the  la.<it  (December)  No.  make  me  deAirouA  to  receive 
the  work  with  regularity'. 

Skajteateles,  N.  Y.,  Dec,  9.— Dr.  L.  Babtlktt.— Encloeed  pleane  find  sub- 
•cription  to  your  e\(M?Uent  Journal,  from  which  T  have  derived  many  useful 
hints. 

Fatbtte,  N.  Y.,  Dee,  9. — Dr.  Flbckenoer. — It  affords  me  great  pteafiure  to  read 
the  valuable  information  contained  in  your  Journal 

Toronto,  U.  C,  Be^  9. — Dr.  Williamson,  Kducation  OmcR. — Am  quite 
pkased  with  the  nature  and  character  of  the  work. 

WerrB  House,  Hunterton  Co.,  N.  J.,  Dw.  17, 1858. — Db.  Johicsoh.— I  have 
perused  your  numbers  with  both  pleasure  and  profit  Your  enterprise  meets 
a  desideratum  in  the  wants  of  the  profession. 

RrrciiiE  C.  H.,  Va.,  Dee,  12,  1858.— Dr.  J.  It  Latbbop.— In  the  early  pari 
o(  the  year  T  had  not  learned  that  they  were  worth  preserving,  but  by  giving 
them  more  attention  I  have  become  convinced  of  my  mistake. 

Wasotwoton,  N.  C,  Dec  14,  1858.-— Db.  Joa.  R.  H.  Oarmbr.— I  am  exceed- 
ingly obliged  to  you  for  furnishing  me  with  your  Journal  for  the  past  year. 
It  is  very  valuable  beyond  a  doubt,  and  I  could  in  no  way  dispense  with  it, 
as  I  glean  a  great  deal  of  information  from  it 

IfBMPnis,  TEiTf.,  Dee,  17,  1858. — Db.  Saxl.  Qilbxrt. — (lents: — Yourvahia* 
ble  Journal  of  Materia  Medica  was  sent  me  by  some  friend,  and  I  find  it  to 
be  the  work  that  the  profession  long  have  wanted.  I  prise  it  much,  and  wish 
to  be  a  regular  paying  subscriber  as  long  as  I  practice. 

Black  Earth,  Wis.,  Dee,  20,  1858. — ^Db.  TnoiiAS  Emmrrsoji.— ^Your  Journal 
is  invaluable  in  the  practice  of  medicine,  and  it  meets  the  wants  of  every  n^ical 
man.  Sir,  I  am  an  old  physknan — hare  practised  over  40  years,  and  am  not 
surprised  at  the  great  mardi  of  improvement  in  pharmacy  and  chemistry.  We 
Kve  in  an  age  of  science,  and  may  you  continue  to  improve  until  we  can  meet 
all  the  diseases  that  the  human  body  is  subject  to,  is  my  sincere  hope  and  wish- 

New  Castlb,  Va.,  Dee,  10,  1858.— Dr.  Thos.  H.  B.  Dillard.— I  would  noi 
be  without  the  little  Monthly  Visitor  with  its  stores  of  varied  and  useful  know- 
ledge (especially  to  the  country  practitioner),  for  double  the  amount  of  sub- 
scription price. 

West  Libertt,  Iowa,  Def.  15,  1858 — Dr..  Albert  Adv.— Send  me  your 
Jomnal  of  Materia  Medica,  as  I  intend  to  be  a  permanent  subscriber.  It  is 
certainly  one  of  the  liest  things  out. 


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28 


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Orders  ft-om  Apothecaries,  Merchants,  and  Phj- 
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Fine     Cbemieals,     Perfumery, 

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BURNING  FLUID,  &c., 

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ules,  con.Htnntly  on  hand.    Phyyiciins  and 

oUiera   supplied    at    MHUiifacturers' 

prices. 

II.  H.  HAY.  1).  L.  MITCHILIi. 

For  Formula  see  Journil  Materia  Mcdlca. 

The  gi-eat  variety  of  iijiUciiriona  fulfilled  by  the 
u*e  of  Opium,  and  it^  extensive  applicability  to 
the  cure  of  dl-jense,  have  Incorporated  it  into  al- 
most every  practice  of  medicine. 

On  some  conslitutioii.i,  ho«-ever.  Opium  pro- 
duces pecuKnr  effects,  widely  different  from  its 
usual  mode  of  operaliau. 

These  general  ill  effects  of  Opium  are  owing  to 
the  presence  of  certiun  dileterlous  principles  con- 
tained in  it,  and  wblch^  when  extracted  from  the 
drug,  do  not  detract  from  its  spcciflc  and  highly 
rem edisl<|uall ties.  The  Aqusouaiaia4r<if Opium 
is  the  pure  exiract  of  Opium  with  those  principles 
separated  from  it  which  ar»  productive  of  tho  in- 
jurious effects  of  its  usual  administration. 

The  Elixir  possesses  all  tbe  anodyne,  aedatlve, 
and  anti-Fpaamodic  effects  of  Opium,  and  of  the 
various  preparations  of  this  well-known  and  ose^ 
fill  medicine,  this  is  superior  to  any  before  the 
public ;  It  Is  the  result  ot  many  years*  observa- 
tion and  study  of  one  of  the  most  eminent  phy- 
sicians In  the  country,  and  was  used  in  a  lenf 
and  extensive  practice. 

Xlldoi^    Sc    Co., 

New  Lebanon,  N,  T. 

SUGAR-COATED 

Assafoetida   Pills. 

(U.  a  P.)  WITHOUT  8MKLL. 

This  valuable  agent  in  nervous  diseases,  la 

spasmodic  pectoral  affections,  such  as  whooping* 
cough  and  asthma,  has  fallen  greatly  Into  dlsosa 
f^om  its  repulsive  odor,  and  the  consequent  dif- 
ficulty of  administration. 

The  repugnance  which  adults  and  children 
manlfiest  to  the  use  of  this  article  is  etattrely  re- 
moved by  the  new  process  of  coating  the  pills 
with  sugar,  inasmuch  as  all  odor  is  perfectly  con- 
cealed. Letters  from  physicians  who  had,  to  a 
great  extent,  been  obliged  to  give  up  the  use  of 
it,  congratulate  themselves  and  the  professioa 
upon  being  able  to  return  to  its  use,  and  admin- 
ister it  without  inconvenience  to  themselves  or 
patients. 

Tilden    Sc    Co., 

New  Lobaoon,  N.  Y. 


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THE 

JOUENAL  OF  MATEEIA  MEDICA 

AND 

PHARMAOEUTIO   FORMULARY. 


lew]  FEBBUABT,  1859.  [Seriat. 


On  the  Medicmal,  Naturalized  Exotics  and  Indigenous 
Materia  Medica  of  the  United  States. 

BY  CHARLES  A.  LEE,  M.D. 

NUMBBR   U. 

In  the  January  number  of  this  Journal  I  brieily  alluded  to  a 
claflB  of  practitioners,  of  whom  Sir  John  Forbes  may  stand  as  the 
type  as  well  as  the  leader,  who  are  not  only  sceptical  as  regards 
the  utility  of  any  active  treatment  of  disease,  but  who  question 
Ae  power  of  medical  art  to  exert  any  important  ccmtrolKng  influ- 
ence over  its  progress,  unless  in  exceptional  crises.  This  school, 
if  we  are  to  believe  their  statements,  would  resolve  all  treatm^^nt 
into  a  patient,  do-nothing  expectancy,  as  the  must  philosophical — 
the  safest,  surest,  most  successful  method  of  managing  diseases. 
They  recognise,  as  we  all  dOy  the  autocracy  of  nature  in  the  cure 
of  many  diseases;  but  when  they  claim  that  it  is  not  only  useless 
bat  injurious  to  attempt  to  suppress  or  modify  the  morbid  proces- 
ses by  active  measures,  we  find  thtir  position  a  mere  assumption, 
unsustained  by  any  reliable  facts  or  established  statistics.  Dr. 
Forbes  conoedes  the  whole  ground  in  dispute  when  be  says —  *As 
some  of  the  agents  capable  of  permeating  every  part  of  the  body 
are  known  to  be  possessed  of  powers  capable  of  modifying  vital 
action,  both  dynamically  and  chemically,  it  is  impossible  to  avoid 
receiving  the  conception  and  entertaining  the  conjecture,  that  they 
may  thus  directly  modify  diseased  states,  whether  functional  or 
structural,  and  so  relieve  or  cure  diseas<*s  in  a  direct  and  iq)ecific 
manner.     It  is  even  extremely  probable  that  they  do  so,  and  it 


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Si  Lee  on  Exotics  and  Indigenous  Mcfleria  Medi^. 

seems  a  most  legitimate  object  of  our  tentative  art  to  endeavor  by 
direct  experiment  to  ascertain  whether  this  probability  can  be  con- 
verted into  certainty.'' — Nature  and  Art  in  Disease^  p.  221. 
-  .  We  shall  aim,  then,  in  this  series  of  articles  to  show  that  we 
have  numerous  naturalized  exotics  and  indigenous  medical  plants 
possessing  properties  capable  of  modifying  vital  action,  both  in  its 
healthy  and  diseased  states,  and  in  many  cases,  in  what  may  be 
called  "a  direct  and  specific  manner."  Again  says  Dr.  Forbes 
(Loc  Cit^  jt>.  211),  "There  does  not  appear  to  be  any  sufficient  rea- 
son, a  priori^  why  the  same  or  similar  results,  which  we  sec  taking 
place  on  the  skin  and  mueous  surfaces  of  the  body,  or  in  its  cavi- 
ties or  passages,  on  the  direct  application  of  medicinal  and  chem- 
ical agents,  may  not  also  take  place  in  the  intimate  tissues  of  or- 
gans, on  the  same  or  analogous  agents  being  conveyed  to  them  by 
the  blood;  and  still  more,  in  the  blood  itself,  in  the  cases  where 
we  believe  the  matei-ies  morbi  to  exist  primarily  in  the  blood." 
Now,  what  seems  so  probable,  a  prion]  we  shall  attempt  to  estab- 
lish by  actual  observation  and  experiment,  and  if  we  fail,  then  we 
shall  feel  disposed  to  recommend  to  the  medical  profession  to  re- 
aolve  itself  into  a  general  hygienic  and  prophylactic  lx)dy,  confi- 
ning its  efforts  in  future  to  the  establishment  of  sanitory  laws  and 
regulations,  public  and  private,  for  the  prevention  of  disease.  As 
a  committee  of  the  whole  on  public  health,  its  functions  would  be 
iqiportant  and  valuable.  We  believe,  however,  that  medical  art 
embraces  a  far  wider  range  of  action,  and  a  more  extended  sphere 
of  usefulness,  and  that  daily  observation  justifies  the  conclusion 
that  medicinal  agents  have  power,  when  properly  used,  to  modify, 
control,  and  arrest  disease. 

In  treating  of  the  various  articles  of  our  vegetable  materia  med- 
ica,  three  plans  suggest  themselves  for  our  adoption,  viz: 

1.  An  arrangement  founded  on  their  therapeutical  properties. 

2.  An  arrangement  based  on  their  physiological  effects. 
8.  One  derived  from  their  natural  historical  affinities. 

In  regard  to  the  first,  as  the  curative  and  remedial  powers  of 
medicines  are  only  relative  and  conditional,  never  absolute  and 
constant,  it  is  evident  that  all  such  arrangements  are  wholly  im- 
practicable. We  have  no  specifics,  no  drugs,  which  will  cure  cer- 
tain diseases  under  all  circumstances.  As  has  been  observed,  such 
classification,  if  attempted,  would  be  an  arrangement  of  diseases 


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Lee  on  Exotics  and  Indigenous  Materia  Medico,  85 

and  an  enumeration  of  the  medieinea  which  experience  had  found, 
frequently,  though  not  invariably,  beneficial  for  each. 

In  regard  to  the  second  plan,  it  may  well  be  doubted  whether 
we  are  as  yet  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  properties  of  our  in- 
digenous plants  to  arrange  them  in  a  physiological  classification: 
at  any  rate,  such  an  attempt  has  never  yet  been  made.  It  seems 
to  me,  however,  that  the  time  has  come  when  such  an  arrange* 
ment  may,  at  least,  be  attempted,  however  imperfectly  carried  out; 
and  many  reasons  could  be  oflFered  to  show  that  it  may  be  atten- 
ded with  some  important  advantages.  It  is  very  evident  that  all 
our  prominent  indigenous  articles  can  be  thrown  into  groups  and 
arranged  on  physiological  principles,  while,  it  must  be  confessed, 
there  are  many  others,  probably  of  equal  medicinal  value,  whose 
place  could  not,  at  present,  be  readily  assigned.  They  will,  how- 
ever, easily  fall  into  rank  when  their  properties  are  more  accurately 
asoerflained.  It  should  be  understood  that,  in  a  physiological  ar- 
rangement, two  principles  are  necessarily  involved — first,  as  re- 
gards the  organs  or  parts  affected; ^second,  the  nature  or  quality 
of  the  action  set  up.  As  we  are  unable,  however,  to  discrimi- 
nate in  all  cases  between  their  primary  and  secondary  effects,  nei- 
ther principle  can  be  adopted  to  the  exclusion  of  the  other.  It  is 
manifest  that,  in  regard  to  the  parte  affected,  most  medicines  oper- 
ate through  the  agency  of  the  neiyous  system ;  and  that,  conaid* 
ering  the  nature  or  quality  of  their  action,  a  majority,  with  great 
propriety,  may  be  termed  alteratives. 

With  respect  to  a  classification  based  on  their  natural  affinities, 
a  very  slight  actjuaintance  with  the  subject  must  satisfy  us  of  its 
disadvantages.  It  is  a  doctrine,  however,  which  may  be  traced 
for  beyond  the  age  of  Ca^salpinus,  to  whom  it  has  usually  beeii 
attributed,  that  those  plante  whidh '  resemble  each  other  in  their 
external  appearances  are  endowed  with  analogous  medicinal  prop- 
erties. Adopted  by  Linnaeus,  it  has  fouAd  able  supporters  in 
Graelin,  Jussieu,  Barton,  Decandolle,  Diesbach,  and  others;  white 
Pereira,  the  most  distinguished  writer  on  the  mat?ria  raedica  of 
the  present  age,  makes  it  the  basis  of  his  own  arrangement.  In- 
deed,  it  would  seem  that,  as  vegetable  substances  owe  their  pecu- 
liar qualities  to  the  structure  and  consequent  action  of  the  organs 
producing  them,  differences  in  the  structure  of  an  oi^an  might  be 
expected  to  be  attended  with  corresponding  differences  in  the  qual- 


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36  L^  071  Exoii'^A  and  Indigenous  Makria  Mtdica, 

ities  of  its  products.  It  would  thus  follow  that  the  medicinal 
qualities  of  plants  of  the  same  natural  order  should  be  analogous; 
and  that  if , one  vegetable  species,  for  example,  should  be  suitable 
for  nutriment,  other  species  of  the  same  genus,  or  even  of  a  dif- 
feropt  genus,  but  of  the  same  order,  should  also  be  adapted  for  a 
like  use;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  if  any  particular  species  should 
be  found  injurious,  neighboring  species  should  also  prove  more  or 
less  so.  Experience  certainly  proves  that,  in  quite  a  large  num- 
ber of  instances,  there  does  exist  an  analogy  between  the  exterior 
fqrms  and  the  medicinal  properties  of  plants  to  such  a  degree  that 
we  can  sometimes  predict  the  active  principle  and  mode  of  opera* 
tion  of  a  given  vegetable  by  merely  knowing  to  what  part  of  a 
natural  arrangement  it  belongs.  Thus  Graminect^  Oiucifercey  Me- 
lanOiaceiJe^  Coni/hw,  Labiake,  Malvacetv^  and  Ranxmculacece^  are  fa- 
miliar illustrations  of  the  accuracy  of  these  observations.  But 
these,  unfortunately,  are  only  exceptions  to  a  general  rule.  When 
we  pass  under  review  the  plants  belonging  to  the  natural  orders, 
Umbelliferae,  Cucurbitacea3,  Solanca?,  &c.,  we  find  that  some  be- 
longing to  the  same  order  possess  entirely  different  medicinal  prop- 
erties; while  plants  of  dissimilar  structure  and  belonging  to  dif- 
ferent orders,  are  sometimes  endowed  with  similar  or  analogous 
qualitiea  Professor  Lindley  has  greatly  exaggerated  the  advan- 
tages of  such  botanical  affinities  to  medical  men;  for  while  extol- 
ling the  superiority  of  natural  over  artificial  systems,  he  goes  so 
far  as  to  say  that  a  knowledge  of  the  properties  of  one  plant  is  a 
guide  to  the  practitioner,  which  enables  him  to  substitute  Qome 
pther  with  confidence  which  is  naturally  allied  to  it;  and  that  phy- 
sicians in  foreign  stations  may  direct  their  enquiries,  not  empyri- 
gally,  but  upon  fixed  principles,  into  the  qualities  of  the  medici- 
nal plants  which  nature  has  provided  in  every  region  for  the  alle- 
yiation  of  the  maladies  peculiar  to  it.  One  great  difficulty  connec- 
]ted  with  this  subject  is,  that  the  characters  which  vegetables  ex- 
hibit are  of  such  uncertain  and  variable  degrees  of  importance  that 
it  is  often  tiifficult  to  say  what  value  should  be  attached  to  any 
given  modification  of  structure;  though  it  is  very  obvious  that 
characters  which  are  purely  physiological,  that  is,  which  depend 
fOn  ditferences  of  internal  anatomical  structure,  are  of  much  more 
value  than  varieties  of  form,  position^  number,  &c.,  which  are 
mere  modifications  of  external  organs.     Another  dificulty  is,  that 


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Pciygala  Senega,  ST 

as  objects  resemble  each  other  more  or  less  in  a  mnltiturle  of  dif- 
ferent respects,  it  is  impossible  to  indicate  all  their  affinities  in  a 
lineal  arranorement,  and  yet  no  other  can  be  practically  employed. 
In  fact,  the  difficulties  connected  with  the  subject  of  a  natural 
classification  are  so  numerous  and  great  that  it  may  well  be  doubt- 
ed whether  they  will  ever  be  wholly  overcome.  Whoever  at- 
tempts to  adopt  such  a  5;ystem  must  be  satisfied  to  grope  his  un- 
certain way  with  what  light  he  has,  hoping  that  ere  long  some 
second  Linnseus  may  arise,  if  not  to  bring  order  out  of  confusion, 
at  least  to  perfect  those  systems,  called  natural,  but  which  nature, 
in  their  present  conditions,  refuses  to  own.  We  come  then  to  the 
conclusion  that  natural  history  affinities  are  of  no  absolute  value, 
as  a  general  rule,  as  a  means  of  ascertaining  the  medicinal  powers 
of  new  and  previously  unemployed  articles,  though  useful  as  aux- 
iliary to  other  means — ^that  they  may  be  often  used  advantageous- 
ly as  a  clue  to  guide  us  in  our  investigations,  though  too  uncertain 
to  be  relied  upon  alone,  or  independent  of  other  indications. 


Pciygala  Senega. 
{iSeneku.) 

The  root  of  this  plant  was  first  introduced  into  medicine  as  a 
remedy  for  the  bites  of  venemous  animals  in  the  early  part  of  last 
century  by  Dr.  Tennent,  a  Scotch  physician  residing  in  Virginia. 

It  has  repeatedly  been  the  subject  of  chemical  investigation, 
and  its  virtues  appear  chiefly,  if  not  exclusively,  in  the  principle 
which  Mr.  Queveune  csiWed  poli/galic  acid,  and  which  resides  in  the 
cortical  part  of  the  root. 

Senega  possesses  acrid  and  stimulant  properties.  In  small  doses 
It  is  diaphoretic,  diuretic,  and  expectorant ;  in  larger  doses,  emetic 
and  purgative.  It  appeal's  to  excite  more  or  less  the  vascular 
system ;  to  promote  the  secretions  of  the  kidneys,  skin,  uterns, 
and  bronchial  membrane,  and  to  exert  some  influence  upon  the 
nervous  system.  Its  expectorant  virtues  are  those  for  which  it 
has  been  chiefly  employed ;  and  as  an  expectorant,  it  is  employed 
in  cases  not  attended  with  acute  inflammatory  action,  or  in  which 
the  inflammation  has  been  in  a  great  measure  subdued.  It  is  re- 
commended as  a  local  stimulant  in  relaxed  sore  throat,  in  chr  mic 
catarrh,  as  a  diuphoretico-diuretic  in  rheumatism,  in  secondary 


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/  s 


88  Polj/ffaia  tienega. 


proup,  &c.  Pareira  says:  '*  It  is  valuable  in  the  latter  stages  of 
bronchial  or  pulmonary  iDflammation,  when  this  disease  occurs  in 
aged  or  debilitated  and  torpid  constitutions ;  and  when  the  use  of 
depletives  is  no  longer  admissible,  it  appears  to  re€»3tablish  a 
healthy  condition  of  the  secreting  organs,  to  promote  the  resolu- 
tion of  the  morbid  deposits,  and  give  strength  to  the  system.  I 
usually  administer  it  with  ammonia,  which  appears  to  promote  its 
beneficial  operation.  Frequency  of  the  pulse  and  a  febrile  con- 
dition of  the  system  are  by  no  means  to  be  regarded  as  impedi- 
ments to  the  use  of  this  medicine.  It  has  also  been  used  in  clwonic 
catanh  and  humoral  asthma ;  as  a  stimulant  and  promoter  of  the 
secretions  in  the  latter  stage  of  low  fever  accompanied  with  tor- 
pidity ;  as  an  emetic,  purgative,  and  diaphoretic  in  rheumatism ; 
as  a  diuretic  in  dropsy^  and  as  an  enmienagogue  in  amenorrhea." 
Dr.  George  D.  Wheldon,  of  Rose  Valley,  N.  Y.,  in  a  communi- 
cation to  us,  says :  "  I  have  been  looking  for  some  of  your  corres- 
pondents to  call  the  attention  of  the  profession  to  the  value  of 
senega  as  an  alterative  in  certain  cutaneous  diseases.  The  cases 
in  which  I  have  tested  it  vary  considerably  in  character.  One 
class  is  almost  peculiar  to  women  at  one  or  two  years  preceding 
or  following  the  final  cessation  of  the  menses.  In  these  cases  a 
yellowish  matter  exudes  from  the  hands  and  forearms  which  soon 
degenerates  into  a  thick  crust  and  drops  ofl^,  leaving  the  skin  be- 
neath nearly  sound  as  at  first,  but  soon  becoming  fissured  is  fol- 
lowed by  another  crop  like  the  first,  the  disease  being  prolonged 
until  not  unfrequontly  the  nails  drop  oflF  and  are  renewed  oiien 
more  tban  once,  ffidema  of  the  face  is  also  a  common  symptom. 
Another  class  consists  of  dry  scaly  points  over  the  entire  trunk 
and  extremities,  attended  with  intolerable  itching,  which  is  greatly 
aggravated  by  lying  in  a  warm  bed.  It  is  with  us  a  frequent  se- 
quel of  the  miasmatic  fevers.  In  these  disorders  I  have  tried  a 
variety  of  constitutional  and  local  treatments  with  little  success 
until  I  emplojed  the  senega  after  the  following  formula: 

5.   Senega, 2  drams. 

Quassia, 1       " 

Rhubarb, 1       " 

BiCurb.  Soda, U    ** 

Warm  water, 1  pint 

X)o6e — A  tea.spoonful  three  times  a  day,  before  meals. 

«      Digitized  by  LjOOQ  IC 


JSyo0Cifam%u  Niger.  99 

Many  of  the  cases  were  attended  with  deranged  digeHtion ;  but 
the  oompoond  without  the  sen^ia  has  no  beneficial  effect  upon 
the  disease  of  the  skin  as  described.  I  have  used  it  in  a  variety 
of  ways,  but  find  the  above  formula  the  most  satis&ctory.  In . 
some  thirty  cases  in  which  I  have  tested  it,  it  has  never  failed  to 
effect  an  immediate  cure.  We  shall  give  in  another  number  for- 
mula for  the  various  preparations  of  senega. 

KoTK. — In  this  formula  the  fluid  extnu^  of  the  same  articles  can  be  substi- 
tutec^  in  the  same  quantities  with  same  quantity  g(  water,  or  less  by  lesseniog- 
thedose. 


Hyoscyamus   Niger. 

{Continued  Jnmi  page  10) 

Keeping  in  mind  the  physiological  and  therapeutical  proper- 
ties of  the  agent  under  consideration,  which  were  given  in  the 
last  number  of  the  Journal,  as  they  have  been  described  by  va- 
rious  writers  and  observers,  we  proceed  to  examine  some  of  the 
definitions  of  the  term  narcotic^  and  seo  to  what  extent  and  how 
definitively  it  applies  in  this  particular  case. 

''  Narcotics  are  agents  which,  in  moderate  doses,  cause  a  tem- 
porary action  of  the  nervous  and  also  of  the  muscular  system,  fol- 
lowed, more  or  less  speedily,  by  a  marked  diminution,  terminating 
generally  in  sleep.  When  the  dose  is  large  the  excitement  is 
scarcely  perceptible,  while  the  diminished  power  of  the  nervous- 
aystem  is  so  manifest  that  an  appearance  of  coma  or  apoplexy  is 
induced."  It  is  evident  from  this  definition  that  we  must  be  care- 
ful to  distinguish  between  stimulants  on  tiie  one  hand,  and  seda* 
tives  on  the  other;  and  this  distinction  ia  the  more  necessary,  be- 
cause in  nature  the  narcotic  principle  is  generally  combined  with 
one  or  the  other  of  these,  and  hence  the  contradictory  statements 
and  unsatis&ctory  reports  of  the  value  of  different  narcotic  reme- 
dies by  those  who  do  not  know  why  opium  suits  in  one  case  and 
hyoscyamus  in  another:  nor  must  they  be  confused  with  the 
terms  hypnotic  or  soporific  and  anodyne,  the  one  obtained  from 
the  power  of  producing  sleep,  and  the  other  from  alleviating  pain 
and  blunting  the  sensibility.  If  these  properties  are  to  be  inclu- 
ded, then  these  terms  are  to  be  held  as  partial  synonyms;  if 
these  properties  are  to  be  excluded,  then  these  terms  are  distinct 
and  mark  distinct  classes. 


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40  IlyosryaTUXis  Niger, 

Dunglison  styles  the  narcotics  as  "substances  whicU  have  the 
property  of  stupefying"  and  narcotism,  that  is,  the  aggr^ate 
effects  produced  by  narcotic  agents,  as  **at  times  confined  to  a 
state  of  more  or  less  profound  stupor,  and  at  others  being  a  true 
poisoning,  charticterized  by  vertigo,  naxxsea,  a  state  of  intoxica- 
tion or  apoplexy,  constant  deliriums,  convulsive  motions,  &c." 

Orfila  defines  narcotisnd  as  "  beginning  with  a  sense  of  fulness 
in  the  head,  then  there  succeed  a  sort  of  intoxication,  dizziness, 
headache,  loss  of  voluntary  motion,  almost  amounting  to  paialysis, 
sometimes  convulsions,  and  generally  stupor  and,  coma;  more 
gradual  than  apoplexy,  less  abrupt  than  epilepsy." 

Dr.  Tully  is  far  more  minute,  precise  and  definitive  than  any  of 
these.     He  says:  "Narcotics  are  articles  yN\i\Qh^  in  Oie fimt  degree 
cf  their  operation^  direcily  ollay  morbid  irritability  and  irritation, 
and  irritative  actions  generally,  morbid  sensibility  and  sensation, 
morbid  mobility,  jactitation  and  wakefulness  when  they  are  con* 
nected  with  a  non-phlogistic  or  a  positively  atonic  condition  of  the 
system  *>  in  tlte  second  degree  of  their  rqteration^  they  directly  relieve 
pain ;  in  the  tliird  degree  of  their  oiyeration^  they  directly  produce 
more  or  less  somnolency,  or  even  positive  sleep ;  in  the  fourth  de- 
gree of  their  operaiimiy  they  prodtice  vertigo,  headache,  iaintness, 
dimness  of  sight,  the  sensation  of  a  cloud  before  the  eyes,  or  some 
imperfection  of  vision,  either  with  considerable  dilatation,  or  great 
contraction,  or  an  immovably  fixed,  but  otherwise  natural  state  of 
the  pupils,  nausea  and  retching,  with  epigastric  uneasiness,  espe- 
cially when  the  head  is  raised,  or  otherwise  much  moved,  accom- 
panied with  small  and  irregular  pulse,  cold  extremities,  cold, 
clanmiy  and  slippery  sweats,  delirium,  convulsions,  either  clonic, 
tonio,  or  of  some  other  sort,  succeeded  by  coma,  and  sometimes 
death ;  and  when  the  narcotic  has  no  other  medicinal  power  con- 
joined, without  any  other  accorhpanying  operations."     He  says 
farther :  "  I  believe  that  all  narcotics  of  any  material  activity,  if 
pushed  to  a  certain  extent,  are  capable  of  producing  convulsions 
of  some  sort.    Some  produce  convulsion^  of  the  common  Hort,  as 
hyoscy  amus,  papaver ;  others  of  the  epileptic  sort.    Some  produce 
convulsions  as  a  primary  part  of  their  operation,  and  some  onlyx 
as  a  secondary  part,  as  hyoscyamus  and  papaver ;  "  and  still  again 
that  "hyoscyamus  is  a  pure  narcotic,  entirely  destitute  of  any 
true,  proper  and  legitimate  siimulating  properties." 


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Aadepma  Incamata.  41 

Beipg  aware  now  of  the  precise  effects  that  have  been  observed 
of  the  hyoscyami  up  to  and  daring  the  period  of  narcotism,  we 
can,  in  view  of  the  facts,  decide  it  to  l>e  a  simple  narcotic,  or  pos- 
sessed of  narcotic  aad  other  propertie8.  All  that  can  be  demand- 
ed of  writers  is  that  they  shall  affix  some  definite  meaning  to  the 
terms  they  use,  and  use  those  terms  in  strict  conformity  with  these 
definitions. 

Whether  it  be  conceded  or  not  that  the  hyoscyamus  is  a  simple^ 
pure  narcotic,  its  peculiar  properties  bring  it  into  a  varied  use, 
whether  administered  alone  or  as  an  adjuvant  to  other  medicines. 


Asclepias  Inoarnata. 
{White  Indian  Hemp,) 

Of  the  six  kincfa  of  asclepias,  viz :  Incamata^  Syriiica^  TuherosOy 
a  CarassavicOy  Oigantea^  and  Vincetoxicum^  five  of  them  appear  to 
have  been  used  at  different  times  in  the  treatment  of  urinary  and 
genital  diseases.  Scarcely  can  a  physician  be  found  who  professes 
to  have  any  knowledge  of  the  plant  in  question.  The  asclepias 
incarnatu  has  a  smooth,  erect,  downy  stem,  branched  above,  two 
or  three  feet  high,  and  furnished  with  opposite,  nearly  se&sile,  ob- 
long-lanceolate, somewhat  downy  leaves.  They  are  also  acute  or 
pointed,  obtuse  at  the  base,  on  short  petioles,  and  slightly  tomen- 
tose.  The  flowers  are  red  or  reddish  purph;,  sweet-scented,  and 
disposed  in  numerous  crowded  erect  umbels,  mostly  terminal,  which 
are  generally  in  opposite  pairs.  The  nectary  is  entire,  with  its 
horn  exserted  and  subulate.  The  leaves  are  four  to  seven  inches 
long,  and  from  one  half  an  inch  1#  an  inch  and  a  half  wide ;  um- 
bels are  from  two  to  six,  on  a  peduncle  two  inches  long,  and  con- 
sist of  from  ten  to  twenty  small  flowers.  There  are  several  vari- 
eties of  this  plant,  the  A,  PukhrUy  which  is  more  hairy,  with 
broader  and  shorter  petioled  leaves;  the  A.  Glabra^  which  is  al- 
most glabrous,  with  two  opposite  longitudinal  hairy  lines  on  the 
stem,  and  leaves  glabrous,  with  rough  margins,  midrib  glandular 
below;  and  the  A.  AOfa,  which  has  white  flowers. 

This  plant  grows  in  damp  and  wet  soils  throughout  the  United 
States,  and  bears  red  flow<irs  from  June  to  August  It  emits  a 
milky  juice  on  being  wounded.  The  root  is  the  oflicinal  part,  and 
the  mwiical  properties  of  that  reside  in  the  cortex.    It  varies  in 


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42  Asclqnas  IncarnaioL 

thickuesH  from  one  to  six  lines,  and  is  of  a  light  yellowish  or 
brownish  color.    It  imparts  its  properties  to  water. 

Propertiks  and  Uses. — Its  properties  are  similar  to  the  A. 
Sgriaca.  It  is  an  anthelmintic,  for  whi^  purpose  the  powder  may 
be  used  in  doses  of  ten  to  twenty  grains,  three  times  a  day ;  or 
jthe  decoction  two  to  four  ounces.  Prof.  TuUy  recommends  it  in 
catarrh,  asthma,  syphilis,  rheumatism,  and  worms.  Dr.  Griffith 
states  that  it  has  been  employed  by  several  physicians  who  speak 
of  it  as  a  useful  emetic  and  cathartic.  It  has  been  found  not  only 
alterative,  diaphoretic,  and  diuretic,  but  one  of  the  finest  aperients 
in  the  Materia  Medica,  Dr.  Hauser  has  used  it  with  the  happiest 
results  in  many  forms  of  fever,  but  chiefly  as  an  adjuvant  to  other 
medicines.  In  the  treatment  of  gonorrhea  and  syphilis  there 
probably  is  nothing  equal  to  it  now  known  to  the  medical  frater- 
nity. Dr.  H.  says : — "  I  have  used,  for  many  years,  the  tincture 
only,  prepared  in  diluted  alcohol,  on  account  of  the  gum  with 
which  the  root  abounds. 

If.     Asclepias  Incamata,  ►  *  -  Jiv. 

Diluted  Alcohol,  ....         OjL 

After  about  fourteen  days  maceration,  as  with  most  drug?,  it  is 
prepared  for  uee.  I  have  generally  prescribed  it  in  a  tabkspoon- 
ful  dose  three  times  a  day ;  i.  e.  before  breakfast,  dinner  and  sup- 
per. And  this  I  have  done,  with  very  little  regard  to  the  stage  of 
the  disease,  both  in  gonorrhea  and  syphilis,  however  heterodox 
and  unscientific  it  may  appear  to  those  nice  critics  in  the  medical 
fraternity  who  can  theorize  learnedly,  but  fail  in  practice. 

GONOfiRHEA. 

Case  1st.  Was  afflicted  with  "running  of  the  reins  brought  on 
by  a  strain,"  and  it  had  afflicted  him  long  and  sorely,  even  to  the 
extent  of  a  change  from  white  to  greenish  discharges.  I  put  him 
on  tr.  of  asclep.  incarn.  alone;  but  as  his  business  required  him  to 
ride  a  great  deal  on  horseback,  thus  keeping  up  the  irritation  in 
the  genital  region,  I  think  it  was  two  weeks  before  I  succeeded 
in  curing  him. 

Case  2d.  Was  of  intemperate  habits  as  well  as  priaputic.  A 
single  bottle  of  5  vjii  cured  him. 

Case  3d.  Was  badly  off.  His  business  required  daily  riding 
on  horseback,  but  the  tr.  asclep.  cured  him  in  three  days. 


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Odaeminum  Sempervirens.  48 

8TPHILI& 

B.  N.  had  been  looking  badly  for  two  or  three  months,  seem* 
inglj  afraul  to  call  for  help.  I  put  him  on  my  favorite  tr. — blia* 
tered  over  his  mammary  glands  several  times  during  the  course, 
and  had  large  quantities  of  mercurial  ointment  rubbed  into  them 
after  each  removal  of  the  cuticle.  After  three  weeks  perseve* 
ranee  I  had  the  happiness  to  see  my  patient  restored  to  hope  and 
health." 

If  physicians  will  lay  aside  all  indifference,  and  use  the  ascle- 
pias  incamata,  especially  in  gonorrhea  and  syphilis,  I  have  no 
doubt  that  it  will  soon  take  rank  in  their  estimation  with  the 
very  foremost  remedies  in  our  Materia  Medica. 


Ghelsemimun  Sempervirens. 

(  Ytlloiv  Jessamine,) 

In  the  April  and  May  number  of  this  Journal  we  gave  an  ex^ 
tended  article  upon  this  plant  Many  enquiries  have  recently 
been  made  of  us  as  to  the  most  efficacious  article  to  be  used  as  an 
antidote  for  an  overdose.  We  wish  our  readers  would  give  us 
their  experience  upon  this  point  for  the  benefit  of  the  profession. 
It  has  been  suggested  that  the  same  articles  employed  for  an  over 
dose  of  veratrum  viride  would  be  as  equally  efficacious,  viz: — 
"  Morphine  or  laudanum  with  brandy  is  a  perfect  antidote  for  an 
overdose  of  veratrum,  or  syrup  of  sulphate  of  morphine  one  part, 
fluid  extmct  of  ginger  two  parts.  Dose  of  this  mixture  for  an 
adult  male,  sixty  drops  every  fifteen  minutes  till  relieved." 

Dr.  Lungren,  of  Fj-anklin,  North  Carolina,  mentions  the  use  of 
aromatic  spirit  of  ammonia  as  an  antidote  in  two  cases,  as  follows: 

I  have  lately  had  two  cases  under  my  own  observation  show- 
ing the  effects  of  an  over  dose  of  the  extract  of  yellow  jessamine. 
I  am  anxious  to  ascertain  the  antidote  in  such  cases.  I  will  relate 
my  cases,  as  they  strikingly  shpw  the  effect  on  different  pe^ns. 

Mrs.  L.,  aged  24,  suffering  from  typhoid  pneumonia.  I  had 
commenced  treating  her  with  quinine  and  veratrum  viride,  beside 
the  usual  remedies.  Gave  ber  ten  drops  of  gelseminum  in  sweet- 
ened water ;  in  an  hour  gave  her  eleven  drops  in  water,  and  at 
the  expiration  of  two  hours  gave  twelve  drops.    Shortly  after- 


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44  Oel^miinum  S^m]x*rvf7r7)S, 

wards  she  said  she  could  not  see  any  one  in  the  room,  althoiigb  I 
was  within  two  feet  of  her.  Her  eyes  were  wide  open,  pupil?  di- 
lated, pulse  regular  and  fiill,  skin  natural  and  healthy  in  color, 
fi?et  and  hands  cold.  She  seemed  to  know  all  that  was  going  on, 
described  her  symptoms,  said  she  felt  faint,  felt  as  though  her 
blood  had  ceased  circulating,  and  that  her  head  felt  very  light.  I 
gave  her  a  teaspoonful  of  aromatic  spirits  of  ammonia  in  water, 
and  in  fifteen  minutes  repeated  the  dose.  At  the  expiration  of 
half  an  hour  she  said  she  felt  perfectly  well;  complained  of  no 
pain  whatever;  fever  was  subdued,  and  in  four  days  she  was  able 
to  rise  from  her  bed,  and  is  now  well.  This  patient  took  in  all 
thirty-three  drops. 

Dr.  B.,  a  practising  physician  of  one  of  the  upper  counties  of 
Georgia  called  on  me ;  complained  of  a  severe  nervous  toothache ; 
happened  to  see  my  bottle  of  fluid  extract  of  gelseminum ;  read 
the  accompanying  directions;  applied  the  bottle  to  his  mouth, 
and  took,  as  he  said,  about  what  he  thought  to  be  twenty  drops. 
In  ten  minutes  time  he  said:  "I  cannot  see  you."  I  looked  at 
him ;  his  eyes  were  wide  open ;  pupil  dilated  5  pulse  eighty  or 
ninety.  He  attempted  to  walk,  and  staggered  like  one  intoxicated. 
I  immediately  administered  a  dose  of  ipecac  and  went  for  assist- 
ance. On  returning  found  partial  paralysis  of  the  glottis,  tongue 
and  eyelids.  lie  became  very  sick,  and  vomited  but  little.  I 
•gave  him  pencil  and  paper,  fpr  he  could  not  speak.  He  wrote: 
**Iam  very  sick;  I  wish  to  vomit  but  cannot."  In  a  few  mo- 
ments he  vomited  again,  and  the  discharge  passed  through  the 
no.strils.  His  hands  and  feet  became  icy  cold ;  pulse  regular — 
eighty  or  ninety.  We  applied  warm  bricks  to  his  feet  and  chaffed 
his  hands  and  ankles;  plac^ed  strong  aqua  ammonia  to  his  nose 
and  chest.  In  an  hour  he  was  able  to  speak,  and  was  removed  to 
his  father^s  house.  I  visited  him  the  next  day,  when  he  com- 
plained of  being  very  faint  and  weak.  I  continued  the  use  of 
aromatic  spirits  of  ammonia,  and  next  day  he  was  able  to  ride 
home,  a  distance  of  twenty-three  miles.  He  obtained  an  ounce 
bottle  of  gelseminum  for  trial.  It  is  needless  to  say  the  tcx)thache 
left;  him. 

Is  there  any  quicker  and  surer  antidote  for  an  overdose  of  gel- 
seminum than  anunonia?    If  so,  please  infonn  me. 


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Treatment  of  Ydhw  Fever  by  Oelseminuni, 


45 


Bradycrote  Treatment  of  Tellow  Fever  by  Gelaeminum 
Sexnpervirens. 

BY  DK8.  WUITB  A  FO&D,  CHAiaESTON'i  8.  C. 

In  view  of  the  results  obtained  from  a  redaction  of  the  pulse,  in  the  treat- 
ment of  the  fever  as  observed  under  the  veratrum,  and  in  order  to  contrast 
with  this  drug  another  ronedy  possessing  similar  powers,  at  the  suggestion  of 
Dr.  White,  we  also  used  in  the  present  epidemic  the  tincture  of  gelseminum 
sempervirens,  which  was  prepared  after  the  following  formula:  Q.  Rad, 
gdsem.  somp.,  %  iv.,  aloohd  (95  per  cent)  aq.  com.,  aii  ^  viij.  M.  And  digest 
14  days,  then  filter.  Th^  initial  doses  of  this  tincture  were»  for  adults,  from 
20  to  30  drops — and  for  children,  from  5  to  20  drops,  every  hour  for  the  first 
four  boors,  and  as  with  the  veratrum  the  secondary  doses  were  half  as  large. 

Certain  cases  which  had  been  seen  lat«,  or  were  characterised  by  notable  ir- 
ritability of  the  stomach,  as  also  some  which  showed  no  special  malignity  were 
treated  by  this  agpent  with  marked  advantage ;  upon  whose  employment  Dr. 
White  decided  in  consequence  of  the  statements  of  Dr.  Cleveland,  of  Cincin- 
nati, and  of  Dr.  Mayes,  of  South  Carolina,  in  this  journal,  concerning  its  influ- 
ence upon  the  pulse  and  fi-eedom  from  irritant  properties,  &a  From  notes 
taken  upon  cases  thus  treated,  we  have  deduced  the  foUowing  numbers : 

Total  number  treated  with  gelseminum  sempcrv  irons,  24: ;  all  of  which  re- 
covered. Of  these,  15  were  males  and  9  females.  Adults,  12,  and  children, 
12;  whites,  22;  and  blacks,  2;  natives  of  Charleston,  10;  South  Carolina, 
6 ;  Ireland,  7 ;  Germany,  2. 


MeiA  frequency  offtake. 

When  first  g^iven  -  -  - 
Twelve  hours  after    - 


ADCLT  MALES. 
Bc»ta  per  MIn. 

113.4 
55.4 


ADl'LT    PBMALB8. 
Beftts  per.  Mki. 

101.3 
64.fl 


CIIILDKKN. 
BeftU  pr.  MIb 


122.2 

70.9 


Of  the  whole  number  treated,  2  vomited  black  vomit,  5  passed  black  vomit 
downwards.  In  8  cases  hfemorrhage  occurred  from  tongue,  gums  or  nasal 
passages. 

One  woman  was  in  the  sixth  month  of  her  pregnancy,  and  did  not  abort. 


Avera.  duration  of  treatment 


For. 


APULT  MALES. 

Days. 
7.2 


ADULT    FEMALES. 

Days. 
9.8 


CUILDKKX, 

Day.s. 
8.5 


No  marked  prostration  was  caused  by  this  remedy.  The  pulse  being,  how- 
ever, much  less  quickly  reduced  than  by  the  veratrum.  In  few  cases  was  the 
heart's  action  fully  lowered  in  leas  than  12  hours,  and  it  was  well  controlled 
throughout  the  rest  of  the  disease  in  the  majority  of  cases.  Tlie  concurrent 
treatmant  was  the  same  as  with  the  veratrum.  Mercurialization  was  complete 
in  10  cases;  incomplete  in  14  cases.  In  a  few  instances,  a  marked  redness  of 
the  tongue  was  observed,  a  condition  that  was  not  distinctly  noticed  during  the 
administration  of  the  veratrum.  The  gelseminum  appeared  to  produce  a  ge- 
neral calming  influence  even  during  the  early  period  of  its  a«bainistration,  but 


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46  Important  Medicinal  Preparation  Tests. 

was  not  found  to  possess  any  marked  narcotic  properties.  It  seemed,  also, 
to  promote  the  action  of  the  kidneys,  and  during  its  use  only,  in  several  cases, 
an  erythema  of  the  skin  was  noticed.  This  drug  appeared  to  influence  the 
volume  of  the  pulse  before  it  affected  its  frequency,  and  in  most  ca.«es  for  the 
rest  of  the  disease  to  control  both  conditions  in  an  equal  manner — emcsis  was 
not  observed  to  ensue  upon  the  administration  of  this  medicine ;  the  gastric 
irritability  peculiar  to  the  disease  being  moreover  to  all  appearance  favorably 
influenced. 

The  total  number  of  cases  of  yellow  fever  treated  with  a  slow  pulse  by  th« 
veratrum  viride  and  gelseminum  sempervirens,  was  conjointly  141,  of  which 
16  died  and  124  recovered 

Total  number  of  cases  treated  by  ordinary  methods  were  0,  of  which  3  re- 
covered and  8  died.  These  vomited  black  vomit  and  died.  One  was  a  preg- 
nant woman  in  her  seventh  month,  who  died  without  aborting. 

In  conclusion,  we  beg  leave  to  remark,  that  the  confidence  with  which  we 
\f  ere  inspired  by  the  use  of  these  drugs  in  the  commencement  of  the  epidemic 
has  continued  unabated :  that  we  still  continue  to  use  them,  and  mtend  to  do 
so  again,  should  our  city  be  unfortunatly  revisited  by  this  obdurate  and  cal- 
amitous disease.  With  apologies  for  the  length  and  statistical  nature  of  this 
communication,  we  remain,  respectfully  yours, 


[From  the  New  York  Medical  Journal.] 

Simple  Tests  for  some  Important  Medical  Preparations. 

BY    EDWARD   B.    SQCIBR    X.    D. 

TnEKE  is  no  branch  of  commerce  wherein  the  competition  of  trade  is  more 
rapidly  and  more  certainly  tending  to  deteriorate  and  debase  the  quality  of 
manulactured  products  than  that  which  deiJs  in  medicinal  substances ;  and 
there  is  none  where  the  interests  of  the  consumer  are  more  remotely  oonsido 
ered  in  manufiicturing,  or  where  these  interests  are  so  difficult  to  guard  and 
protect:  whilst  there  is  assuredly  no  branch  whose  operations  and  product- 
ions are  of  more  vital  importance  to  the  community  and  the  profession  of 
medicine. 

An  important  collateral  effect  of  this  debasement  of  medicinal  substanees^ 
which  does  not  receive  due  cousideration  in  the  profession  generally,  is  that 
the  effects  of  the  uncertaiifty  and  bad  quality  of  these  substances  are  trans- 
mitted directly  to  the  practice  of  medicine,  and  in  failing  to  fulfill  the  indica- 
tions to  their  use  they  not  only  bring  distrust  and  discredit  upon  both  the 
science  and  art  of  medicine,  but  also  tend  directly  to  foster  and  uphold  the 
quackeries  and  nostrums  of  the  day  in  many  ways.  For  instance,  a  physi- 
cian prescribes  the  compound  cathartic  pills  of  th«f  pharmacopoeia :  They 
either  act  drastically,  inadequately,  or  they  do  not  act  at  all.  The  patient 
says  the  doctor  does  not  understand  his  business,  and  the  next  time  buys 
**  Brandreth*s  Pills  **  or  some  other  nostrum,  ancf  is  better  satisfied  with  the 


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Important  Medicinal  Prepa^'atioyi  Teats.  47 

result  The  circumstance  th&t  the  compound  cathartic  pills  were  made  of 
bad  and  deficient  materials,  and  through  competition  in  trade  were  unduly 
actire  from  the  addition  of  some  cheap  drastic,  or  inert  from  consisting 
mainly  of  starch  and  gum,  while  the  extracts  from  which  the  nostrum  was 
made  had  been  much  more  careljiHy  prepared — is  quite  overlooked  by  both 
practitioner  and  patient  to  the  lasting  injury  of  the  interests  of  both.  It  Is, 
however,  a  fact  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  compound  extract  of  ooloeyth 
sold  is  nuu^ufkctured  from  materials  so  cheap  and  so  bad  that  it  is  rarely 
quoted  in  prices  current  at  much  above  half  the  price  of  the  crude  materials 
from  which  it  should  be  made ;  while  the  writer  has  known  of  several  hun- 
dred pounds  having  been  made  and  sold  within  one  year  at  a  prk^  bek>w 
one^hird  of  that  which  the  good  materials  directed  by  the  pharmacopoeia 
would  have  cost 

Another  fertile  source  of  bad  and  imperfect  medicinal  substances  lies  in  the 
use,  in  manu&cturing,  of  cheap  substitutes  and  by-products,  and  in  utilizing 
residues  for  improper  purposes,  so  that,  through  many  ways,  the  tendency  is 
constantly  increasing  whereby  the  science  of  medicine  is  subsidized  and  radi- 
cally injured  by  the  debasement  of  the  agents  upon  which  the  success  of  the 
irt  of  medicine  so  much  depends. 

The  check  or  remedy  for  this  evil  tendency  rests  entirely  and  only  with  the 
profession,  and  may  be  found  in  various  ways,  but  in  no  way  more  easily  or 
more  certainly — for  such  substances  as  admit  of  it — than  in  the  application  of 
simple  and  reliable  tests. 

The  writer  having  for  some  years  past  been  engaged  in  manufacturing 
preparations  of  known  character,  for  the  navy,  by  the  United  States  officinal 
standard,  has  had  the  opportunity  of  observing  their  properties  pretty  closely, 
and  has  collated  and  originated  a  few  simple  and  easy  tests  of  quality  which 
it  is  the  object  of  this  paper  to  communicate  to  the  profession.  These  tests 
require  little  time,  skill,  or  apparatus,  and  are  adapted  to  the  extemporaneous 
use  of  the  physician  or  apothecary,  so  that  they  may  be  convoiiently  applied 
at  the  dispensary  counter  or  at  the  office  table.  They  consequently  do  not 
aim  at  critical  accuracy,  but  at  the  more  important  point  of  practical  discrim- 
ination. 

A  very  important  genen^  indication  of  quality  in  medicinal  substances  is 
the  source  from  whence  they  come,  and  the  channels  through  which  they  may 
have  passed.  The  profession  should  obtain  a  better  and  more  critical  know- 
ledge of  the  various  manufactures,  that  due  weight  might  be  given  to  the 
names  associated  with  the  preparations  they  use,  and  should  then  be  more 
careful  to  observe  that  the  authenticated  Uibel  of  the  manufacturer  is  affixid. 
In  the  common  desire  to  be  considered  manufiicturers,  and  from  the  indispo- 
sition to  circulate  or  publish  others'  cards  or  names  in  connection  with  prep- 
arations sold,  it  is  becoming  quite  rare  to  find  the  name  of  the  real  manufac- 
turer upon  the  packages  of  medicinal  preparations.  They  are  commonly 
told  widiout  evidence  of  their  source,  and  therefore  without  any  real  respon- 
sibility upon  any  one.     The  traditional  or  reputed  character  with  which  they 


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48  Important  Medicinal  Preparation  Teits. 

commonly  pa.<^s  through  the  Various  hands  to  tlie  profession  is  too  often» 
without  other  foundation  than  the  disposition  to  buy  cheaply  and  sell  at  a 
large  profit  From  the  circumstances  that  few  apothecaries  manufacture- 
even  their  more  simple  preparations,  and  that  there  can  be  no  proper  respon- 
sibility in  a  verbal  character  transmitted  through  several  persons,  the  profes- 
sions bolh  of  medicine  and  pharmacy  should  be  more  careful  that  their  pack- 
ages are  duly  authenticated  from  the  desired  sources,  as  general  tests  or  evi- 
dences of  quality.  A  very  large  proportion  of  medicinal  substances  must 
depend  mainly  upon  some  such  evidences  of  quality  until  their  therapeutic 
value  is  determined  in  practice,  since  they  are  beyond  the  easy  reach  of  chem- 
istry, and  since  sensible  properties  are  so  often  deceptive.  Among  those 
which  are  susceptible  of  easy  practical  discrimination  by  simple  means  the 
writer  is  at  present  able  to  offer  the  following : — 

Ethkk. — A  strip  of  imsized  paper,  or  a  clean  glass  rod,  dipped  into  the 
ether  and  allowed  to  dry  for  a  moment  or  two,  will  by  the  odor  it  gives  afford 
evidence  of  the  less  volatile  impurities  that  it  commonly  contains.  There 
usually  remains  a  somewhat  aromatic,  slightly  pungent  odor,  that  is  not 
hurtful  in  the  more  dilute  ether  used  for  common  medicinal  purposes,  but  the 
disagreeable  oily  odor  oflen  found  is  more  objectionable,  whilst  really  good 
ether  should  leave '  no  odor  whatever.  The  ether  used  for  inhalation  should 
leave  upon  the  sponge,  paper,  or  rod,  no  odor  at  all. 

The  strength  of  ether  is  less  easily  ascertained  except  by  a  specific  gravity 
instrument  With  a  little  practice,  however,  with  some  good  specimen  for 
comparison,  a  very  satis&ctory  estimate  may  be  found  by  oljserving  the  slow- 
ness or  rapidity  with  which  any  given  specimen  evaporates  from  the  palm  of 
the  hand.  Ether  for  inlialation  should  give  off  bubbles  rapidly  at  the  tem- 
perature of  the  palm  of  the  hand.  A  thin  test  tube  containing  the  specimen 
should  l>e  grasped  firmly  for  a  minute  or  two,  and  then  the  ether  should  be 
stirred  at  the  time  of  observation.  The  bubbles  arise  from  the  points  of  con- 
tact between  the  tube  and  stirrer. 

CoMPorND  SvRUP  OF  EraKK. — Uoffman's  Anodynjc — Two  drops  of  officinal 
spirit  stirred  into  a  pint  of  water  give  to  the  mixture  a  distinct  oily 
surface,  and  the  peculiar  firuity,  aromatic  odor  of  the  heavy  oil  of  wine,  free 
.  from  the  odor  of  ether  and  alcohol  Sixty  drops  in  the  pint  renders  the 
water  decidedly  turbid ;  while,  with  four  fluid  drachms  to  the  pint,  a  scanty 
precipitate  of  minute  oil  globulei^  occurs  after  a  few  minutes'  standing.  The 
fruity,  apple-like  odor  is  characteristic  of  the  chief  anodyne  ingredient,  the 
oil  of  wine,  and  is  entirely  wanting  in  the  ordinary  commercial  article.  With- 
out the  oil  of  wine  the  preparation  is  a  stimulant  antispasmodic  With  the 
oil  it  is  a  highly  valuable  anodyne  antispat^modic,  particularly  adapted  to  ner- 
vous irritation  and  hysteria.  The  liquid  universally  sold  as  Hofiman*s  Ano- 
dyne is  a  residue  of  the  earth-making  process,  containing  varying  pro|K>rtions 
of  ether  and  alcohol  with  a  little  etherole  or  light  oil  of  wine,  but  in  bo  single 
instance  of  the  many  examinations  made  by  the  writer  has  any  true  heavy 


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S!/aabj$8  of  a  Qmrse  (^SUufy.  49 

•ft  •f  wine  been  found  in  it  Heavy  oil  of  wine,  from  being  eJtpensive  and 
Mmewfaat  difficult  to  make,  has  finally  been  entirely  omitted  from  the  prep- 
avadon,  and  is  now  hardly  to  be  met  with  in  commerce ;  while,  as  a  conse> 
^aenoe,  the  prefMuration  to  which  it  belongs,  from  a  fidlure  to  meet  the  proper 
indications  to  its  u^  is  become  a  stimulant,  and  slowly  going  out  of  use. 

{To  be  cotUintt^.) 


Syllabus  of  a  Course  of  Study,  intended  as  an  Aid  to 
Students  of  Pharmacy. 

BT  WILLIAM  PROCTKB,  JR. 

(!«TRODCcnoN. — When  a  lad,  or  young  man,  has  made  up  his  mind  to  enter 
npon  the  business  of  a  pharmaceutist  or  a  druggist,  he  should  be  fully  aware 
of  the  responsible  offices  it  invokes,  and  of  the  two-fok)  nature  of  the  functions 
it  requires  to  be  performed,  viz :  those  of  a  mechanical  nature  acquired  by 
aumual  practice,  and  those  of  a  scientific  character,  to  be  learned  only  by  stud^ 
in  connection  with  that  practice.  * 

The  phenomena  which  occur  in  the  daily  routine  of  the  apprentice,  though 
matter  f<Mr  wonder  at  the  beginning,  become  fiuniliar  by  repetition,  cease  to 
excite  thought  or  inquiry,  and  he  rests  satisfied  in  ignorance  of  their  nature. 
But  when,  during  his  practical  lessons,  a  course  of  study  is  pointed  out  to  him, 
he  soon  gets  a  key  to  much  that  was  hidden,  becomes  interested  in  what  he  is 
doing,  and  progresses  rapidly  in  proportion. 

It  often  happens  that  the  beginner  does  not  enjoy  the  pririlege  of  a  friend 
at  his  side,  to  explain  difficulties  as  they  arise,  and  employers  are  sometimes 
•6  ignorant  in  these  regards  as  the  ^>prentice  himself.  It  is  to  point  out  to 
tliese  seekers  after  knowledge  the  route  to  obtain  it,  that  this  Syllabus  has  been 
prepared. 

The  sciences  which  are  chiefly  involved  in  the  studies  o(  the  young  i4>othe- 
eary,  are  botany,  chemistry,  and  physics.  The  Dispensatory  is  a  treatise  on 
drugs  and  medidnes,  viewed  in,  relation  to  their  origin,  botanical,  zoological  or 
mineralogical,  their  mode  of  collection,  preparation  and  introduction  into  com- 
merce, their  commercial  history,  their  sensible  properties  and  chemical  diarac^ 
teristics,  their  medical  properties  and  pharmaceutical  preparations  and  uses» 
The  Dispensatory,  therefore,  contains  the  various  knowledge  required  by  the 
pharmaceutical  student  But  extensive  as  such  works  usually  are,  there  are 
many  details  necessarily  omitted,  «and  much  coUatehd  information  not  com- 
prehended, which,  to  the  student,  is  requisite  to  fully  understand  the  scientific 
part  of  that  work. 

In  the  shop,  the  beginner  soon  finds  that  the  productions  of  almost  every 
country  are  collected  around  him,  and  a  laudable  curiosity  should  lead  him  to 
inquire  into  their  history,  as  well  from  a  just  desire  to  be  able  to  explain  it  to 
others,  as  to  enable  him  to  convert  them  into  preparations,  with  a  full  under- 
standing of  their  several  qualities  and  uses. 

At  the  outset,  therefore,  the  earnest  pharmaceuHcal  student  should  posse^^ft. 


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50  SifVahua  of  a  Conrs^  of  Stvchj, 

or  have  access  to,  elementary  \vork5«  on  chemistrj,  botany,  and  natural  phi- 
losophy (unless  his  previous  education  should  have  included  these  branches;, 
because  they  will  be  needed  to  understand  the  language  of  the  Dispensatory. 

Botany. — Almost  any  elementary  work  on  botany  will  serve  the  begiimer, 
in  reference  to  the  terms  used  in  the  Dispensatory,  but  Dr.  Gray^s  "  First 
lessons  in  Botany  and  Vegetable  Physiology/'  which  contains  a  copioiLS  dic- 
tionary of  botanical  terms,  is  to  be  preferred,  as  it  was  written  as  an  intro- 
duction to  the  author's  Manual  of  Botany,  which  is  appropriate  for  the  more 
advanced  student.  However  slightly  the  Ix'ginner  may  acquaint  himself  with 
the  principles  of  botany  at  first,  he  should  aim  at  its  systematic  study  during  his 
term  of  service,  as  well  for  its  intrinsic  interest  and  usefulness,  as  for  its  ap- 
propriateness to  the  accomplished  pharmaceutist.  Indeed,  the  pleiii^ure  deri- 
vable from  the  pursuit  of  botany  is  sufficient  stimulus  to  many  per.sons,  inde- 
pendent of  its  usefulness ;  and  its  tendency  is  to  induce  excursions  into  the 
country,  which  are  gi*ateful  as  a  relief  from  the  confined  atmosphere  of  the 
shop. 

Chemixtrii. — ( )f  chemistr}'  it  may  be  said  that  it  is  the  foundation  of  all  cor- 
rect pharmaceutical  knowledge ;  it  is  the  key  which  unlocked  those  mysteries, 
which,  tUu'ing  many  centuries,  were  hidden  in  the  language  of  the  alcliemists 
and  philosophers  of  the  middle  ages — a  language,  the  obscurity  of  which  no 
doubt  arose  as  much  from  ignorance  of  the  real  nature  of  the  reactions  they 
professed  to  describe,  as  from  a  dlsjjosition  to  give  undue  importance  to  the 
possession  of  the  secrets. 

The  student,  therefore,  if  he  has  had  no  preliminary  instruction  in  cliemistry, 
should  be  provided  with  a  chemical  dictionary,  or  glossary,  and  an  elementary- 
work  on  that  science,  so  as  to  be. able  to  enter  a  course  of  reading  without  watting 
until  he  can  obtain  instruction  by  lectures  or  otherwise.  It  is  not  to  be  ex- 
pected that  the  beginner  can  correctly*  understand  all  the  tenns  used,  even  by 
aid  of  a  dictionary,  but  very  many  he  can  thus  master,  and  by  study  and  ex- 
periment the  most  may  be  understood.  It  is  better  for  him  to  progress  slow- 
ly and  really^  than  rapidly  but  superficially,  and  hence  each  difficulty  should 
be  jnrestled  with  till  cleared  up,  or  set  aside  among  *'  work  for  future  effort," 
that  it  may  be  returned  to  wiUi  renewed  vigor. 

'Mineralogy  and  Zoology  are  far  less  important  to  the  pharmaceutist  than 
chemistrj'  and  botany,  and  may  be  left  to  a  laur  period,  and  then  only  entered 
on  so  far  a,s  to  get  a  proper  idea  of  their  classification  and  arrangement,  and  of 
the  species  chiefly  contributing  to  medi«ine,  unless  desired  by  the  student 

Every  pharmaceutical  student  should,  at  the  outset,  endeavor  to  form  a 
plan  of  stuffy.  This  plan  will  vary  with  the  mental  characteristics  and  kind 
of  opportunity  afforded  to  each.  While  one  will  have  ample  time  and  at  stated 
periods ;  another  will  need  to  employ  the  brief  and  irregular  intervals,  which 
almost  constant  engagement  in  the  shop  and  laboratory  permits ;  but  ais,  in 
either  case,  a  plan  regularly  adhered  to  will  greatly  aid  progress,  it  is  recom- 
mended that  each  student  should  adopt  the  best  one  of  which  his  circumstan- 
ces admit. 


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SyllabiLs  of  a  Churse  of  Study.  61 

This  SylUbus  will  giTe  a  bird's-ej-e-view  of  what  is  to  be  studied,  and  the 
order  in  which  it  may  be  advantageously  considered ;  yet  it  may  be  well  to 
bear  in  mind  that  whatever  facilities  it  may  present,  it  is  only  an  aid  or  scaf- 
folding to  get  at  the  results  of  study,  and  not  the  thing  itself,  and  when  the 
sagacity  of  the  student  can  adopt  a  better  arrangement,  he  is  free  to  do  it. 
Where  one  student  thus  carves  out  his  own  pathway  to  the  temple  of  knowl- 
edge, twenty  will  take  the  beaten  track  of  others,  and  many  more  lack  the 
energj-  and  perseverance  to  keep  on  this  well  marked  route.  If  any  of  the 
latter  class  should  fancy  that  this  Syllabus  is  a  substitute  for  that  exertion 
which  the  acquisition  of  knowledge  requires,  they  will  be  greatly  disap- 
pointed. 

In  thus  speaking  of  the  pharmaceutical  student,  as  he  nhould  he^  it  must 
not  be  supposed  that  it  arises  from  a  false  idea  of  what  he  in.  Jt  is  indeed 
true  that  study,  properly  so  called,  is  often  times  the  last  thing  the  youjKj  ap- 
prentice thinks  of.  Kt'pt  on  the  go  frbm  morning  till  nij;lit,  and  sometimes 
all  the  evening  in  addition,  when  cessation  of  physical  labor  occurs  he  is 
naturally  more  disposed  to  court  Somnus  than  the  Muses,  or  more  inclined  to 
the  newspaper  than  the  Dispensatory.  This  disinclination  for  study  often 
arises  from  not  possessing  a  friend  to  point  out  where  to  begin  and  what  to 
read.  If  employers  would  take  more  interest  in  their  bo3's  at  first  as  regards 
their  reading,  endeavoring  to  get  them  interested  in  subjects  pertaining  to 
their  business,  the  latter  would  be  mucli  more  likely  to  get  their  ambition  ex- 
cited to  exertion.  The  value  of  a  drug  clerk  in  some  positions  is  greatly  en- 
hanced by  the  possession  of  a  kind  of  knowledge,  the  result  of  experience  and 
reading,  which  enables  him  to  take  the  place  of  his  employer,  in  coping  with 
the  emergencies  of  business.  Now,  it  is  true  that  there  arc  certain  difficulties 
which  recur  so  seldom  that  but  one  or  two  may  happen  during  an  apprentice- 
ship ;  and  if  not  learned  then,  no  other  opportunity  may  offer,  until  the  ap- 
prentice, having  become  the  clerk,  finds  himself  compelled  to  act,  or  acknowl- 
edge his  ignorance.  It  is  therefore  necessary  for  the  apprentice,  who  desires 
to  become  a  master  in  pharmacy,  to  be  wide)  awake  to  every  incident  of  the 
counter,  gaining  information  daily  by  what  he  sees  and  hears  and  handles,  and 
never  hesitating  to  ask  where  he  is  in  doubt,  under  the  idea  that  it  will  be 
showing  ignorance.  It  is  for  want  of  this  kind  of  training  and  earnestness, 
that  so  many  drug  clerks  are  found  illy  qualified  to  take  charge  of  a  store ; 
they  are  not  equal  to  the  numerous  occasions  where  discretion  and  judgment 
are  required ;  and  after  going  from  one  employer  to  aiiothcr,  citker  abandon 
the  business  in  disgust,  or  settle  down  into  a  second  rate  position  as  confirmed 
underlings. 

It  is  to  enable  apprentices  and  others  to  avoid  this  humiliating  result,  and  to 
stimulate  thejn  to  honorable  exertions  in  the  pursuit  of  pharmaceutical  knowl- 
edge, that  the  Association  offers  this  Syllabus  for  their  acceptance,  believing 
that  it  will  point  out  a  practicable  road  to  respectability,  if  not  to  eminence,  in 
their  profession. 


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62  Hdiiorial 

Ipecaonanha  in  Delirium  Tremens. 

Dr.  Paoli,  physician  to  the  ^ridewell  city  prison,  in  an  article  published  in 
the  Chicago  Journal,  speaks  very  favorably  of  the  above  named  remedy  in 
delirium  tremens,  as  it  presented  itself  in  the  prison  under  his  care.  He  says: 
"  Ipecacuanha,  which  I  have  tined  in  sixty  cases,  I  found  most  remarkably 
successful,  quieting  the  nervous  system,  exciting  the  appetite,  acting  on  the 
secretions,  and  uniformly  producing  sleep.  When  a  case  is  not  of  too  long 
standing,  I  give  it  as  an  emetic  the  first  dose,  and  afterwards  T  give  from  fifteen 
to  eighteen  grains  every  other  hour.  Connected  with  this  remedy,  I  use 
shower  baths,  and  let  the  patient  frequently  drink  strong  beef  tea,  without  any 
alcoholic  stimulants."  This  is  an  old  method  of  treating  mania-a  potu.  But 
delirium  tremens,  or  what  is  so  denominated,  is  a  disease  presenting  such 
different  pathological  conditions,  that  no  one  remedy  can  be  relied  on  to 
meet  the  indications  in  all  ca^es. 


Editorial. 


PROCEEDINOS  OF  THB  AhBRICAN  PnARMACEUTICAL  CONVENTION. — The  VOlume 

before  us  contains  fivo  hundred  octavo  pages — is  full  of  interesting  matter,  and 
reflects  much  credit  upon  the  association,  as  does  the  style  and  arrangement  ^ 
upon  the  executive  committee. 

This  association  was  organized  in  Philadelphia,  in  September,  1853,  for  the 
advancement  of  pharmaceutical  knowledge  and  the  elevation  of  druggists  and 
apothecaries  as  a  profession.  The  seventh  annual  session  was  convened  at  the 
Smithsonian  Institute  at  Washington,  September  14,  1858.  The  convention 
was  called  to  order  by  its  president,  Charles  Ellis,  of  Philadelphia.  After  the 
appointment  of  the  various  committees  incident  to  its  organization,  and  the 
reports  of  the  committees  of  last  year,  which  will  be  noticed  in  another  place, 
the  president  read  his  annual  address,  which  is  a  detailed  history  of  the  fonn^ 
dation  of  the  association — the  causes  and  motives  that  induced  its  first  organi- 
sation, with  a  review  of  the  proceedings  for  the  fast  six  years,  with  many 
valuable  practical  suggestions. 

John  L.  Ridwell,  of  Georgetown,  was  elected  president,  and  E.  R.  Squibb,  of 
New  Yo^,  James  0' Gallagher,  of  St.  Louis,  and  Robert  Battcy,  of  Rome, 
Georgia^  vice  presidents.  D.  J.  Browne,  Esq.,  of  the  Patent  Office,  waa 
present  by  invitation,  and  made  some  interesting  remarks  concerning  the 
efforts  of  the  Patent  Office  in  introducing  Coreign  plants  into  this  country,  as 
the  olive,  fig,  prune,  cork  tree,  verbena,  opium  poppy,  Zante  currant,  raisin 
grape,  liquorice,  &c  The  cork  oak  {Qu&rcus  suber)  has  been  successfully  cul> 
tiyated  as  far  north  as  College  Hill,  near  Cincinnati.  He  states  that  our  im- 
portation of  cork  and  corks,  in  1857,  exceeded  $250,000,  and  which  is  0(m- 
stan'ly  increasing.  This  demand  should  be  met  by  domestic  production. 
Among  other  objects  of  investigation  by  Ihe  Patent  Office,  may  be  mentioned 


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EdUarial  68 

ttie  analysis  of  Tarious  trees  and  plants,  and  of  the  soilB  in  which  they  grow, 
embracing  cotton,  tobacco,  common  potato,  Chinese  yam,  Sorghum  cane  and 
Indian  corn ;  also  a  new  principle,  or  red  coloring  matter,  highly  astringent, 
has  been  discovered  in  the  hemlock  bark  {Abie*  Oanadsn$is)  ;  and  a  substance 
analogous  to  lupulin  in  the  samara  of  the  wafer  bush  (Pto/ia  trifoliata\  which 
has  been  successfully  employed  a<«  a  substitute  for  hops. 

The  most  interesting  part  of  the  proceedings  are  the  reports  of  the  commit- 
tees. 

The  report  upon  home  adulteration  of  drugs  we  published  in  the  December 
number  of  this  Journal. 

Weiguts  and  Measures. — ^The  committee  on  weights  and  measures,  by  Dr. 
Guthrie,  favors  the  adoption  of  the  decimal  system,  while  the  supplementary 
report,  by  John  Meakim,  of  New  York,  dissents  from  the  scale  proposed  by 
the  New  York  Chamber  of  Commerce,  and  urges  the  adoption  of  the  French 
decimal  system  with  some  modifications,  extracts  from  which  we  shall  pub- 
lish. It  is  quite  time  some  new  standard  was  decided  upon,  and  that  we  were  ' 
rid  of  the  present  conflicting  systems.  / 

Revision  of  the  PnARMxcopcEiA. — The  report  of  the  committee  on  the  pre- 
liminary revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  occupies  forty-four  pages,  and  is  re- 
plete wi:h  valuable  suggestions  and  additions.  It  is  no  light  undertaking  to 
alter  and  revise  this  worlc.  The  committee  have  collected  a  large  amount  of 
matter  which,  if  not  wholly  available  to  the  pharmacopoeia  convention  or  its 
committee,  will  be  valuable  to  the  apothecary  and  medical  profession  at  large. 
That  part  devoted  to  Fluid  Extracts  by  Mr.  Steams  is  quite  elaborate.  Many 
decoctions  and  tinctures  will  probably  be  represented  in  the  revised  edition  by 
Fluid  Extracts,  as  being  more  convenient  and  better  representing  the  me- 
^cinal  properties  of  the  article. 

Amend  VENTS  to  the  Drug  Law. — ^The  committee  on  amendments  to  the  drug 
law  recommend  that  the  appointment  of  examiners  of  drugs  in  the  important 
ports  be  made  by  the  President  and  Senate,  and  that  the  applicant  have  the 
confidence  of  either  the  college  of  pharmacy  of  the  port  or  a  recommendation  of 
the  medi  lal  association,  and  that  each  of  the  important  offices  be  supplied  with 
all  the  ntx^ssary  apparatus  and  means  of  testing  and  trying  all  drugs  to  ascer- 
tain their  purity — that  the  salary  or  pay  of  the  examiners  be  such  as  to  command 
the  services  of  competent,  educated,  and  honest  men ;  also  that  the  examiners 
be  appraisers  of  value. 

Un-Officikal  FoRMULiE. — The  report  on  local  un-officinal  formulsd  is  from 
W.  B.  Chapman,  of  Cincinnati,  and  by  practitioners  of  medicine  in  that  city. 
We  publish  part  in  this  number. 

Robert  M.  Battey  oyC  Arrowroot. — ^This  reply  is  full  of  interesting 
matter  touching  its  cultivation,  and  illustrates  the  mode  of  preparation,  with 
the  conclusion  that  an  article  equal  to  the  best  Bermuda  arrowroot  may  be 
made  on  the  sea  board  of  Georgia;  and  the  only  reason  why  it  is  not  had  from 
that  source  he  is  unable  to  answer,  except  that  its  manufacture  is  not  well 
suited  to  the  genius  of  our  people,  taken  as  a  mass. 


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54  Editorial. 

Report  on  the  Procress  of  Pharmacy. — This  report  is  divided  under  the 
following  heads  or  divisions :  Inorganic  chemistry,  organic  chemistry,  practi- 
cal pharmacy,  materia  medica,  toxicology,  education,  pharmaceutic  assodations, 
legislation  on  the  subject  of  the  sale  of  poisons,  and  literature.  It  occupies 
forty-six  pages — is  a  review  in  detail  of  the  progress  made  during  the  year  in 
the  several  departments  or  divisions.  Under  the  head  of  literature  is  a  list  of 
books  and  periodicals  issued  during  the  year,  bearing  directly  or  indirectly  upon 
matters  relating  to  pharmacy  in  English,  French  or  German  languages. 

The  Syllabus  of  a  Course  of  Study,  intended  as  an  aid  to  students  of  phar- 
macy, being  a  special  report  by  Prof.  Procter,  and  occupies  sixty-six  pages.  We 
publish  the  introduction  on  page  forty-nine,  and  shall  publish  further  extracts 
as  our  space  will  allow. 

Notes  and  Suggestions  upon  some  of  the  processes  of  the  United  States 
phamiacopdiia,  especially  directed  to  the  committee  of  revision,  by  Dr.  Edward 
R.  Squibb.  This  paper  is  one  of  the  most  important  and  practically  useful  con- 
tributions submitted  to  the  association.  Dr.  S.  was  for  many  years  connected 
with  the  United  States  naval  laboratory  at  Brooklyn,  and  all  his  papers  indicate 
a  man  of  close  observation,  study  and  science.  Our  readers  will  find  on  page 
forty-six  of  this  Journal  an  extract  from  his  paper  upon  *'  simple  tests  for 
some  important  medicinal  preparations." 

Subjects  fob  Investigation. — The  committee  report  over  forty  different 
subjects  accepted  by  members  of  the  association  for  investigation  to  be  report- 
ed at  the  next  meeting  of  the  association. 

We  have  briefly  noticed  the  various  important  reports,  and  shall  in  our 
next  number  notice  the  several  "  Essays." 

Those  wishing  to  obtain  the  report  can  do  so  by  communicating  with  S.  S. 
Qarrigues,  108  North  Front  Street,  Philadelphia.  The  price  of  the  volume  in 
paper,  with  postage,  is  $1.00,  in  board,  $1.25,  and  is  worth  to  every  medical 
practitioner  and  apothecary  many  times  its  cost. 

We  call  the  attention  of  those  in  want  of  pure  wines  and  liquors  for  medici- 
nal purposes  to  the  advertisement  of  Messrs.  Bininger  &  De  Witt  This  is  an 
old  established  house,  wlio  have  always  sustained  a  reputation  of  dealing  in 
articles  of  the  first  quality,  and  not  in  the  poisonous  adulterated  stuff  which 
floods  the  country.  The  value  of  pure  liquors  for  medicinal  purposes  is  fully 
appreciated  by  those  who  have  been  imposed  upon  by  purchasing  a  worthless 
article. 

Surgical  Instruments. — Physicians  in  want  of  Surgical  Instruments,  or  any  , 
articles  enumerated  in  the  advertisement  of  V.  W.  Brinkerhoff,  will  be  certain 
of  getting  them  of  superior  quality  and  workmanship. 

Correspondents  will  oblige  by  writing  plainly  their  names,  town,  county  and 
state.  We  have,  in  several  instances,  been  unable  to  answer  letters  because 
these  are  omitted. 

Book  of  Formul-«. — Eight  pages  of  this  work  will  be  appended  to  each 
number  of  the  Journal  hereafter. 

Subscribers  will  please  notify  us  if  they  do  not  receive  the  Journal  regularly. 


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Pharmacy,  55 

Various  Formulse  for  the  Oelatinization  of  Cod-liver  Oil. 

M:    STANISLAS   MARTINIS   JILLV    MODIFIBD. 

I{ .     Cod-liver  oil 3  ij. 

Fresh  spermaceti 3  ijss. 

Simple  syrup 3  vj. 

Jamaica  mm 3  vj. 

Beat  the  ingredients  together  with  the  aid  of  heat,  and  when  the  mixture 
has  acquired  some  consistence,  pour  it  into  a  wide-mouthed  bottle. 

COD-LIVBR    OIL    SOLIDIFIED   WITH    GELATINE. 

li .     Pure  gelatine §88. 

Water §  iv. 

Simple  syrup §  iv. 

Cod-liver  oil 3  viij. 

Aromatic  essence q.  s: 

Dussolvc  the  gelatine  in  the  boiling  water,  and  add  successively  the  syrup, 
the  oil,  and  the  aromatic  essence ;  place  the  vessel  containing  the  entire  in  a 
bath  of  cold  water ;  whip  the  jelly  for  five  nn'nutes  at  most,  and  then  pour  it, 
while  still  fluid,  into  a  wide-mouthed  glass  bottle,  furnished  with  a  cork,  or 
witli  a  pewter  cap,  or  if  a  bottle  be  not  at  hand,  i^ito  a»  porcelain  or  earthen- 
ware |)ot,  which  should  be  carefully  closed. 

COD-LIVER   OIL    GEL^VTINIZBD    WITH    CARRAGEEN    OR    IRISH    MOSS. 

IJ.     Pucus  crispus .....'. |ss. 

Water §  xviij. 

Siaiplesyrup 5  ^• 

Cod-liver  oil 5  viij. 

Aromatic q.  v. 

Boil  the  carrageen  in  the  water  for  twenty  minutes ;  pass  the  decoction 
through  flannel ;  concentrate  it  until  it  is  reduced  to  four  ounces  by  weight ; 
add  the  syi*up,  the  oil,  and  the  aromatic ;  whip  the  mixture  briskly,  having 
first  placed  it  in  a  cold  bath,  and  pour  it,  while  still  a  little  warm,  into  the 
vessel  intended  to  receive  it  The  syrup  may  be  replaced  by  an  equal  quantity 
of  Garus"  elixir,  mint  or  vanilla  cream  or  rum,  &c. 

M.  Sauvan  proposes  to  combine  cod-liver  oil  with  Iceland  moss. 

LICHEN    AND    COD-LU-KR    OIL. 

TJ .     Iceland  moss  jelly |  iv. 

Gelatme 3  iv. 

Oydrocyanated  cod-liver  oil  (to  which  two  drops  of  es- 
sence of  bitter  almonds  have  been  added) 3  vj. 

Prepare  the  Iceland  moss  jelly  in  the  usual  manner ;  melt  the  gelatine  and 
pass  it  into  the  vessel  which  is  to  hold  it ;  then  add  the  cod-liver  oil ;  stir  the 
entire  with  a  spatula,  until  the  mixture  be  homogeneous  and  the  jelly  begins 
to  congeal.  Dose — two  or  three  spoonfuls  daily. — Bull  Gen,  de  Thenxp. — 
Ihiblin  ffoHpifal  (latette,  Aug.  15,  1857,/?.  254. 


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56  Pharmacy. 

AMMOKIO-FERRIO   ALCM. 

ProfottKor  Willium  Procter,  Jr.,  in  the  March  number  (1858)  of  the  AmcH- 
CMi  Journal  of  Pharmacy  says : — "In  the  American  Journal  of  Pharmacy  for 
1856,  pages  805  and  4T8,  I  made  some  remarks,  introducing  to  notice  the 
AmmoniO'ferric  Alum,  or  sulphate  of  ammonia  and  of  sesquioxide  of  iron  with 
a  formula  for  its  preparation.  This  combination  having  been  since  found  bj* 
many  physicians  to  answer  the  description  given  by  Dr.  W.  Tyler  Smith,  of 
its  advantages  as  an  astringent  tonic,  the  demand  for  it  has  occasioned  the  ne- 
cessity for  repeatedly  preparing  it ;  and,  profiting  by  the  suggestions  of  some 
of  my  friends,  I  have  improved  the  process  for  its  preparation,  so  as  to  make 
it  much  more  readily,  perfectly  and  economically,  thus : — 

5-     Ferri  sulphaUs  cryst §  xxiv. 

Ammonise  sulphatis 5  ^'^• 

Acidi  sulphurici f  5  ^.  f.  3  v. 

Acidi  nitrici » £  |  iij.vel.  q.  s. 

Aqu» q.  8. 

Mix  f.  3  xxj.  of  the  sulphuric  acid,  in  a  large  mortar,  with  the  sulphate  of 
iron  coarsely  powdered ;  then  gradually  add,  with  trituration,  the  nitric  acid,  till 
it  ceases  to  produce  effervescence.  Transfer  the  mixtture  to  a  porcelain  capsule, 
and  boil  it  with  one  quart  of  water,  added  in  two  or  three  portions  successively. 
Then  add  the  remaining  f.  |  iij.  of  sulphuric  acid,  and  the  sulphate  of  ammonia; 
boU  till  the  latter  is  entirely  dissolved,  and  set  aside  in  a  cool  place  to  crystal- 
ize.  If  the  resulting  crystals  are  not  sufficiently  pure  and  violet-colored,  they 
must  be  re-dissolved  by  boiling  in  about  a  pint  of  water,  acidulated  with  an 
ounce  or  two  of  sulphuric  add,  filtered  or  decanted,  and  again  set  aside  to  crys- 
talize.  The  crystals  must  then  be  drained,  and  dried  in  bibulous  pM>er,  before 
being  bottled  up.  In  this  way  we  obtain  very  handsome,  somewhat  amethy- 
stine crystals. 

PRSPARATIOH   OF   AKTI-A8THMATIC   CiaARBTTBS. 

By  M,  Danneey,  Pharmacien  of  Bordeaux. 

Some  of  the  properties  of  stramonium  and  belladonna — which  plants,  when  . 
smoked,  justly  enjoy  the  reputation  of  relieving  asthma,  and  which  are  em- 
ployed vrith  tiie  most  undoubted  auceess  in  the  treatment  of  neuralgia— ezial 
also  in  plants  abounding  in  nitrates.  Thus  I  have  seen  patients  who  had  ex- 
perienced great  relief  from  the  use  of  the  leaves  of  borage  and  pellitory  i^ants 
containing,  as  is  well  known,  much  nitrate  of  lime. 

The  fiiiult  which  almost  all  patients  find  with  narcotic  plants,  smoked  in 
pipes  or  in  the  form  of  cigarettes,  is  a  copious  production  of  smoke,  which  fa- 
tigues them,  and  sometimes  excites  cough — ^a  symptom  they  are,  on  the  con- 
trary, employed  to  allay. 

In  order  to  obviate  this  inconvenience,  I  have  added  nitre  to  the  leaves  of 
belladonna  and  of  stramonium,  by  watering  these  plants,  dried  and  conveniently 
spread  out,  with  a  solution  of  nitrate  of  potash,  in  the  proportion  of  throe 
ounees  of  the  salt  to  rather  more  than  two  pounds  avoirdupois  of  the  plants. 


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Pharmacy.  57 

It  will  be  easily  understood,  that  as  this  solution  penetrates  the  entire  regeta- 
ble  tissue,  the  latter  will,  when  dry,  bum  completely,  without  the  formation 
of  the  pyrogeneous  products  above  alluded  to. 

I  have  for  many  years  prepared  cigarettes  according  to  this  formula,  and 
the  benefit  derived  from  their  use  by  a  great  number  of  patients  induces  me  to 
publish  it,  and  to  call  the  attention  of  practitioners  to  this  mode  of  treatment, 
oonsisting  in  the  smoking  of  narcotic  plants  combined  with  nitre. 

ELIXIR   CINCHONA,   OR    ELIXIR   OF   CALI8AYA   BARK. 
By  Alfred  B.   Tbylar. 

3.    Best  calisaya  bark l\r. 

Fresh  orange  peel 5  V- 

Ceylon  cinnamon 

Coriander  seed,  ai. 5  j- 

Anise  seed 

Caraway  seed 

Cardamon  seed 

Cochineal,  a& 3  ij. 

Brandy Oiiss. 

Having  bruised  the  articles  well,  and  allowed  them  to  macerate  for  twenty- 
four  hours  in  sufficient  of  the  brandy  to  moisten  thoroughly,  transfer  to  a  dis- 
placement apparatus,  and  add  the  rest  of  the  brandy ;  then  displace  carefully 
with  a  mixture  of  three  parts  of  water  and  one  part  of  alcohol,  until  six  and  a 
half  pints  of  tincture  are  obtained ;  to  this  add  two  and  one-half  pints  of  simple 
syrup,  and  mix  thcMroughly. — Amer.  Jour,  0/ Pharmacy. 

lODATB   OF   POTASH. 

Messrs.  Demarquay  and  Custin  consider  that  the  action  of  this  salt  is  more 
powerful  than  that  of  the  chlorate  of  the  same  base,  and  that  it  has  yielded  ex- 
eellent  results  where  the  chlorate  of  potash  had  fiiiled.  The  dose  varies  from 
fire  to  twenty-two  grains,  and  it  has  been  used  in  diphtheritis,  mercurial  and 
gangrenous  stomatitis,  Ac  From  M.  Millon^s  directi(ms,  the  salt  may  be  ob- 
tained as  follows : — One  part  of  iodine  and  one  <^  chlorate  of  potash  are  brought 
fai  contact  with  six  parts  of  boiling  water,  acidulated  with  a  few  drops  <^nitrio 
acid.  When  chlorine  eoasea  to  be  given  off,  a  concentrated  solution  of  chloride 
of  barium  is  added  to  the  liquor.  The  washed  iodate  of  barytes  is  then  da- 
eomposed  by  sulphuric  acid,  the  sulphate  e€  barytes  is  separated  by  filtration, 
and  the  fluid  is  slowly  evaporated.  The  crystals  of  iodic  acid  are  then  wa^ied 
with  distilled  water,  redissolved  in  boiling  distilled  water,  and  the  solution 
saturated  with  bi-carbonate  of  potash.  A  great  portion  of  the  salt  is  deposited 
in  little  crystals  on  c6oling. — London  Pharmaceutical  Jour, 

TIMEOAR    LOTION. 

This  lotion  is  almost  exclusively  employed  to  remove  lime  from  the  eye. 
Its  strength  is  half  a  drachm  of  distilled  vinegar  to  an  ounce  of  water.  Of 
course  the  sooner  it  is  resorted  to  after  the  accident  the  better.  It  should  also 
be  very  freely  used,  the  lids  being  everted,  and  well  washed. 


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58  Formuke. 

[From  the  Proceedings  of  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Asaodation«] 

Cincinnati,  August  26t7f,  1858. 
To  the  Chairman  of  Committee : — 

In  compliance  with  the  duty  devolving  on  me  as  one  of  the  above  committee, 
I  send  you  a  few  formulae  which  are  much  used  in  our  city,  both  by  practi- 
tioners of  medicine  and  the  public ;  with  a  view  of  obtaining  a  greater  uniformity 
in  their  preparation  I  forward  them  to  you.  If  you  should  think  them  worthy, 
please  present  them  to  the  Association. 

Yours  Respectfully, 

W.    B.    ClIATMAN. 
EBERLE'8  PURGATIVE  PILLS. 

(Richartl  Eberle,  M.  D.) 

Kxtract  Colocynth  Compound .' One  Dram. 

Pulverized  Scammony **         '* 

Sub.  Mur.  Hydr., **         " 

Mix,  and  make  into  five  grain  pills. 

TINCTURE  OF  WATER  PEPPER.  i 

(Prof.  John  Klwrle.) 

Water  Pepper , Eight  Ounces. 

Diluted  Alcohol Ten  (Gallons. 

Macerate  fourteen  days  and  express. 

DR.  ATLEE'B  NIPPLE  WASH. 
(Dr.  Edwin  A.  Atlee.) 

Pulverized  Gum  Arabic Half  Dram. 

Biborate  of  Soda , Ten  Grains. 

Tincture  of  Myrrh One  Dram,. 


WHOOPING  COUGH  SYRUP. 

(Dr.  E.  A.  Atlee.) 
For  a  child  from  six  months  to 

1  year.  Hydrocyanic  Acid,  One  Drop ;  Simple  Syrup,  (Jne  Oimce. 

From     1     "    to    2  "  "      Two     "  **  "  ** 

"     Three  ** 

**  **      Four    " 

44      Six      ** 

**  "      Seven  ** 

"      Eight" 

SiG. — "A  teaspoonful  two  or  three  times  a  day.    If  there  is  much  oppression 
give  a  dose  of  Antimonial  Wine  before  taking  the  syrup ;  and  if  castive,  give  a 
dose  of  Calomel  and  Rhubarb." 
This  prescription  is  so  designed  that  a  teaspoonful  shall  bo  a  dose  in  each  case. 


1 

to    2 

2 

4 

4 

8 

8 

12 

12 

15 

16 

25 

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formulas.  69 

COMPOUND  SYRUP  OF  MORPHU. 

(Jackson's  Cough  Syrup.) 

Syrup  of  Morphia Three  Ounces. 

**  Ipecac  and  Senega One  Ounce. 

Rhubarb,  simple **         '* 

Mix. 

SiG. — A  teaspoonful  three  times  daily. 

Receipts  for  the  Syrup  Morphia  and  Ipecac  and  Senega  used  in  the  above 
preparation : — 

SYRUP  OF  3I0RPHIA. 

Miu*iate  of  Morphia One  Grain. 

Simple  S>Tup , One  Ounce. 

Oil  of  Sa.ssafras Two  Drops. 

Mir. 

SYRUP  IPECAC  AND  SENEGA. 

Polygaia  Senega  Root Two  Ounces. 

Pulverized  Ipecac One  Dram. 

Water Half  Gallon. 

Boil  the  Senega  root  in  the  water  until  half  consumed  ;  strain,  then  add  the 
Ipecac,  and  sugar  enough  to  form  a  syrup. 

COMPOUND  ARNICA  LINI3IENT. 

(Huxley's  Liniment) 

Tincture  of  Arnica Four-and-a-half  Ounces. 

Oil  of  Camphor Half  Ounce. 

Tincture  of  Opium One  Ounce. 

Mix. 

BAKER^S  COUOH  DROPS. 

Tincture  of  Hy oscyamas Four  Ounces. 

**  Digitalis.  .^ Two  Ounces. 

Syrup  of  SquUl Eight  Ounces, 

Syrup  of  Balsam  of  Tolu Two  Ounces. 

Mix. 

Dose — One  teaspoonful  on  going  to  bed. 

PIL.  COLCYNTII.  MAO. 

(Presented  by  A.  P.  Sharp,  of  Baltimore.) 

Ext.  Colo«ynth  Comp One  Dnun. 

Hyd.  Proto-chlor. Twelve  (trains. 

Tart  Antim.  and  Pot Two  Grains. 

Make  into  twelve  pills. 


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.  60  Medicinal  Extracts. 

Fltiid,  Solid  and  Pilular  Extracts,  Alkaloids  and  Besinoids. 

Every  plant  in  the  materia  medica  possesses  some  specific  or  general  medici- 
nal principle  upon  which  its  value,  as  a  therapeutic  agent,  depends.  The 
various  forms  in  which  modicincA  arc  prepared  give  evidence  of  difference  of 
opinion  in  regard  to  the  most  appropriate  and  effective  mode  of  administering 
them,  and  no  one  class  of  pharmaceutic  preparations  can  be  used  exclusively 
in  medica]  practice  to  the  rejection  of  all  others.  Their  remedial  p^opertie8  are 
due  to  some  one  or  more^tctive  principles.  The  preservation  and  presentatioa 
of  these,  in  an  unaltered  state,  in  all  preparations,  should  be  the  aim  and  pur- 
pose of  the  manipulator.  The  processes  by  which  they  .ire  obtained,  preserved 
and  made  available  to  fulfil  the  conditions  of  their  administration,  are  im- 
portant points  of  consideration  to  the  medical  practitioner. 

The  substance  or  crude  material  should  in  all  cases  be  analyzed,  and  its  re- 
lation to  a  standard  quality  ascertained,  because  it  is  a  well  ascertained  fact 
that  plants  grown  in  different  localities,  upon  moist  or  dry  soils,  lowlands  or 
uplands,  or  collected  early  or  late  in  the  season,  vary  in  their  proximate  prin- 
ciples. 

To  overcome  these  contingencies  as  far  as  possible,  we  cultivate  extensively 
the  most  important  plants.  By  the  analysis  of  a  particular  article,  and  the 
soil  upon  which  it  is  proposed  to  grow  it,  the  nutriment  necessary  to  its  per- 
fect development  is  determined.  Principal  among  these  are  the  narcotics,  as 
hyoscyamus,  belladonna,  stramonium,  digitalis,  &c.  All  these  are  limited  to  a 
certain  state  or  condition  of  growth  for  manufacturing  purposes,  and  are  used 
in  the  recent  state.  As  many  of  the  principles  of  plants  are  of  a  volatile  and 
delicate  nature,  readily  injured  by  heat,  causing  a  conversion  of  fixed  soluble 
principles  into  insoluble  and  inert  compounds,  we  early  adopted  the  process 
of  evaporation  at  a  low  temperature  in  receivers  from  which  the  air  is  exhausted 
by  an  air  pump. 

Solid  ob  Pilitlak  Extbacts  should  represent  all  the  active  medicinal  princi- 
ples of  the  plant  from  whence  they  are  derived.  These  may  be  an  alkaloid,  resin- 
oid,  acid,  volatile  or  fixed  oil,  oleo-resin,  or  a  neutral  principle,  (without  acid 
w  akaline  reaction),  separate  or  combined,  and  should  be  preserved  in  their 
natural  relations,  so  that  the  therapeutical  effect  shall  be  the  same  as  the  crude 
material.  By  an  accurate  analysis  of  the  plant,  the  menstruum  and  manipulation 
can  be  adapted  to  the  peculiar  characteristics  of  its  active  constituents,  and 
their  preservation  by  evaporation  in  a  vacuum  rendered  more  certain  than  by 
any  other  known  process.  They  may  be  of  the  pilular  consistence,  or  by  ftir- 
ther  drying,  brought  to  a  powdered  state,  and  in  that  form  present  all  the  active 
medicinal  or  positive  medical  constituents  of  the  plant  in  a  very  concentrated  form. 

Inferior  or  sophisticated  preparations  consist  chiefly  in  the  employment  of 
crude  materials  rejected  as  unfit  for  any  other  purpose,  either  old  or  worm-eaten 
— ^the  admixture  of  gum  and  starch  to  give  the  required  consistence,  or  keep  up 
the  general  average  of  production^  or  as  one  of  many  iastances,  the  use  of 
cichorium  intybus  for  leontodon  taraxacum,  or  solanum  nigrum  for  atropa  bel- 
ladonna. 


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Medicinal  Extractg,  61 

Fluid  Extbacts  tmtj  fh>m  the  preceding  cbeg  in  degree  of  ooncentraiion* 
The  general  principles  observed  in  their  preparation  are  the  same,  but  the  pro- 
cess by  which  the  medicinal  properties  of  the  plant  are  exhibited  in  the  fluid 
form,  admits  of  the  preparation  being  made  of  any  required  standard  of  strength, 
definite  and  uniform  as  regards  the  amount  of  actiy^-medillinal  principles  repre- 
sented by  any  given  quantity,  held  in  solution  so  as  to  form  clear  preparations. 
Conceding  fluid  extracts  to  be  made  from  materials  of  standard  quality ^  and 
by  processes  calculated  to  exhibit  the  activity  of  the  plant,  they  meet  the  re- 
quirements of  the  practitioner  by  supplying  a  strength  of  preparatioi^  inter- 
mediate between  the  solid  extract  and  the  tincture — avoid  the  unnecessary 
bulk  of  infusions — the  uncertainty  of  decoctions — the  stimulation  modifying 
the  therapeutical  action  of  many  tinctures — are  with  great  facility  taken  into 
the  system,  requiring  little  or  no  digestion — act  as  soon  as  administered,  and 
when  immediate  effect  of  medicine  is  desired,  arc  the  best  forms  in  which  it  can 
be  employed.  The  physician  is  enabled  to  regulate  the  dose  with  greater  case 
and  certainty,  and  for  convenience  in  calculating  doses,  they  are  generally  made 
of  the  strength  of  one  pound  of  the  drug  to  one  pint  of  fluid — ^are  cai)able  of 
ready  combination,  or  of  conversion  into  tinctures,  syrups,  and  infusions,  for 
purposes  of  further  combination. 

ALKA.LOIDS  AND  Resinoios. — They  purport  to  be  the  active  principles  of  the 
plants,  and  have  the  same  relation  to  the  plants  whence  they  are  derived,  that 
quinia  does  to  the  cinchonas,  and  morphia  to  opium.  The  alkaloids  possess  all 
and  the  same  properties  with  the  mineral  alkalies  ;  they  crystallize,  turn  red 
litmus-paper  blue,  and  combining  with  adds  form  perfectly  defined  salts.  The 
discovery  of  these  principles,  ordinarily  designated  resinoids,  is  more  recent^ 
and  only  up  to  a  certain  point  do  they  possess  the  peculiar  characteristics  of 
rmn»,  Jalapine  forms  an  exception.  Many  of  these  agents,  styled  indiffer- 
ently alkaloids  or  resinoids,  do  not  present  any  marked  acid  or  alkaline  charac- 
teristics, such  as  piperincy  asparagins^  glyeyrrhigine,  &c  These  substances 
are  more  numerous  than  the  resins,  properly  so  called. 

It  is  often  necessary  when  these  principles  have  been  reduced,  to  combine 
with  them  sugar  of  milk  or  the  powder  of  the  same  drug,  to  secure  an  impal- 
pable powder,  because  they  are  often  oleaginous  in  their  character.  This  fact, 
when  it  occurs,  is  distinctly  stated  upon  the  bottle,  and  the  quantity  always 
increased  in  proportion  to  the  admixture,  that  each  bottle  shall  contain  one 
ounce  of  the  active  principle. 

These  agents  are  subject  to  much  adulteration,  but  the  tests  are  simple  and 
easy.  Concentrated  preparations  proper^  or  alkaloids  and  resinoids^  should 
be  carefully  distinguished  from  the  alcoholic  and  hydro-alcoholic  extracts dri^ 
and  pottderedy  of  which  large  quantities  are  being  mfde  and  sold  for  them. 
However  convenient  and  valuable  they  may  be,  as  a  class,  they  are  preparations 
which  should  be  sold  at  only  a  small  advance  from  the  cost  of  the  solid  extracts ; 
and  it  is  due  to  the  physician  that  he  understands  definitely,  whether  he  is  ad- 
ministering the  medicinal  principles  of  a  drug  in  an  isolated  form,  or  in  the 
form  of  a  powdered  solid  ex u  act — at  the  same  time  he  should  not  be  charged 
the  price  of  the  former  when  dispensing  the  latter. 


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62 


Adcertisemeiiis, 


EDWARD    PARRI8H, 

No.  800  Arch  Street,  Phila- 
delphia. 

(Aatlkor  of  llie  "Introduction  to  Practical 


R£C0M5fKNDRD  BY  THE  Mi!J>ICAL  FACULTY. 


TARRAi^rS  PREPARATIONS. 


Pharpuicy.") 

PHARNAtElITIST, 


CHEMIST, 


AND  IMPORTKB  OF 

FINE  DBUGB  k  FSEPABATIOHS, 

OfFere  to  Phys«lcluns  a  general  at*sortnient  of  Medi- 
cines and  Medicinal  Wares,  of  u hlcli  the  follow ing 
are  specially  recommended  : — 

Ckmiponnd  Syrup  of  the  Phosphates  of  Lime, 
Iron,  Soda  and  Potassa. 

("  Cliendcal  Food,") 
Thi^  uduiirHble  tonic  U  adaiited  to  Mipply  the 
waste  occnrring  during  the  iirogre*!}  of  chronic 
diseases,  and  to  build  up  the  strength  wa.sted 
by  long  continued  ill  health.  Put  up  in  1  lb. 
bottles,  at  $!>  per  dtiz..  and  in  a  smaller  size,  at 
$8.50  per  dozen. 

Olycerole  of  the  Hypophosphites, 

Used  In  the  treatment  of  Pulmonary  Consumpfuui, 
and  as  n  tonic  in  cases  of  nervous  and  general 
debility.  Sold  with  circulars  giving  its  compoi-itlon, 
uses,  Ac,  at  fS  per  dozen  bottles. 

SYRUP  OF  THE  HYPOPHOSPHITE.^, 


The  attention  of  the  Medical  Proferalon,  and 
the  public  is  invited  to  the  following  prcpamtlons : 

Tarrant^s  EfferTescent  Seltzer 
Aperient* 

,  Prepared  on  an  entirely  new  principle,  from  a 
j  late  analysis  of  the  celebrated  Ski.tzkr  i^PRiNo  In 
Germany,  combining  efficacy,  econonjy  and  porta- 
bility, with  Huch  atlditions  and  lmprnvement«  as 
will  be  found  materially  to  lncreaj»e  Its  efficacy. 
This  much-esteemed  and  highly  \  aluable  prepara- 
tion win  not  fail  to  effectually  renmve  Dyspepsia, 
or  In<lige8tlon.  Bilioua  AtTections,  Headache, 
Heartluirn,  .Vci<lity  of  the  Stomach,  Co^tiveness, 
(Sout,  Uheumati:»m,  I^m)*  of  .\ppetlte,  Oravel, 
Nervous  Debility,  Nau-^ea,  or  N  omiting.  Affect- 
ions of  the  \A\  er,  &c.,  Ac. 


Tarrant's  Cordial  Elixir  of  Tnr- 
i  liey  Rhubarb. 

Takes  its  place  as  the  best  remedy  for  Dyspepsia 
or  Indlg'-stion  of  the  present  day,  and,  for  its 
I  ellicacy  and  safety,  deserves  the  ntiine  of  being.  In 
truth,  a  Family  Me«licine.  Tliose  who  suffer  f^om 
!  excessive  fati^i^ue,  mental  an.\i«'ly.  or  intellectual 
api>lication  of  whatsoever  kind,  "will  find  It  to  be 
.  a  medicine  of  extreme  value.  It  is  partlcularty 
'  recommended  to  those  sulTering  from  fiiliuus  and 
Nervous  Headache,  Dlarrlura,  Constipation,  Plat- 
'  ulency,  ludigeslion,  trammer  Complaints,  Cholera 
.Morbus,  Ac,  Ac.  The  utmost  reliance  can  be 
Similar  to  the  foregoing,  though  without  the  use  i>lace<l  on  it,  both  as  to  lis  innocent  nature  and 
of  Cilycerin  in  its  preparation.     Price  tG  per  doz.    liighly  curative  qualities. 

IRON  LOZENGES.  '  

Each  containing.')  grains  ofSub.Carb.  Iron,  flavor-     larrant'S     lUiprOVed      IndClllble 
ed  with  Vanilla,  in  boxes,  at  1.75  per  dozen.  Ink. 

PHOSPHATIC  LOZENCiES,  !  For  marking  Linen,  Muslin,  Hilk,  Ac,  has  been 

containing    the    ingredients  of   the    "Chemical    proved  by  many  years'  experience,  to  be  the 

Food  '"  in  solid  form.     $1.75  per  dozen.  best,  most  pennanent,  and  reliable  preparation 

'  i>iin«nii  iTi.'  HK  7f  \r  j  ever  offered  to  the  public.    The  superiority  of  thlf 

PHUbl  iiAifc  ur  />iAt,  ^^j.^jp  ^  acknowledged  bv  all;  and  purchaser! 

A  new  remedy  in  Epilepsy  and  other  nervous    and  dealers  will  find  It  to  their  Interest  to  give  it 

disea'ies.     Dose  '2  to  5  grains.  a  preference  over  all  similar  j)reparations. 

CiTBATROFTK(»SANnSTRVCiixiA.  Dose,  3  grains.    --,  ,  j    w^     >  x      ^ 

^visTAR  s  COUGH  LOZENGES.         ,  Tarrant's  Compoond  Extract  of 

An  old  and  very  celebrated  Philadelphia  prepara- ,'  CobebS  and  COpaiba^ 

tion.    Price  75  c.  per  doien.  ^  ^  Sanctioned  by  popular  opinion  and  Idgh  authority 

jACKiios's  Cough  Lozkxgk?,  $1.76  per  doien.       '  of  the  most  distinguished  of  the  medical  faculty. 

RESPIRATORS,  for  persons  with  weak  lungs  or  •  J'  o^f  «*  *«  t^®  afflicted  a  remedy,  whose  success 
throat  as  a  filter  to  the  air,  and  a  preventive  ,  "**  »" .  every  instance  supported  its  desenred 
against  cold  on  leaving  heated  rooms,  and  for  use  reputation.  Being  convenient  and  agreeable  In 
In  toggv  and  damp  weather.  IMces-of  Cork,  $i;  its  use,  experience  Inis  proved  that  it  retains  In 
Silver  Wire,  $1.50:  Gilt,  $i  each.  '  every  climate  Its  desirable  and  trulv  valuable 

UZL  .  ;.,V,I      ,    .1      •         1  ..^^,1    a    Q     -  «^  ;  character.    It  is  In  the  form  of  a  paste,  I*  tasteless, 

PESSARIES,  elastic  ring  shape^l,  S.  S..  ?ind    ^^^  d^,„  ^^^  ,^     j^  j,,^  digestioh.    It  Is  prepare*! 

horse-shoe,  GirrA  Pkrcha,  const ructeil  on  the  |  ^,1^  the  greatest  possible  care,  upon  well-tested 

most  approved  principles,  and  so  as  to  be  worn  i  principles.   To  persons  following  the  sea,  or  going 

for  montlis  without  becoming  offensive  or  losing    ^^^^  voyages,  this  preparation  possesses  quiUiUes 

their  perfect  surface.         ^  |  far  gurpassing  any  other— neat  and  portable  In 

Phyiician^S  Prescription  Scales,  form,  speedy  and  efhcadous  in  its  operation,  sun- 

Of  the  best  qualltv  and  accurate.    We  import  i  ^essful  both  In  the  earilest  and  worst  stages  of 

several  kinds  Worn  $1  to  $S.50  each.  J^e  severest  disease,  while  the  usual  nauseous 

^  taste  and  unpleasant  odor  of  Copaiba  are  wholly 

Pocket  Cases  for  Medicines,  |  avoldel  in  this  preparation. 

Containing  17  bottles,  of  8  sizes,  well  corked,  and       Prepared  and  sold,  wholesale  and  retail,  by 

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THE 

JOURNAL  OF  MATERIA  MEDICA 

AND 

PHARMACEUTIC   FORMULARY. 


lew]  MABCH,  1869.  [Seriaik 

Remarks  on  some  of  the  Pharmaceutic  Preparations  em- 
Xdoyed  in  Medicine,  especially  Solid  and  Fluid  Extracts. 

BY  CHARLES  A.  LEE,  M.D. 

The  uncertainty  of  medicine  has  been  vastly  increased  in  mod- 
em times  by  the  varying  qualities  or  even  inert  nature  of  the 
medicines  administered.  Medical  art  has,  in  innumerable  instan- 
ces, bieen  held  responsible  for  results  of  which  it  was  wholly  inno- 
cent, and  for  failures  entirely  xmexpected.  To  this  cause  much  of 
the  scepticism,  both  in  and  out  of  the  profession,  regarding  the 
curative  properties  of  drugs,  is  owing;  so  that  many  of  the  edu- 
cated and  intelligent  class  have  come  to  believe  that  there  is  no 
art  and  science  of  medicine — ^that  it  is  fiir  preferable  to  trust  to 
nature  or  homeopathy  than  to  rational  medicine  for  a  cure.  It  has 
been  laid  down  as  a  self-evident  proposition,  as  it  is,  that  imder 
similar  circumstances  the  same  medicines  will  produce  similar  ef- 
fects; but  as  this  can  never  be  expected,  so  infinitely  varying  are 
the  habits,  constitutions,  temperaments,  &c.,  of  individuals,  it  is 
not  to  be  supposed  that  medicine  can  ever  arrive  at  that  certainty 
which  we  meet  with  in  some  of  the  other  sciences.  Still,  much 
wiU  be  accomplished  towards  this  end  if  we  can  only  obtain  med- 
icines of  uniform  strength  and  purity.  Is  this  possible  at  the 
present  time?  Are  the  drugs  now  attainable  in  our  market,  either 
in  their  crude  state  or  as  products  of  the  pharmaceutic  art,  gener- 
ally reliable  in  the  treatment  of  disease?  Is  sufficient  attention 
paid  to  the  circumstances  which  are  likely  to  cause  a  deterioration 
in  their  quality,  or  to  the  various  processes  by  which  their  active 
principles  are  separated  for  the  use  of  the  practitioner? 


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66  "  Let  on  Pharmojceuiic  Preparations. 

When  we  consider  the  present  relaxation  in  the  enforcement  of 
our  drug-inspection  laws  in  the  port  of  New  York — ^the  conse- 
quent extensive  importation  of  spurious  and  sophisticated  drugs — 
their  frequent  adulteration  in  the  home  market — ^the  frauds  of  the 
drug  grinders,  and  the  wholesale  and  retail  dealers,  as  well  as  the 
imperfect  and  unscientific  means  of  preparation  adopted  by  many 
manu&cturers,  we  shall  no  longer  wonder  that  medicine  is  regarded 
as  a  very  uncertain  science,  and  still  more  uncertain  in  its  practi- 
cal applications  for  the  relief  of  the  sick. 

And  yet  the  case  is  not  hopeless,  nor  is  the  physician  unable  to 
obtain  reliable  medicines  if  he  will  \ise  the  necessary  care  and  is 
willing  to  pay  the  necessary  expense.  Within  a  few  years  past, 
schools  of  pharmacy,  requiring  a  four  years  apprenticeship  to 
learn  the  details  of  the  business,  have  been  established  in  our 
principal  cities,  and  they  annually  send  out  graduates  properly 
instructed  and  experienced  in  every  thing  relating  to  the  proper 
selection  and  preparation  of  drugs,  as  well  as  dispensing  them  to 
the  sick;  so  that  city  practitioners  can,  if  they  choose,  obtain  pure 
medicines  and  have  them  scientifically  dispensed,  and  so,  also, 
there  are  wholesale  dealers,  who  have  a  laudable  pride  in  sustain- 
ing the  credit  of  their  establishments,  who  use  every  precaution 
to  keep  none  but  the  purest  drugs.  The  names  of  such  houses 
can  easily  be  obtained  if  the  country  practitioner  chooses,  and  he 
can,  in  nearly  every  instance,  rely  with  confidence  on  the  gen- 
uineness of  the  articles  he  procures  fix)m  them.  Such  dealers 
know  of  but  one  quality  of  drugs,  and  that  is  the  best,  while  oth- 
ers can  supply  all  kinds,  to  suit  the  pockets  and  the  wishes  of  cus- 
tomers. It  is  evident  that  much  practical  experience  is  necessary 
to  convert  pure  drugs  into  safe  and  efficient  medicines — ^that  re- 
quisite skill  in  this  department  demands  great  study,  extensive 
knowledge,  and  the  utmost  care;  while  it  is  a  matter  of  common 
observation  that  the  best  drugs  lose  their  medicinal  virtues  by  un- 
skilful preparation,  and  that  "compounds  of  safe  and  efficient 
powers  may  become  poisonous  and  changed  in  character  by  care- 
less manipulation  and  ignorance." 

Again,  it  is  a  matter  of  congratulation  to  the  profession  that  es- 
tablishments have  been  founded  for  the  manufacture  of  solid  and 
fluid  extracts,  in  which  greatly  improved  processes  and  apparatus 
have  been  introduced,  such  as  the  steam  bath  and  vacuimi  pan,  in 


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Lee  on  PharmaceiUic  Preparations.  67 

which,  by  removiBg  atmospheric  pressure,  the  boiling  point  is 
greatly  lowered  and  evaporation  much  fecilitated,  thus  entirely 
guarding  against  those  spontaneous  changes  in  vegetable  organic 
principles,  which  are  unavoidable  when  exposed  to  the  influence 
of  the  air.  The  narcotic  inspissated  juices  or  clarified  extracts 
thus  prepared,  as  conium,  hyoscyamus,  stramonium  and  beUadon- 
oa,  we  have  found  wholly  reliable  in  the  doses  recommended. 
The  green  coloring  principle  and  the  inert  and  insoluble  vegetable 
albumen  beiug  separated,  they  possess  the  odor  of  the  imdried 
plant — ^are  far  stronger  than  those  prepared  according  to  the  Uni- 
ted States  Pharmacopoeia,  and  of  course  are  to  be  administered  in 
doses  smaller  than  those  recommended  by  the  standard  authorities. 
In  the  early  part  of  our  practice,  nothing  was  more  common  than 
to  meet  with  disappointment  in  regard  to  the  effects  of  these  nar- 
cotic extracts.  Ten  and  even  twenty  grains,  for  example,  of  ex- 
tract of  conium  were  given  without  the  slightest  fear  of  any  dan- 
gerous effect,  and  we  have  known  a  physician  to  take  ninety 
grains  of  the  same  in  the  course  of  a  few  hours  without  experi- 
encing the  slightest  narcotism.  The  same  wiU  hold  true  as  re- 
gards the  other  narcotic  extracts,  whether  prepared  by  the  Sha- 
kers or  by  some  private  manufacturer.  Now,  however,  great 
caution,  if  is  well  known,  is  necessary  in  the  use  of  these  prepar- 
ations— a  single  grain  of  extract  of  belladonna  often  causing  tem- 
porary amaurosis,  and  two  or  three  grains  of  the  other  extracts 
producing  narcotism.  The  difference  is  chiefly  accounted  for  by 
the  fact  that  formerly  evaporation  was  performed  over  a  naked 
fire,  when  the  heat  was  amply  sufficient  to  decompose  the  active 
principles.  I  have  never  known  insp.  ext.  of  belladonna  prepared  in 
vacuo,  applied  around  the  eye  in  the  form  of  a  paste  fail  to  dilate  the 
pupil,  which  may  be  regarded  as  a  positive  test  as  to  its  efficacy ;  nor 
extract  of  coniiun  thus  prepared,  fail  to  yield  its  characteristic 
odor  when  softened  into  a  paste  with  water  and  a  solu- 
tion of  potash  added ;  proving,  beyond  all  question,  the  presence 
oicontaj  its  active  principle.  The  same  remarks  are  applicable  to 
hydro-alcoholic  and  alcoholic  extracts  of  the  same  plants.  By 
submitting  the  dried  leaves  to  the  action  of  diluted  alcohol,  a  grea^ 
proportion  of  the  albuminous  and  extractive  matters  are  left  be- 
hind, while  by  an  evaporation  in  vacuo  the  active  principles  are 
obtained  in  a  still  more  concentrated  form,  than  when  the  expressed 


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68  Lee  on  Pharmaceutic  Preparations. 

juice,  containing  a  portion  of  the  cellular  structure,  is  employed 
as  in  the  former  class.  These  extracts  also  possess  the  genuine 
odor  of  the  plant,  and  are  efficient  in  even  less  doses  than  the  for- 
mer, so  that  one-half  a  grain  of  the  extract  of  aconite,  belladonna, 
or  stramonium,  will  generally  produce  decided  eflFects.  Similar  pre- 
parations of  nux  vomica  and  ignatia  bean  have  never  failed 
me  in  a  single  instance.    They  are  both  most  invaluable  agents 

•  in  the  hands  of  an  experienced  practitioner.  So,  also,  cathartic 
solid  extracts,  as  of  jalap,  rhubarb,  hellebore,  butternut,  podo- 
phyllum, and  compound  colocynth  mass,  have  proved  all  that 
could  be  wished,  or  that  was  expected  of  them.  If  any  fault  can 
be  found  with  them,  it  is  from  their  too  great,  rather  than  their 
too  little  activity.  But  this  can  be  easily  obviated  by  combination, 
as  with  hyoscyamus,  which  prevents  griping  by  lessening  their 
irritant  and  drastic  properties.  Thus,  your  compound  cathartic 
pill  would,  doubtless,  be  improved  by  diminishing  the  amount  of 
podophyllin  one-half,  or  lessening  the  size  of  the  pUl;  as  it  is  it 
often  acts  powerfully  as  a  hydragogue,  especially  in  very  suscep- 

*  tible  subjects.  The  latter,  in  doses  half  as  large  as  the  extract  of 
jalap,  will  produce  equal  effects. 

No  one,  as  I  have  ever  heard,  has  called  in  question  the  efficiency 
of  recent  bitter  extracts,  as  of  gentian,  qiiassia,  Colombo,  chamo- 
mile, eupatorium,  horehound,  &c.,  and  the  same  is  true  of  the 
astringent  extracts,  as  geranium,  blackberry,  white  oak,  logwood, 
rhatany,  &c.,  nor  is  there  any  reason  to  suppose  that  other 
solid  extracts  are  less  reliable  than  those  above  named. 

Fluid  extracts,  which  were  imnoticed  in  the  United  States  Phar- 
macopoeia Tmtil  the  edition  of  1850,  were  then  directed  to  be  pre- 
pared by  maceration  and  percolation,  evaporating  over  a 
sand  bath.  They  are  unnoticed  in  British  and  other  European 
pharmacopoeias  of  the  most  recent  date,  and  yet  they  possess  ma- 
ny important  advantages  over  the  other  preparations,  especially 
when  carefully  prepared,  as  they  now  are  in  all  first  rate  estab- 
lishments, by  the  improved  steam  apparatus,  in  vacuo.  They 
consist  of  concentrated  syrups,  representing  an  equal  quantity  or 
half  an  equal  quantity  of  the  drug  from  which  they  are  obtained, 
as  the  fluid  extracts  of  senna,  rhubarb,  spigelia,  and  sarsapariUa, 
having  the  advantage  of  smallness  of  bulk,  facility  of  administra- 


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Lee  071  Pharmaceutic  Preparations.  69 

tion,  miacibility  with  other  fluids,  and  of  not  easily  undergoing 
change  by  keeping,  temperature,  &c. 

In  a  second  class,  officinal  alcohol  only  is  employed  as  a  sol- 
vent, as  the  fluid  extract  of  valerian,  one  dram  of  which  exceeds 
in  strength  double  the  quantity  of  the  tincture,  or  thirty  grains  of 
Uie  powdered  root,  while  in  a  third  class  oleo-resins  are  held  in  so- 
lution by  ether,  as  cubebs,  black  pepper,  capsicum,  male  fern,  car- 
damom, Canada  snake  root,  ergot,  &c.,  a  few  drops  of  each  of 
which  constitute  a  dose,  and  given  in  some  saccharine  or  mucil- 
aginous solution,  or  added  to  other  ingredients,  in  pill  mass.  The 
fluid  extract  of  cubebs  may  be  administered  in  gelatine  capsules, 
whUe  that  of  black  pepper  forms  an  excellent  adjunct  to  quinine 
in  form  of  pill.  In  a  large  majority  of  these  preparations,  alco- 
hol and  water,  or  proof  spirit,  is  the  menstruimi  employed,  the 
alcohol  being  afterwards  separated  by  distillation,  except  a  suffi- 
cient quantity  for  due  preservation.  In  looking  over  your  long 
list  of  preparations,  I  find  you  now  prepare  no  less  than  fifty-nine 
solid  extracts,  forty-four  resinoids  and  alkaloids,  and  one  hundred  • 
and  fifVy  fluid  extracts.  Of  these,  twenty-three  of  the  solid  ex- 
tracts are  from  plants  of  indigenous  growth,  also  forty-one  of  the 
resinoids  and  alkaloids,  and  eighty  of  the  fluid  extracts ;  for  the 
introduction  of  a  majority  of  which,  we  are  indebted  to  your 
establishment. 

Attempts  have  recently  been  made,  however,  to  destroy  the 
confidence  of  practitioners  in  the  whole  class  of  fluid  extracts,  and 
in  a  paper  read  before  the  New  York  Academy  of  Medicine  a  few 
months  since,  the  writer  in  conclusion  stated,  that  "  they  possess 
no  positive  value."  His  objections,  which  apply  to  all  extracts 
however  made,  are,  "  that  they  are  not,  and  cannot  be  uniform 
in  strength,  because  the  plants  from  which  they  are  taken  possess 
different  amoimts  of  therapeutic  properties ;  that  they  are  liable 
equally  with  the  plant  from  which  they  are  compounded,  to  de- 
structive alterations ;  that  each  new  parcel  or  preparation  must 
be  tested  separately  before  its  therapeutic  value  can  be  known." 
So  that  Prof.  Wood's  definition  of  fluid  extracts,  viz. :  "  that  they 
are  highly  concentrated  solutions  of  the  active  constituents  of 
medicines,  or  the  active  constituents  themselves  extracted  in  the 
fluid  state,"  will  not,  he  thinks,  hold  true.  The  writer  also  states 
that  he  experimented,  to  what  extent  we  are  not  informed,  with 


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70  Lee  071  Pharmaceutic  Preparations, 

the  fluid  extracts  of  veratrum,  jaJap,  Indian  hemp,  ergot,  rhubarb, 
ipecac  and  cinchona,  and  found  them  of  less  strength  than  repre- 
sented. The  fluid  extract  of  ergot  is  condemned,  because  it  would 
not  produce  uterine'  pains  in  a  non-pregnant  female  I  Now,  as  a 
simple  act  of  justice  the  name  of  the  manufacturer  of  the  samples 
experimented  with,  should  have  been  stated.  But  as  all  such 
preparations  are  sweepingly  condemned,  perhaps,  it  was  not 
deemed  necessary;  all  solid  extracts,  also,  being. included  as 
equally  untrustworthy.  We  submit  that  the  conclusion  of  the 
writer  is  too  broad  for  his  premises,  nor  is  it  sustained  by  the  ex- 
perience of  the  profession  generally.  It  is  absurd  and  incredible 
to  suppose  that  fluid  and  solid  extracts  should  have  come  into 
such  general  use  and  be  so  highly  esteemed,  if  they  did  not  pos- 
sess active  medicinal  properties.  No  fact  has  been  more  frequent- 
ly demonstrated  in  our  own  experience  than  this,  nor  has  pro- 
fessionjd  opinion  ever  been  more  uniform  in  regard  to  any  matter 
of  common  interest  than  this.  Had  the  writer  stated  that  these 
preparations  are  not  always  of  uniform  strength,  and  that  they 
sometimes,  from  accidental  circumstances,  are  liable  to  deterioration, 
or  "  destructive  alterations,"  he  would  only  have  affirmed  what  is 
welj  known  to  every  practitioner ;  as  it  is,  his  exaggerations  have 
nullified  his  statements,  and  made  it  unecessary  to  undertake 
their  serious  refutation.  It  is  true,  that  "  when  a  plant  dies  there 
is  a  retrogressive  chemical  change,  which  efiFects  the  decomposition 
of  substances  already  formed,"  but  the  writer  ought  to  know,  that 
in  fluid  extracts  especially,  all  chemical  action  is  effectually  pre- 
vented by  the  alcohol,  or  other  substances  added  for  this  pur- 
pose. (All  such  preparations  as  well  as  solid  extracts  should  be 
kept  air  tight,  to  prevent  the  escape  of  their  volatile  portions, 
and  the  influence  of  atmospheric  changes.  Very  many  solid  ex- 
tracts will  absorb  moisture  rapidly  from  the  atmosphere,  and 
should  be  kept  in  cool,  dry  places.)  We  might  refer  to  many  other 
statements  wholly  unsustained  by  proof.  Thus  it  is  remarked 
that  "  the  dandelion  root,  when  cultivated  in  our  gardens  almost 
ceases  to  produce  an  active  principle,  but  is  largely  increased  in 
starch,  sugar,  and  gummy  matters."  Now,  no  fact  is  better 
known  to  manufacturers  than  that  this  plant  when  cultivated  is 
much  better  than  the  wild,  and  the  same  is  true  of  burdock,  and 
yellow  dock,  both  of  which  yield  much  stronger  preparations,  when 


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Lee  on  Pharmaceutic  Preparations,  71 

cultivated,  than  when  growing  wild ;  we  are  aware  that  climate, 
temperature,  soil  and  moisture  make  great  chaoges  in  the  con- 
stituents of  all  vegetables ;  but  then  their  influences  are  by  no 
means  disregarded  by  the  cultivators  of  medicinal  plants ;  we 
have  never  known  any  of  them  attempt  to  obtain  an  extract 
of  cannabis  indica,  ftx)m  the  Indian  hemp  of  our  own  country. 
Cultivators  of  medicinal  plants,  state  that  the  variations  of  climate, 
and  character  of  seasons,  whether  hot  or  cold,  moist  or  dry,  have  a 
decided  influence  upon  the  development  of  the  active  princi- 
ples of  plants.  This  is  often  observed  in  conium  of  sponta- 
neous growth — ^a  dry  season  being  favorable  to  a  develop- 
ment of  its  active  principle  conia;  while  a  moist  season 
gives  a  succulent  growth ;  of  course  affecting  the  character,  espec- 
ially of  the  inspissated  extract  made  from  the  green  plant,  the  dif- 
ference not  being  so  great  with  the  dried  with  the  same  mens- 
truum. Prof.  Christison,  the  highest  authority,^is  of  opinion  that 
the  influence  of  cultivation  upon  medicinal  plants  is  altogether 
over  rated,  and  he  remarks  that  from  "experiments  made  some 
years  ago  at  the  Eoyal  Infirmary,  in  Edinburgh,  the  inferiority  of 
cultivated  plants,  if  it  exists  at  all,  seems  not  appreciable  in  practice," 
and  in  regard  to  the  permanence  of  solid  extracts,  he  observes  "  that 
the  distrust  entertained  of  this  particular  form  rather  depends  on  the 
negligence  or  ignorance  with  which  it  is  usually  prepared,  than 
attaches  absolutely  to  the  form  itself." — {Dispensatory^  p,  12.) 

Speaking  also  of  the  extracts  prepared  by  steam,  in  vacuo,  at  a 
low  temperature,  he  says  "  that  they  keep  remarkably  well,"  that 
he  has  specimens  in  his  possession  (1848)  made  in  1820,  "  which 
are  still  in  excellent  preservation."  Of  the  extracts  thus  prepared, 
he  adds,  "they  are  of  a  paler  color  and  finer  odor  than  those  ob- 
tained in  the  ordinary  manner — ^their  aroma  is  purer  and  stronger 
— ^they  are  more  soluble — and  undoubtedly  their  energy  is  greater," 
— {Loc,  Oil.  p.  14,)  and  this,  be  it  remarked,  refers  to  the  solid 
and  not  fluid  extracts,  which  latter,  are  far  less  liable  to  undergo 
change  than  the  former.  It  is  remarked  by  Prof.  A.  T.  Thom- 
son, that  "few  plants  which  are  medicinal  admit  of  cidtivation" — 
(Mat  Msdica,  p.  65,)  and  yet  it  is  now  well  ascertained  to  have  no 
foundation  in  trutli.  It  is  not  borne  out  by  the  experience  of 
cultivators  and  manufacturers  in  this  country,  nor  at  the  extensive 
establishment  at  Mitcham,  in  England.  Indeed,  I  am  well  assured 


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72  Iris  Versicolor. 

that  the  contrary  is  the  case,  in  regard  to  a  large  majority,  if  not  all 
medicinal  plants.  It  is  so,  especially  with  the  narcotic  class,  and 
those  that  yield  volatile  oils.  By  an  analysis  of  a  plant  we  dis- 
cover its  organic  constituents,  and  by  analyzing  the  soil  we  find 
the  elements  necessary  to  be  introduced,  in  order  for  a  full  de- 
velopment of  the  plant  This  principle  is  now  well  understood 
and  constantly  acted  on  in  practical  agriculture,  gardening,  horti- 
culture, &a  It  has,  also,  been  successfully  carried  out  in  the 
cultivation  of  medicinal  plants ;  as  in  using  large  quantities  of  the 
nitrates  of  postaasa  and  soda  as  well  as  guano,  which  abounds  in 
nitrates,  in  raising  narcotics ;  hence,  perhaps,  the  complaints  we  so 
often  hear  of  the  too  greatstrength  of  recent  extracts  of  hyoscyamus, 
belladonna,  conium,  stramonimn,  &c.,  as  compared  with  the  foreign 
preparations  of  the  same  articles. 

This  whole  subject,  however,  of  the  influence  of  climate,  culti- 
vatioD,  soO,  manures,  &c.,  on  the  development  of  medicinal  plants 
and  their  active  principles,  requires  further  careful  observation 
and  experiments,  and  the  medical  profession  naturally  look  to  the 
cultivators  of  such  plants,  for  further  light  upon  the  matter. 


Iris   Versicolor. 

{Blue  Flag) 

Blue  flag  is  foimd  in  most  parts  of  the  United  States,  in  mead- 
ows, swamps,  or  wet  situations.  It  blossoms  in  June ;  has  large 
blue  flowers  which  are  very  conspicuous,  and  are  familiar  to  most  of 
our  readers ;  they  afford  a  fine  blue  infusion,  which  serves  as  a  test 
for  acids  and 'alkalies. 

The  Iris  tribe  of  plants  is  a  very  extensive  one,  and  many 
species  are  used  in  medicine.  In  Europe,  the  /.  FceOdessiTnaj 
L  Fhreniina,  I.  Germamca,  I,  Pseudo-acorus,  and  /.  Tuherosa^  have, 
at  various  times  been  in  use  in  practice.  The  Jlorentina  is  the  only 
one  officinal  in  this  country,  although  the  pseudo-acorus  is  some- 
times used  here.  Of  the  numerous  American  species  that  most 
used  is  the  versicolor. 

The  roots  of  the  whole  family  so  far  as  examined  are  more  or 
less  acrid,  and  possessed  of  cathartic  and  emetic  properties.  The 
recent  root  of  the  versicolor  has  a  nauseous,  acrid  taste,  which  is 


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Iris  Versicolor.  78 

imparted  partially  to  water  and  perfectly  to  alcohol ;  the  expressed 
juice  ia  very  acrid,  and  is  often  used  as  a  local  application.  The 
root  is  the  medicinal  portion,  and  its  medicinal  activity  depends 
upon  the  period  of  its  collection,  which  should  be  at  the  time  its 
leaves  begin  to  decay;  earlier  than  this  period,  and  particularly 
in  the  spring,  or  while  in  flower  its  powers  are  comparatively 
feeble. 

It  possesses  alterative,  cathartic,  and  diuretic  properties,  and  is 
highly  recommended  by  some  medical  writers,  while  others  reject 
it  as  being  unsafe  and  dangerous.  It  is  probable  that  it  has  at 
times  been  administered  in  over  doses,  and  the  prejudice  alluded 
to  has  arisen  fix)m  this  cause ;  for  the  same  reason  we  should  re- 
ject very  many  valuable  articles  of  the  materia  medica.  Dr. 
Bigelow  states  that  he  found  it  very  efficacious  as  a  purgative, 
but  apt  to  produce  nausea  and  prostration  of  strength.  Df.  An- 
drews, of  Michigan,  uses  it  as  a  cathartic  frequently,  and  when 
combined  with  cayenne  pepper,  or  ginger,  not  less  easy  and  ef- 
fectual in  its  operation  than  the  ordinary,  more  active  cathartics, 
and  preferable  on  account  of  its  less  disagreeable  taste.  The  ex- 
perience of  others  concur  in  the  importance  of  combining  stimu- 
lants, as  xanthoxylin,  camphor,  or  oil  of  peppermint,  annis  or 
fennel,  to  overcome  all  griping  tendency.  As  a  cathartic  it  is 
said  to  act  on  all  parts  of  the  canal,  but  more  particularly  on  the 
upper  portion.  It  acts  as  a  stimulant  to  the  liver  and  pancreas. 
When  given  either  alone  or  in  combination,  in  quantities  insuf- 
ficient to  produce  catharsis  it  is  a  valuable  alterative,  exhibiting 
well  marked  influence  over  the  entire  glandular  system. 

It  increases  the  salivary  flow,  and  is  capable  of  producing  well 
marked  ptyalism,  particularly  if  combined  with  podophyllum  and 
xanthoxylum;  which  can  be  distinguished  from  that  produced 
by  mercury  by  the  abscense  of  its  peculiar  fetor.  Dr.  King  states 
that  "equal  parts  of  blue  flag,  podophyllum,  and  prickly  ash 
bark,  given  in  doses  of  ten  grains  every  two  hours,  to  fall  short  of 
catharsis,  will  act  as  a  powerful  alterative,  frequently  causing 
copious  salivation  without  injury  to  the  teeth  or  gums." 

In  syphilis,  either  primary  or  secondary,  it  is  highly  recom- 
mended, "  In  eradicating  the  syphilitic  virus  and  correcting  the 
diathesis  of  the  system,"  it  is  claimed  to  be  not  only  powerful  but 
positive  and  certain.     It  may  be  employed  alone  or  in  combination 


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74  Iris  Versicolor. 

with  other  alteratives,  as  podohyllmn,  phytolacca,  stillingia,  cimi- 
ciftiga,  turkey  corn,  conium,  or  asclepias  incamata. 

In  scrofula,  particularly  those  cases  accompanied  by  hepatic 
derangement,  given  in  small  doses  alone  as  an  alterative,  as  well 
as  in  combination  with  other  alteratives,  is  claimed  to  have  few 
superiors.  Also  in  rheumatism,  glandular  swellings,  and  indura- 
tions, eruptions  of  the  skin,  visceral  engorgements  and  torpor,  as 
of  the  liver  and  spleen. 

Dr.  McBride  prescribed  it  with  great  success  in  dropsy,  com- 
bining it  with  com  snake  root,  eryngium  yuccefolium^  in  proportion  of 
blue  flag  two  ounces ;  button  snake  root  two  drams.  Mention  is 
also  made  of  its  use  in  a  case  of  hydrothorax,  and  anasarca ;  in 
some  cases  it  may  be  combined  with  an  equal  quantity  of  the 
saturated  tincture  of  euphorbia  ipecacuanha;  also  with  the  apory- 
nura  cannahinum^  which  is  highly  recommended  in  dropsy.  A 
combination  of  iridin,  three  grains ;  leptandrin,  six  grains ;  bi- 
tartrate  potassa,  two  grains,  has  been  suggested  as  a  valuable  hy- 
drogogue  cathartic. 

The  medicinal  properties  of  blue  flag  are  due  to  an  oil  or  oleo 
resin  which  possesses,  in  a  high  degree,  the  taste  and  smell  of  the 
root,  and  to  which  has  been  given  the  name  of  irisin  or  iridin. 
When  mixed  with  an  equal  portion  of  sugar  of  milk  it  forms  a 
powder  convenient  for  administration.  Tlie  preparations  of  blue 
flag  are  the  alcoholic  pilular  extract,  fluid  extract,  and  the  oko 
resin  or  iridin.  We  have  often  met  with  this  preparation  which  did 
not  possess  its  proper  characteristics,  and  an  examination  satisfied  us 
that  it  contained  a  very  large  proportion  of  magnesia,  and  that 
many  of  the  so-called  concentrated  preparations  contain  a  large 
admixture  of  either  the  powdered  substance,  salt  or  magnesia ;  or 
that  they  may  be  simply  a  dried,  aqueous  or  alcoholic  extract 
powdered.  It  is  extremely  difficult  to  always  detect  this,  par- 
ticularly so  for  the  inexperienced — the  tests,  however,  are  simple. 

Treat  the  iridin  with  pure  hot  alcohol ;  evaporate  the  soluble 
part  to  the  consistence  of  a  syrup ;  to  this  add  water,  which  will 
precipitate  the  oleo-resin^  which  when  dried  and  weighed  will  give 
the  quantity  of  true  iridin.  Treat  the  insoluble  part  by  water, 
which  will  dissolve  any  sugar  of  milk  or  salt  it  may  contain ;  di- 
vide this  solution  to  one  portion ;  add  nitrate  of  silver ;  if  it  gives 
a  white  precipitate,  soluble  in  ammonia,  it  is  salt    Evaporate  the 


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Oompound  JSxtract  of  Oohcynih,  75 

other  to  dryness ;  if  a  white  residium  having  a  saccharine  taste,  it 
is  sugar  of  milk.  If  the  water  leave  an  insoluble  part,  it  is  root 
or  magnesia,  or  carbonate  of  magnesia.  Treat  the  insoluble  part 
by  muriatic  acid ;  if  xmdissolved  it  will  be  found  to  be  root  or 
some  vegetable  substance ;  if  dissolved  it  is  magnesia,  or  carbon- 
ate of  magnesia.  Into  this  solution  pour  some  phmphate  of  soda 
and  ammonia  ;  if  a  white  precipitate,  it  is  magnesia ;  effervescence 
when  the  acid  is  added  indicates  carbonate  of  magnesia. 

If  an  alcoholic  extract  powdered,  it  should  be  all  soluble  in  alco- 
hol ;  if  an  hydro-alcoholic  extract,  a  part  only  should  be  soluble 
in  alcohol.  The  quantity  of  iridin  can  be  ascertained  by  the  first 
process  stated ;  the  insoluble  part  treated  by  water  will  dissolve 
in  it,  and  will  be  found  to  contain  the  gum,  sugar,  coloring 
matter,  &c.  If  an  aqueous  extract  it  will  be  soluble  in  water  and 
not  in  alcohol.  Any  admixture  should  be  stated  upon  the  bottle 
of  a  piire  preparation ,  an  amount  equal  to  one-half  of  the  quantity 
stated  should  be  soluble  in  hot  alcohol. 

The  alterative  dose  of  Iridin  is  one  half  to  two  grains.  Cathar- 
tic from  two  to  five  grains. 


Compound  Extract  of  Colocynth,  U.  S.  P. 

BY  AN  APOTHECARY. 

The  consumption  of  this  article  is  very  large  throughout  the 
United  States,  and  no  one  article  of  equal  importance  is  subject 
to  similar  adidteration.  It  is  difficult  to  find  two  articles  of  the 
same  strength  in  market,  showing  that  the  formulae  of  the  U.  S.  P. 
is  not  observed  in  its  manufacture.  If,  indeed,  some  do  observe 
the  proportions,  they  do  not  its  requirements ;  as  that  formulae  in 
all  cases  requires  the  very  best  material  to  be  used.  The  scam- 
mony  should  contain  the  largest  per  cent,  of  resin  procurable  in 
market  The  aloes  shoidd  be  the  socotrine — colocynth,  exhausted 
of  its  virtues  by  diluted  alcohol.  In  the  article  upon  scammony 
and  its  adulterations  in  your  Journal  of  April  and  May,  you  gave 
a  formula  for  making  the  commercial  scammony,  which  explains 
one  cause  of  the  inertness  and  cheapness  of  much  offered  in  mar- 
ket It  is  not  unfrequently  the  case  to  have  compound  ext  colo- 
cynth oflFered  at  a  price  less  per  pound,  than  the  scammony  it 


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76  Compound  Extract  of  Oohcynth. 

should  contain  would  cost;  and  yet  it  is  labeled  U.  S.  P.,  indi- 
cating that  all  the  officinal  formula  demands  has  been  observed  in 
its  preparation. 

I  have,  since  my  attention  has  been  drawn  to  this  adulteration 
ascertained  that  it  is  frequently  made  by  using  aloes,  known  as 
Barbadoes,  or  "horse  "  aloes — ^the  cheapest  in  market  and  procured 
at  ten  cents  per  pound,  while  socotrine  aloes  costs  from  forty  to 
fifty  cents.  Scammony  of  the  commercial  variety,  procurable 
at  $2  per  pound,  while  virgin  scammony  costs  $7.50  to  $8.00  per 
pound.  Colocynth,  being  seeds  and  pulp  groimd  and  pow- 
dered together;  giving,  in  this  form,  greater  bulk  or  yield 
of  extract  Powdered  cardamom,  of  cheap  quality  and  badly 
mixed — the  soap  being  the  only  article  which  enters  the  compound 
of  officinal  quality,  that  being  too  cheap  to  tempt  the  cupidity  of 
the  compounder. 

These  articles  are  well  mixed  together  with  a  little  sweet  oil, 
to  give  a  good  external  appearance  and  make  the  preparation 
saleable.  When  exposed  for  a  time  in  a  jar  with  a  loose  cover,  it 
becomes  dry  and  mouldy,  owing  to  the  large  quantity  of  powdered 
colocynth  present  in  it ;  this  I  have  never  seen  occur  in  a  well 
"  dried"  compound,  prepared  by  exhausting  the  colocynth  with  di- 
luted alcohol,  and  adding  it  in  the  form  of  an  extract  The 
formula  of  the  U.  S.  P.  is  as  follows : — 

'•  Take  of  Colocynth,  deprived  of  seeds  and  sliced,        -  Six  Ounces. 

Aloes  in  powder, Twelve  Ounces. 

Scammony  in  powder, Four  ** 

Cardamon  seed  in  powder, One  " 

Soap,  Three  '• 

Diluted  alcohol, One  Gallon. 

Macerate  the  colocynth  in  the  diluted  alcohol  for  four  days ; 
express  and  filter  the  liquor,  and  add.  to  it  the  aloes,  scammony 
and  soap ;  then  evaporate  to  the  proper  consistence,  and  near  the 
end  of  the  process,  mix  the  cardamon  with  the  other  ingredients." 
Prepared  in  large  quantities  after  the  above  formula  of  good  ma- 
terials I  should  estimate  the  cost  at  nearly  $2  per  pound,  de- 
pending upon  the  market  prices  of  the  materials,  and  will  afford 
to  large  manufacturers  only  a  small  profit  at  the  price  a  prime  article 
'  is  now  sold  at. 

Dr.  Squibb  estimates  that  the  officinal  article  which  he  prepared 
at  the  U.  S.  Naval  Laboratory,  in  a  dry  powdered  state,  to  cost 


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(Jompound  Extract  of  Cohcynih,  77 

much  more ;  the  yield  probably  being  very  much  less  than  when 
left  of  a  pilular  consistence.  He  says :  "  when  made  from  good 
Bonarr  gourd  aloes  and  scanmiony,  containing  from  sixty  to  sixty- 
seven  per  cent  of  resin,  this  preparation  costs  about  $3  per  poxmd, 
exclusive  of  labor  and  skill  of  manufecturing,  or  say  $3  1-2  as  the 
lowest  entire  nett  cost  of  manufacture  on  a  scale  of  twenty-five 
pounds — and  yet  it  is  confidently  believed  that  some  hundreds  of 
pounds  have  been  supplied  to  the  New  York  market  during  the 
last^year,  at  prices  varying  from  seventy -five  cents  to  one  dollar 
largely,  as  the  price  i#  lower."  He  suggests  in  view  of  the  vary- 
ing per  centage  of  resin  in  the  article  sold  as  -virgin  scammony, 
and  the  great  adidteration  of  scammony,  to  substitute  the  rmn, 
which  would  make  the  preparation  more  uniform,  provided  the 
prescribed  quantity  was  always  used. 

Mr.  Banvart  proposes  to  substitute  podophyllin  for  the 
scammony,  using  only  one  half  the  quantity  of  scanmiony,  and 
that  while  the  cost  of  the  compound  would  remain  unchanged,  its 
strength  would  be  more  xmiform,  inasmuch  as  podophyllin  is 
readily  procurable,  of  a  pure  quality,  and  proposes  its  substitution 
for  extract  jalap  in  the  U.  S.  P.  compound  cathartic  pill,  using 
instead  of  the  dram  of  extract  of  jalap,  forty-five  grains  of  podo- 
phyllin. 

Dr.  Stabler  in  an  article  upon  podophyllin,  published  in  the 
transactions  of  the  Pharmaceutical  Association,  says: — 

"  The  price  of  scammony,  together  with  the  fact  that  it  is  near- 
ly always  adulterated — ^indeed  the  pure  article  is  seldom  met  with 
in  the  drug  market, — ^renders  it  very  desirable  that  we  should  find 
an  efficient  substitute :  and  if  it  can  be  obtained  from  this — one  of 
our  own  indigenous  plants — at  a  comparatively  low  price,  and  of 
uniform  composition,  it  will  enable  us  to  dispense  with  an  article 
of  such  xmcertain  strength  as  commercial  scammony  now  is. 

Podophyllin  is  an  active  hydragogue  cathartic,  fully  equaling 
virgin  scammony  in  eflfect,  resembles  it  in  the  character  of  evacua- 
tions produced  by  it,  and  is  applicable  to  similar  diseased  states  of 
the  system,  and  can,  I  think,  be  advantageously  substituted  in  any 
of  the  preparations  of  the  PhaiTnacopoeia,  in  which  scammony 
forms  an  ingredient. 


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78  Important  Medicinal  Preparaiian  Tests. 

[From  the  New  York  Medical  JoamaL] 

Simple  Tests  for^  some  Important  Medicinal  Preparations. 

BT   KDWAKD    K.    SQUIBB,    M.     D. 

CGoncluded.) 

Spirit  of  Nitric  Ether. — Two  or  three  fluid  drains  of  good  swoet 
spirit  of  nitre  that  is  not  more  than  seven  or  eight  months  old,  and  kept  in 
the  usual  way,  contained  in  an  ordinary  test  tube,  and  plunged  into  water 
that  has  been  previously  heated  to  164°  will  boil  pretty  actively;  while  if 
freshly  made,  or  not  more  than  two  months  old,  or  if  well  preserved  from  light 
and  air,  no  matter  what  the  age,  it  will  boil  actively  when  surrounded  with 
water  at  a  temperature  of  156°.  From  the  fact  that  this  among  other  liquids 
may  be  heated  far  above  its  boiling  point  without  ebullition,  it  becomes  neces- 
sary to  drop  a  few  small  fragments  of  broken  glass  into  the  test  tube  with  the 
spirit  after  the  latter  has  been  heated  and  while  still  held  in  the  water. 
Another  precaution  necessary  in  the  application  of  this  test  is  to  discriminate 
between  the  mere  formation  of  small  gas  bubbles  around  the  fragments  of  glass 
and  a  true  ebullition ;  for,  whilst  the  former  will  occur  as  a  fine  eflfervesccnce, 
at  any  temperature  above  140°  in  any  spirit  of  nitre  that  contains  hyponitrous 
other  at  all,  true  ebullition,  in  which  the  vapor  bubbles  are  much  larger,  and 
in  which  they  roach  the  surface,  and  form  by  their  succession  a  bead  around 
the  edge  of  the  liquid,  only  occurs  at  the  boiling  points  named.  The  prepara* 
tion  should  not  bo  quite  coloress,  but  of  a  pale  straw  tint,  and  should  efifervesce 
very  slightly  upon  the  addition  of  the  carbonate  of  ammonia.  When  slightly 
acid,  carbonate  of  ammonia  is  the  best  corrcgent,  because  the  salts  formed  are 
therapeutically  similar.  The  officinal  preparation  is  a  solution  of  five  per 
cent,  of  h3rponitrous  ether  in  alcohol.  The  ether  is  the  medicinal  agent,  and 
the  alcohol  is  necessary  for  its  preservation  and  dilution  only,  the  latter,  in- 
deed, being  oflen  contra-indicated,  as  in  some  febrile  conditions,  where  the  for- 
mer would  be  useful. 

In  commerce,  however,  it  is  rare  to  find  the  proportion^of  the  hyponitrous 
ether  exceed  three  per  cent. ;  while  in  a  great  majority  of  cases  it  is  below 
two  per  cent.,  and  oflen  in  a  proportion  too  small  to  be  detected  except  by 
the  odor.  One  of  the  largest  manufacturers  in  the  United  States  makes  it  of 
five  different  qualitie.^  to  suit  the  market,  and  all  these  below  the  officinal 
standard.  Another  maker  (and  the  two  produce  a  very  large  proportion  of 
all  that  is  sold  in  the  United  States)  sells  but  one  kind,  and  that,  though  of 
varying  strength,  is  commonly  below  two  per  cent  The  al>ove  test  alone  will 
reject  all  such  specimens. 

It  thus  happens  that  the  physician  who  prescribes  this  preparation  in  view 
of  its  supposed  diuretic  and  diaphoretic  eficcts  is  disappointed,  and  obtains 
instead,  to  some  degree,  the  opposite  effect  of  so  much  alcohol.  Ilcnce  this 
preparation  also  is  gradually  falling  into  disfavor  and  disuse.  In  view  of  the 
circumstances  mentioned  in  connection  with  these  preparations,  and  the  like 
tendency  in  many  others,  it  Is  well  worth  while  for  the  profession  to  consider 


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bow  fiir  it  is  willing  to  sacrifice  its  valuable  curative  agents  to  the  cupidity  of 
manufitcturers,  Fot  detailed  examinations  of  specimens  of  sweet  spirits  of 
nitre,  Hofiman^s  anodyne,  &c.,  see  Americary  Journal  of  Pharmacy^  voL  28, 
p.  302  et  9eq.,  also  vol.  29,  p.  202  et  aeq. 

Chloboform. — When  equal  volumes  of  chloroform  and  colorless  concen- 
trated sulphuric  acid  (the  strong  commercial  oil  of  vitriol  answers  very  well) 
are  shaken  together  in  a  glass  stoppered  vial  there  should  be  no  color  imparted 
to  either  liquid,  or  but  a  faint  tinge  of  color,  after  twelve  hours'  standing 
together.  Nor  should  there  be  any  heat  developed  in  the  mixture  at  the  time 
of  shaking  it  first  Any  particles  of  dust,  or  cork,  or  other  organic  matter 
Uiat  may  have  been  in  the  vial  used,  or  in  the  chloroform,  will,  by  reaction  of 
the  acid,  produce  a  tinge  of  color  in  the  acid  or  its  separation  from  the  chlo- 
roform, corresponding  to  the  quantity  of  such  particles  present,  and  therefore 
in  the  application  of  the  test,  care  must  be  taken  to  avoid  any  such  particles ; 
for,  if  the  acid  be  only  faintly  tinged  at  the  end  of  twelve  hours*  contact  with 
the  chloroform,  it  may  be  attributable  to  some  such  collateral  accidental 
cause.  But  if,  at  the  end  of  twelve  hours  or  sooner,  the  acid  becomes  yellow 
or  brown,  or  any  darker  color,  it  should  be  unhesitatingly  rejected.  If  the 
mixture  of  acid  and  chloroform  should  become  warm  on  shaking  first,  an 
admixture  of  alcohol  would  be  indicated.  One  or  two  fluid  drams  of  chlo- 
roform spontaneously  evoporated  from  a  clean  surface  of  glass  or  porcelain, 
or  from  a  piece  of  clean  unsized  paper,  should  leave  no  odor  after  it.  Com- 
mercial chloroform  will  generally  turn  the  acid  brown  within  two  or  three 
hours,  and  will  often  render  it  black  and  tarry-looking  within  two  or  three 
days ;  whilst  with  chemically  pure  chloroform  there  is  absolutely  no  reaction 
within  many  days. 

Calomel — ^Tlie  most  common  and  injurious  contamination  of  calomel  is 
corrosive  sublimate,  whereby  its  otherwise  mild  action  is  rendered  irritant 
This  impurity  is  easily  detected  by  shaking  a  dram  or  two  of  the  calomel 
m  a  test  tube  with  distilled  water,  and,  when  the  water  shall  have  become 
dcM",  adding  a  drop  or  two  of  liquor  ammonia.  If  corrosive  sublimate  be 
present  the  ammonia  will  precipitate  it  and  render  the  water  cloudy. 

Iodide  of  Mercury  is  often  irritant  and  harsh  in  its  action  through  con-  • 
tamination  with  biniodide  from  faulty  preparation.     The  writer  has  seen  its 
use  abandoned  on  the  groimd  of  idiosyncrasy,  when  on  examination,  it  was 
easily  shown  to  contain  a  notable  proportion  of  the  irritant,  harsh,  red  iodide. 

The  red  iodide  may  be  easily  detected  in  it  by  rubbing  a  little  of  the  sus- 
pected iodide  in  a  mortar  with  strong  alcohol,  and  then  allowing  it  a  few  mo- 
ments to  dry.  The  evaporation  of  the  alcohol  leaves  the  red  iodide  along  the 
pestle  marks  as  a  border  to  the  iodide.  A  minute  contamination  becomes  very 
easily  seen  in  this  way. 

Mbrctrt  with  CHAJ.X  is  of  late  very  commonly  found  to  be  harsh  and 
irritant  in  its  action,  producing  or  increasing  intestinal  limitation  to  such  an 


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80  Important  Medicinal  Preparation  Tests, 

extent  that  many  practitioners  have  abandoned  its  use,  while  others  are  puz- 
zled by  its  effects. 

This  also  is  a  result  of  faulty  preparation,  wherein,  through  time  and  labor- 
saying  expedients,  or  bad  appliances,  a  portion  of  the  mercury  becomes  oxyd- 
dized  instead  of  being  simple  conmiinuted  or  divided.  However  well  pre- 
pared, it  almost  always  contains  a  very  small  proportion  of  suboxide,  but  this 
being  one  of  the  mild  preparations  of  mercury,  never  produces  the  bad  effects 
alluded  to.  To  detect  the  peroxide,  or  irritating  property,  a  dram  or  two 
of  the  mixture  is  treated  with  an  excess  of  acetic  acid,  and  the  solution  filtered 
off  dear.  A  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid  is  then  added  to  the  clear  solu- 
tion. If  the  preparation  be  good  this  will  produce  only  a  slight  precipitation 
of  insoluble  subchloride  from  the  small  quantity  of  acetate  of  suboxide  formed. 
If  the  preparation  be  old,  or  badly  kept,  having  had  free  access  of  light  and  air, 
a  pretty  copious  precipitate  will  be  formed  by  the  hydrochloric  acid.  The  clear 
solution  is  again  filtered  or  decanted  off  this  precipitate,  and  liquor  ammonia 
added  to  it  If  the  preparation  was  contaminated  with  any  peroxide  it  will 
now  be  precipitated  by  the  ammonia  as  white  precipitate. — See  American 
Journal  of  Pharmacy^  voL  29,  p.  388. 

Blue  Pill  is  also  liable  to  contain  oxydes  of  mercury,  and  thus  to  lose  its 
mild  character  and  operation  through  faulty  preparation.  In  this  the  oxydes 
ate  detected  in  precisely  the  same  way  as  in  the  case  of  mercury  with  chalk. 

Iodide  op  Potassium  is  occasionally  contaminated  with  carbonate  of  potassa 
to  the  extent  of  impairing  its  medicinal  effect  This  is  easily  detected  by 
adding  lime  water  to  the  solution  of  the  iodide,  when  carbonate  of  lime  will  be 
precipitated  and  render  the  mixture  cloudy. 

BiTARTRATE  OP  PoTAssA  frequently  contains  much  tartrate  of  lime.  This 
may  be  detected  by  stirring  a  few  drops  of  liquor  ammonia  into  a  mixture  of  a 
few  grains  of  the  specimen  in  two  or  three  drams  of  cold  water.  The  am- 
monia renders  the  otherwise  insoluble  potassa  salt  quite  soluble,  whilst  it  has 
no  immediate  effect  on  the  tartrate  of  lime.  If,  then,  a  portion  remains  undis- 
solved after  the  application  of  the  test,  it  may  be  regarded  as  an  impurity. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  simplicity  of  these  tests  for  a  few  important  substances 
may  not  only  lead  to  their  frequent  adoption,  but  that  the  opening  of  the  sub- 
ject may  stimulate  others  to  search  for  and  publish  better  tests,  and  to  extend 
the  list  of  substances  that  may  be  easily  and  simply  tested. 

Pbpsine  Wine. — We  find  in  V  Union  Medicate  that  the  following  pepeine 
wine  is  extremely  agreeable  and  efficacious 

Take  of  starchy  pepsine,  (prepared  according  to  Messrs.  Corvisart  &  Bour- 
dault^s  formula,)  one  and  a  half  drams;  distilled  water,  six  drams;  white 
wine  (of  Lunel,)  fifteen  drams ;  white  sugar,  one  ounce ;  spirit  of  wine,  three 
drams.  Mix  until  the  sugar  is  quite  dissolved,  and  filter.  One  tablespoonful 
of  this  wine  contains  about  fifteen  grains  of  pepsine,  and  may  be  given  after 
every  meal 


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Meeting  of  the  New  York  State  Medical  Society.  81 

Annnal  Meeting  of  the  New  York  State  Medical  Society. 

Toe  fifty-second  annual  meeting  of  the  New  York  State  medical  society  con- 
rened  in  the  Common  Council  Chamber,  City  Hall,  on  Tuesday  morning,  Feb- 
ruary Ist,  at  eleven  o'clock. 

The  society  was  called  to  order  by  Dr.  Thomas  C.  Brinsmadc,  of  Troy,  the 
president.  He  addressed  the  members  at  considerable  length,  thanking  them 
for  the  honor  conferred  on  him,  in  selecting  him  to  preside  over  their  delibera- 
tions. He  congratulated  the  society  upon  its  success,  and  the  influence  pos- 
sessed by  it ;  and  referred  to  the  value  of  its  transactions  as  con^ring  favorably 
with  the  transactions  of  the  London  medical  society.  Believing  that  a  proper 
interest  was  not  manifested  by  the  physicians  of  the  State  in  medical  societies, 
the  president  addressed  circulars  to  the  societies  of  every  county  in  the  State, 
and  received  answers  from  twenty-eight  counties.  In  these  counties  littl© 
more  than  one-half  of  the  regular  physicians  were  members  of  the  societies, 
and  not  more  than  one-third  of  these  attended  meetings.  He  dwelt  upon  this 
apathy,  and  called  the  attention  of  the  society  to  it,  in  the  hope  that  it  might 
be  remedied. 

He  recommends  an  interchange  of  transactions  with  other  State  societies. 
He  approves  of  the  institution  of  a  second  degree  in  the  medical  profession, 
and  suggested  that  the  first  degree  be  styled  doctor  of  medicine,  and  the  second 
degree,  bachelor  of  medicine.  He  alluded  to  the  necessary  steps  to  be  taken 
to  secure  these  degrees,  and  commented  upon  the  justice  and  necessity  of  this 
course,  believing  that  it  would  greatly  elevate  the  profession.  There  are  five 
medical  journals  published  in  the  State,  and  three  republished.  The  medical 
profession  of  this  State  now  occupies  a  higher  position  than  at  any  other  time, 
lie  recommends  that  a  suitable  delegation  be  sent  to  the  meeting  of  the  Ameri- 
can medical  association,  at  Louisville. 

On  motion  of  Dr.  Alden  March,  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  president  for  his  in- 
augural address  was  adopted,  and  a  copy  requested  for  publication. 
The  following  committees  were  appointed  by  the  president ; — 
On  Credentials. — Drs.  B.  F.  Barker,  Alexander  Thompson,  S.  B.  Willard. 
On  Nomi>  atioxs. — First  Dut. — Dr.  S.  C.  Foster ;  Second  DUt — ^Dr.  J.  H.  Par- 
ker; Third  I>ist.— Dr.  B.  P.  Staats ;  Fourth  Dist.—Dr.  H.  Corliss ;  Fifth  Dist^ 
Dr.  N.  H.  Dering;  Sixth  DUt— Dr.  F.  Hyde;  Seventh  Diat.—Dr.  H.  Jewett; 
Eighth  Dint.— Dr.  F.  H.  Hamilton. 

Dr.  A.  H.  Hoff  moved  the  appointment  of  a  committee  to  invite  the  Gover- 
nor and  State  ofScers,  and  the  medical  members  of  the  Legislature,  to  tak« 
seats  with  the  society  during  the  session.  Adopted,  and  Drs.  Hofl^  Taylor  and 
Sprague  were  appointed  such  committee. 

Dr.  Sprague  moved  that  so  much  of  the  president's  address  as  relates  to  the  , 
cefrablication  of  important  papers  in  the  earlier  publications  of  the  society, 
mnr  mainly  out  of  circulation,   be  referred  to  a  select  committee  of  three. 
Adopted,  and  Drs.  Sprague,  S.  D.  Willard  and  Th(M-n  were  appointed  such 
committee. 


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82 


Meeting  of  the  NeO)  York  State  Medical  Society, 


A  communication  was  received  from  Dr.  Thos.  McCall,  of  Utica,  regreting 
his  inability  to  be  present  with  the  society,  and  enclosing  a  paper  entitled  "  the 
Gonmiandment  of  Knowledge,  in  relation  to  medical  doctrines  and  methods/^ 

Dr.  Parker,  of  Dutchess  county,  read  a  paper  on  "the  treatment  of  Veri- 
cose  Ulcers,"  which  was  referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

The  committee  on  credentials  presented  their  report,  which  was  accepted. 

The  following  delegates  then  enrolled  their  names : — 


Tbofl.  0.  BrlDsmade,  Troy. 

Oeo.  W.  Bradford,  Ilomer,  Cortland  Co. 

Jas.  Thorn,  Troy. 

B.  P.  Staats,  Albany. 

Jas.  V.  Kendall,  Clay,  Onondaga  Co, 

Alex.  J.  Dallas,  Camillns,  Onondaga  Co. 

Edward  H.  Parker,  Poughkeepele,  Dutchess  Co. 

0.  V.  W.  Burton,  Lanslngburgh,  Rens.  Co. 

Beth  Storer,  Kalonab,  Westchester  Co. 

A.  L.  Sanders,  Brookfield,  Madison  Co. 
John  Ball,  Brooklyn. 

Wm.  Bay,  Albany. 

N.  H.  Bering,  UUca. 

J.  F.  Trowbridge,  Syracuse. 

Alex.  H,  Hoff,  Albany. 

Samuel  H.  Freeman,  Albany. 

Alden  March,  Albany. 

James  H.  Armsby,  Albany. 

Alftred  Wotkyns,  Troy. 

J.  S.  Bpragne,  Cooperstown,  Otsego  Co. 

B.  Fordyoe  Barker,  New  York. 
Biram  Corliss,  Greenwich,  Wash.  Co. 
Simeon  Snow,  Root,  Montgomery  Co. 
Jehiel  Stevens,  Pompey,  Onondaga  Co. 
Orson  M,  Allaben,  Margaretvllle,  Delalrare  Co. 
J.  N.  Northrop,  Decatur,  Otsego  Co. 

J.  M.  Stnrdevant,  Rome,  Oneida  Co. 


William  Taylor,  Manlius,  Onondaga  Co. 

J.  H.  Pearse,  Friendship,  Allegany  Co. 

8.  W.  French,  Lisle,  Broome  Co. 

Frederick  Hyde,  Cortland.     . 

Taylor  L^wis,  Troy. 

R.  B.  Bonticou,  Troy. 

E.  W.  Carmlchael,  Sandlake,  Rens.  Co. 

M.  M.  Marsh,  Manlius.  Onondaga  Co. 

H.  8.  Ghubbuok,  Elmira,  Chemung  Co. 

Charles  Barrows,  Clinton,  Oneida  Co. 

Nelson  Nivison,  Hector,  Schuyler  Co. 

Wilson  S.  Bassett,  Mt.  Vision,  Otsego  Co. 

8.  C.  PettingUl,  Hancock,  Delaware  Co. 

James  Lee,  Mechanlcsvllle,  Saratoga  Co. 

C.  V.  Bamett,  Windham  Centre,  Qreene  Co. 

Charles  C.  F.  Gay,  BuffUo,  Erie  Co. 

Levant  B.  Cotes,  Batayia,  Genessee  Co. 

Chas.  M.  Kingham,  McGrawrille,  Cortland  Co. 

Harvey  Jewett,  Canandaigua,  Ontario  Co. 

Daniel  T.  Jones,  Baldwinsville,  Onondaga  Co. 

Mason  F.  Cogswell,  Albany. 

U.  G.  Bigelow,  Albany. 

8.  Oakey  Vanderpoel,  Albany. 

Howard  Townsend,  Albany. 

J.  V.  P.  Quackenbush,  Albany. 

W.  D.  Purple,  Greene,  Chenango  Co. 

Aug.  Willard,  Greene,  Chenango  Co. 


Dr.  Vanderpoel,  pf  Albany,  moved  that  the  resolution  adopted  at  the 
last  meeting,  appointing  a  committee  to  make  arrangements  for  a  dinner,  be 
reconsidered,  and  the  resolution  laid  upon  the  table.     Adopted. 

Dr.  George  Cook,  president  of  the  Canandaigua  lunatic  asylum,  was  made 
an  honorary  member  of  the  society. 

Dr.  WillifCm  Taylor,  of  Manlius,  moved  the  appointment  of  a  committee  to 
consider  what  action  on  the  part  of  the  society  can  be  taken  best  calculated  to 
insure  a  more  general  vaccination  throughout  the  State.     Adopted. 

The  committee  to  invite  the  Governor  and  others,  to  take  seats  with  the 
society,  reported  that  they  had  discharged  that  duty.  Report  accepted  and 
committee  discharged. 

Dr.  March  invited  the  members  of  the  society  to  visit  the  hospital  at  one 
o'clock,  to  witness  the  operation  of  amputation ;  the  patient  being  Montgomery 
Bull,  whose  arm  had  been  terribly  lacerated  by  machinery.  The  invitation 
was  accepted,  and  the  members  proceeded  to  the  hospital,  where  the  operation 
was  performed  by  Dr.  J.  H.  Armsby,  of  Albany ;  the  arm  being  amputated  at 
the  shoulder.     The  society  then  tool'  a  rec/'ss  ttnt'd  three  o'clocl'. 


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Meeting  of  the  New  York  State  Medical  Society,  88 

APTBRNOON    8K8SION. 

The  society  reconvened  at  three  o*  clock. 

Dr.  Sprague  mored  the  appointment  of  a  committee  of  three  to  request  of  the 
Assembly  the  use  of  their  chamber,  in  which  the  annual  address  may  be  de- 
livered ;  and  also  to  invite  the  Governor  and  the  members  of  the  Legislature 
to  be  present     Adopted. 

Dr.  J.  S.  Sprague,  B.  P.  Staats  and  Ball,  were  appointed  said  committee. 

Drs.  W.  C.  Rogers,  of  Green  Island,  Swinburne  and  Moore,  of  Albany,  C.  R. 
Agnew,  of  New  York,  and  C.  R.  Millington,  of  Herkimer,  were  invited  to  take 
seats  with  the  members  of  the  society. 

The  Chair  announced  the  following  committee  on  Dr.  Taylor^s  resolution  on 
vaccination,  adopted  at  the  morning  session ;  Drs.  Wm.  Taylor,  Blatchford  and 
Alden  March. 

A  communication  on  the  subject  of  **  Partial  Dislocations,  Consecutive  and 
Muscular  Affections  of  the  Shoulder  Joint,*'  by  Alfred  Mercer,  M.  D.,  as  read 
before  the  Onondaga  Co.  medical  society,  was  presented,  and  referred  to  the 
publishing  committee. 

^  Dr.  March  presented  a  sketch  of  the  life  of  the  late  Dr.  James  A.  Billings,  as 
read  before  the  Genesee  medical  society,  which  was  referred  to  the  publishing 
committee. 

The  Censors  of  the  Southern  district  reported  that  they  examined,  June  29, 
1858,  Carl  August  Ludwig  Baiu*,  and  finding  him  qualified,  recommended  him 
to  the  president  for  a  diploma.     Report  accepted. 

A  communication  was  read  from  the  agent  of  Messrs.  Garmer,  Lamoureuz 
Jb  Co.,  which  accompanied  specimens  of  granules  and  drages,  or  sugar-coated 
pills. 

A  communication  from  Tilden  &  Co.,  was  also  read,  accompanying  which 
were  a  variety  of  medical  preparations,  consisting  of  fiuid  extracts,  granules 
or  sugar-coated  pills.  They  have  also  forwarded  to  Dr.  Howard  Townsend 
a  large  number  of  specimens  for  the  cabinet  of  the  Albany  medical  college. 

Dr.  John  Swinburne,  of  Albany,  read  a  very  interesting  paper  on  **  the  treat- 
ment of  Fractures  of  the  Femur,"  which  was  referred  to  the  publishing  com- 
mittee. 

Dr.  Parker  moved  that  the  pharmaceutical  preparations  presented  to  the 
society  be  referred  to  a  committee  of  three,  to  report  at  the  next  meeting. 

A  brief  discussion  ensued,  in  which  the  impropriety  of  the  society  endorsing 
any<particular  medicine,  was  urged  by  different  members. 

Odier  members  urged  that  the  society  had  already  adopted  a  resolution  en- 
dorsing certain  preparations,  the  efficacy  of  which  were  very  justly  doubted, 
and  the  object  of  appointing  the  committee  was  to  investigate  the  subject 

The  resolution  was  adopted  by  a  vote  of  twenty-four  to  twenty-one ;  and 
Drs.  £.  H.  Parker,  Howard  Townsend  and  Saunders  were  appointed  the 
committee. 

A  resolution  of  thanks  to  Tilden  &  Co.,  and  Garmer,  Lamourcux  &  Co.,  for 
their  specimens,  was  adopted. 


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84 


Meeting  of  the  New   York  iState  Medical  Society, 


Dr.  Shove,  of  Westchester  county,  read  a  paper  on  "  Congenial  Tissure  of 
the  Soft  Palate/*  which  was  referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  Cook,  of  Canandaigua,  by  invitation  of  the  society,  made  a  statement  of 
the  establishment  and  progress  of  the  Brigham  Ball  lunatic  asylum,  at  Ganandai- 
gua.  An  application  has  been  made  to  the  legislature  to  incorporate  the  institution. 

Dr.  Alden  March,  of  Albany,  read  a  paper  on  the  **  Displacement  of  the 
Heart.'*     Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  Saunders,  of  Madison,  read  a  paper  on  "  Cerebro  Spinal  Menengitis,"  as 
it  prevailed  in  Madison  county.    Referred  to  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  Gray,  of  the  State  lunatic  asylum,  and  Dr.  Bailey,  of  Albany,  were  in- 
vited to  take  seats  with  the  society. 

Dr.  S.  D.  Willard,  frcwm  the  committee  appointed  at  the  last  meeting  "  to  pe- 
tition the  legislature,  asking  them  to  amend  the  statute,  that  the  State  medical 
society  may  elect  permanent  memborQ,  by  senatorial  districts,  now  or  hereafter 
established ;  "  reported  that  the  interests  of  the  society  would  not  be  promoted 
by  a  change  in  the  present  statute.  The  committee  believe  that  the  intereste' 
of  the  society  might  be  enhanced  by  increasing  the  number  of  its  hononary 
members  residing  without  this  state,  and  they  recommend  a  change  of  the 
bye-kiws.    The  report  was  adopted. 

The  following  delegates  enrolled  their  names  during  the  afternoon  session : — 

i.  H.  Jerome,  Trumansburg,  Tompkins  Go. 


Aler.  Ayrfcs,  Fort  Plain,  Montgomery  Co. 

Thomas  C.  flnncU,  New  York. 

Samuel  Averj,  DaldwinsviUe,  Onondaga  Co. 

Elijah  S.  Lyman,  Sherburne,  Chenango  Co. 

J.  V.  Cobb,  Borne,  Oneida  Co. 

K.  0.  Mnndjr,  N.  Shore,  Cwtleton,  Richmond  Co. 

Sylvester  D.  Wlllard,  Albany. 

Wm.  Govan,  North  Harerstraw,  Rockland  Co. 

Thomas  W.  Blntcbford,  Troy. 

Charles  S.  Wood,  Oreene,  Chenango  Co. 


Wm.  C  Rogers,  Green  Island,  Albany  ik>. 

Darius  Clark,  Canton,  St.  I^iwrence  Co. 

D.  P.  Blssel,  Utlca. 

John  D.  Watkins,  Liberty,  SotUran  Oo. 

]>rl  Moore.  Albany. 

J.  M.  Dclemater,  Albany. 

John  P.  Gray,  Utlca. 

George  Cook,  Canandaigua,  Ontario  Co. 

John  Swinburne,  Albany. 


The  society  then  adjourned  until  Wednesday  morning  at  ten  o*clock. 

seconh  bay. 

The  society  re-convened  at  ten   o'clock  Wednesday  morning,  when   the 
minutes  were  read  and  approved. 

The  following  gentlemen  enrolled  their  names : — 


J.  Conant  Foster,  New  York. 

Charles  G.  Bacon,  Fulton,  Oswego  Co. 

FrankUn  Ererts,  Oswego  City. 

A.  B.  Shipman,  Syracuse,  Onondaga  Co. 

W.  IL  Bailey,  Albany. 

Alexander  Thompson,  Anrora,  Cayuga  Co. 

A.  E.  Famoy,  MiddlevlUe,  Herkimer  Co. 

William  0.  Sands,  Oxford,  Chenango  Co. 

J.  S.  Whallcy,  Verona,  Oneida  Co. 

Charles  8.  Goodrich.  Brooklyn,  Kings  Co. 

0.  J.  Fisher,  Sing  Sing,  Westchester  Co. 

Morgan  Snyder,  Fort  Plain,  Montgomery  Co. 

W.  H.  U.  Parkhurst,  Frankfort,  Herkimer  Co. 

James  McNaoghton,  Albany, 

Freeman  Tartelot,  Mld^tle  Grore,  Saratoga  Co. 

H.  K.  Wlllard,  Bern,  Albany  Co. 


J.  H.  Reynolds,  Wilton,  Saratoga  Co. 

J.  B.  Reynolds,        "  " 

M.  G.  Peck,  Olens  Falls,  Warren  Co. 

Joseph'  Lewis,  Albany.  ^ 

Lewis  F.  Pelton,  New  Castle,  Westchester  Co. 

Frank  M.  Hopkins,  KeesevUle,  Essex  Co. 

Austin  White,  Parish,  Oswego  Co. 

Almlron  Fitch,  Delhi,  Delaware  Co. 

Joseph  Bates,  Lebanon  Springs,  Colombia  Oo. 

John  Davidson,  Queens  Co. 

H.  B.  Wilbur,  Syracuse,  Onondaga  Oo. 

Philip  T.  Heartt,2d,  Waterford,  Saratoga  Oo. 

W.  F.  Carter,  Cohoes,  Albany  Co. 

Thos.  J.  Wheeler,  Conewango,  Ohenaago  Oo. 

Amos  Fowler,  Albany. 

F.  H.  Hamilton,  Buffalo. 


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Meeting  of  the  New   York  State  Medical  *Society,  86 

Drs.  J.  H.  Reynolds,  of  Saratoga,  F.  M.  Hopkios,  of  Essex,  M.  R.  Peck,  of 
Glens  Falls^  B.  F.  Ethridge,  of  Ilerkiincr,  Thomas  J.  Wheeler,  of  Cattaraugus 
Oa  and  James  Winn,  of  New  York,  were  admitted  as  honorary  members  to 
take  seats  with  the  society. 

Dr.  B.  F.  Barker  moved  to  amend  the  bye- laws,  so  that  the  society  may 
elect  six  honorary  members  annually,  instead  of  two.     Adopted. 

A  comnHinication  was  received  from  the  Herkimer  coimty  medical  society, 
.oorering  a  **  Dissertation  upon  the  Influence  of  Vegetation  upon  Animal  Life 
and  Health.^'     Referred  to  publishing  committee. 

An  address  read  before  the  Sullivan  county  medical  sociefy,  by  John  D. 
Watkins,  M.  D.,  on  *'  Pneumonia;  bilious  and  typhoid,''  waa presented  and  re- 
ferred to  the  publishing  committee. 

'  A  communication  was  received  from  the  Albany  county  medical  society, 
covering  a  paper  read  before  the  society,  by  Dr.  S.  H.  Freeman ;  being  a 
biographical  sketch  of  the  late  Hon.  Samuel  Dickson,  M.  D.  Referred  to  pub- 
lishing committee. 

An  invitation  from  Gov.  Morgan,  to  visit  the  executive  mansion  in  the 
evening,  was  received  and  accepted. 

Dr.  S.  D.  Willard,  secretary,  reported  that  he  had  exchanged  transactions 
with  the  State  medical  societies  of  Connecticut,  New  Hampshire  and  California. 
Exchanges  had  also  been  made  witli  thirty-five  foreign  societies,  and  through 
the  regents  of  the  University  had  received  several  communications  in  return. 
He  had  also  received  letters  from  Dr.  M.  S.  Perry,  of  I^ton,  Mass.,  and  Dr* 
S.  Henry  Dickson,  of  Charleston,  S.  C,  acknowledging  the  rea»ipt  of  honorary 
diplomas.  The  secretary  also  stated  that  on  looking  over  the  papers  of  the 
society,  he  had  found  a  number  of  volumes  of  the  transactions  of  the  society 
from  1832  to  1837,  which  he  had  caused  to  be  bound. 

f  A  motion  was  made  and  adopted  that  each  member  .wishing  copies  of  the 
volume,  be  charged  seventy-five  cents  each. 

Dr.  Mundy,  of  Staten  Island,  moved  the  appointment  of  a  committee  of  three, 
to  investigate  the  facts  connected  with  the  Quarantine. 

The  resolution  giving  rise  to  a  debate,  which  promised  to  be  extended,  Dr. 
Snow  moved  to  lay  it  on  the  table,  which  motion  was  adopted. 

Dr.  Allaben  moved  that  the  legislature  be  petitioned  to  pass  a  law  authori- 
zing physicians  and  surgeons,  when  employed  by  coroners  to  make  post  mor- 
tem examinations  in  eases  coming  under  their  notice,  to  charge  a  fee  oom- 
nensurate  to  the  services  rt ndered ;  to  be  audited  by  the  board  of  supervisors 
and  paid  by  the  county  in  which  such  services  were  obtained. 

After  a  brief  debate,  the  resolution  was  l«d  upon  the  table. 

Dr.  Goodrich  presented  a  report  of  the  removal  of  a  tumour  from  the  upper 
aad  posterior  surfi^e  of  the  cranium — ^result  flital — by  C.  E.  Isaacs,  M.  D., 
one  of  the  surgeons  of  the  Brooklyn  city  hospitol.  Referred  to  the  publishing 
committee. 

Dr.  F.  H.  Hamilton,  of  Buffalo,  read  a  paper  '*  on  Shortening  in  fractures,  in 
the  neck  of  the  Femur."     Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 


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86  Meeting  of  Hie  New  York  Slate  Medical  Society, 

Drs.  Joseph  Lewis,  Babcock,  Henry  March,  Adams  and  Fondey  of  Albany ; 
and  Dr.  Cullen,  of  Brooklyn,  were  admitted  to  seats  with  the  society. 

Dr.  James  McNaughton,  from  the  committtee  to  whom  was  referred  the 
several  essays,  offered  in  competition  for  the  prize  offered  by  the  society,  for 
the  best  dissertation  on  scarlet  fever,  awarded  the  prize  to  Henry  A.  Carring- 
ton,  of  Hyde  Park,  N.  Y.     Report  accepted. 

A  communication  was  received  from  the  Westchester  county  medical  society, 
covering  **  Biographical  sketches  of  the  deceased  physicians  of  Westchester 
county."    Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  A.  Hofl^  of  Albany,  presented  "an  Address  on  the  Registration  of 
Diseases,  by  W.  C.  Rogers,  M.  D.,*'  as  read  before  the  Albany  county  medical 
society.     Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  S.  D.  Willard,  of  Albany,  read  a  very  interesting  paper  on  "  Diptherite," 
or  the  sore  throat  disease,  so  prevalent  in  Albany. 

Dr.  J.  V.  P.  Quackenbush,  of  Albany,  read  a  report  in  accordance  with  a 
resolution  passed  at  the  last  annual  meeting,  "  Inversion  of  the  Uterus,^*  which 
elicited  a  very  interesting  discussion,  after  which  it  was  referred  to  the  pub- 
lishing committee. 

Dr.  Taylor,  from  the  committee  to  whom  was  referred  the  subject  of  vaccina- 
tion, reported  that  if  vaccination  can  by  any  means  become  general,  the  loath- 
some, disgusting,  and  often  fiital  disease — ^the  small  pox,  would  be  effectually 
eradicated  from  the  land.  The  committee  believe,  however,  that  an  action  of 
the  society  would  be  inadequate  to  insure  such  a  result.  It  is  believed  the 
small  pox  Ls  more  generally  prevalent  in  this  State  at  the  present  time,  than 
at  any  former  period  since  the  introduction  of  vaccination ;  and  this  is  owing 
in  a  great  measure  to  neglect  on  the  part  of  the  public  as  to  vaccmation,  and 
perhaps  to  some  extent  to  the  imperfect  manner  in  which  vaccination  is  per- 
formed. The  committee  recommend  that  application  be  made  to  the  legislature 
for  the  passage  of  a  law  which  shall  authorize  and  empower  the  trustees  of 
each  of  the  several  school  districts  in  the  State,  to  exclude  from  the  benefits 
of  public  instruction,  all  who  have  not  been  vaccinateds  A  resolution  directing 
the  appointment  of  a  committee  to  obtain  the  passage  of  a  law  by  the  present 
legislature  in  conformity  to  the  plan  above  suggested  was  offered. 

The  report  of  the  committee  was  accepted,  and  the  resolution  adopted. 

Dr.  Thompson  moved  that  a  special  committee  be  appointed,  to  which  shall 
be  referred  so  much  of  the  president's  address,  as  relates  to  the  conferring  of 
the  second  degree.  Adopted,  and  Drs.  Howard  Townsend,  Alexander  Thomp- 
son and  Thomas  W.  Blatchford,  were  appointed  such  committee. 

The  committee  reported  that  the  use  of  the  assembly  chamber  had  been 
granted  to  the  society,  for  the  delivery  of  the  president's  address,  and  that  the 
governor  and  other  State  oflSoers,  and  the  members  of  the  legislature  had  been 
invited  to  attend.    IUces$  until  three  o'clock, 

APTBRNOON    8K8SION. 

The  society  re-convened  at  three  o'clock. 

Dr.  Bly  pres^ted  to  the  society  an  Artificial  Leg,  and  explained  its 
mechanism. 


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Meeting  of  the  New   York  State  Medical  Society.  87 

Dr.  Bacon  read  a  paper  on  "  Facial  Paralysis."  Referred  to  publishing  conx- 
mittee. 
Dr.  Foster,  of  New  York,  offered  the  following : — 

WkereaM^  it  has  erer  been  the  pride  and  glory  of  the  medical  profession  that  Its  Ainctlons  are  not 
lindted  to  the  cure,  but  extend  also  to  the  prevention  of  disease ;  and  whereas,  the  causes  of  disease 
among  crowded  populations,  are,  to  a  great  extent,  under  control,  and  susceptible  of  being  avoided 
or  remored  by  Judidoos  sanitary  regulations,  as  has  been  abundantly  demonstrated  in  many  in* 
stances  where  such  measures  have  ^eeted  great  redaction  in  the  bills  of  mcurtaHty ;  and  whereas,  the 
flrst  ot^ect  of  every  civilised  government  should  be  to  protect  the  health  and  lives  of  the  dtixeot, 
therefore, 

iSatolvetf,  that  this  sodety  has  seen  with  great  satisfaction  the  progress  which  the  sdence  of  pub- 
tto  hygiene  has  made  in  the  good  opinion  of  the  pi^llc,  and  looks  forward  to  the  time  when,  unMr 
the  direction  of  those  sUlled  in  this  branch  of  medical  sdence,  the  ratio  may  be  reduced  to  a  mlnlmon. 

BeaoU^d^  that  this  sodety  warmly  approves  the  action  of  his  honor,  the  mayor  of  the  dty  of 
Mew  York,  in  his  efforts  to  place  the  control  of  the  sanitary  affkirs  of  that  dty  in  the  hands  of 
medical  men,  who  alone  are  competent  to  exercise  it. 

Bs9olrsd,  that  the  lei^slature  of  the  State  are  eaMed  upon  by  every  moUve  of  policy  and  human- 
ity to  suBtidn  and  promote  all  such  laudable  attempts  to  improve  the  health  and  save  the  Uves  of  the 
eommunity  by  the  passage  of  such  laws  as  may  be  necessary  to  give  them  immediate  efficiency. 

The  resolutions  were  adopted.  ' 

Dr.  Howard  Townsend,  of  Albany,  read  a  paper  on  **  Hypophosphites." 
Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  John  Ball,  of  Brooklyn,  read  a  paper  on  a  case  of  ^^  Hydrops  Sacci 
Lachrynialis.^^     Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  James  Lee,  of  Saratoga  county,  presented  a  report  of  '^  the  diseases  of 
the  county  of  Saratoga.*'     Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  Parker,  of  New  York,  made  an  oral  report  on  "  Obstetrics,"  and  requested 
the  members  of  the  society  to  furnish  him  statistical  information. 

Dr.  S.  H.  French,  of  Broome  county,  expressed  himself  gratified  with  the 
remarks  of  Dr.  Parker. 

Dr.  Seth  Shove,  of  Westchester  county,  presented  a  "  Biographical  sketch 
of  Dr.  George  C.  French,  of  Westchester  county,  prepared  and  read  before  the 
Westchester  county  medical  society.     Referred 'to  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  Horace  AYillard,  of  Albany  county,  read  a  paper  on  "Rupture  of  the 
Cul  de  Sac  of  the  Colon.'*     Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  Bissell,  of  Utica,  presented  a  paper  on  "  Misplacement  of  the  Uterus," 
which  was  referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

The  society  then  adjourned  until  ten  o'clock,  Thursday  morning. 

THIRD    DAY. 

The  society  re-convened  at  ten  o'clock  Thursday  morning.  Minutes  reafl 
and  approved. 

Dr.  J.  S.  Sprague,  from  the  committee  on  so  much  of  the  president's  address 
as  relateH  to  the  re-publication  of  such  of  the  transactions  of  the  society,  as  are 
not  in  circulation,  reported  in  favor  of  the  re-publication  of  the  addresses  of  the 
preeident's  of  the  society,  for  the  first  twenty-five  years  of  its  existence.  Re- 
port accepted. 

Dr.  F.  H.  Hamilton  presented  the  following  papers:  "Statistics  of  758  Ob- 
stetrical Cases,"  by  Dr,  N.  0.  Husted^  of  the  New  York  Academy  of  Medidne ; 


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88  Meeting  of  thn  New   York  StaM  Medical  Society, 

also,  "  Death  Rate  in  the  State  of  New  York,  according  to  the  last  Census," 
by  Dr.  Stephen  Smith,  of  the  Academy.  Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 
.  Dr.  Goodrich,  of  Brooklyn,  submitted  a  p^>er  on  *^  Vital  Statistics  of  the 
city  of  Brooklyn.     Referred  to  the  publishing  committee. 

Dr.  Wynn,  of  New  York,  moved  that  the  county  medical  societies  be  re- 
quested to  furnish  the  next  annual  meeting  of  the  State  medical  society  with 
a  complete  list,  so  far  as  the  facts  can  be  ascertained,  of  the  number  of  their 
'  members  in  each*year,  and  of  those  who  have  died^  together  with  the  ages  tk 
which  death  took  place.     Adopted. 

Dr.  Wynn,  of  New  York,  made  a  very  interesting  statement  to  the  society, 
on  the  subject  of  mortality  in  the  United  States,  and  the  mortality  on  aocount 
of  Intemperance. 

*  Dr.  Edward  Duffy,  of  Albany,  was  invited  to  take  a  seat  with  the  members 
of  the  society. 

Dr.  B.  P.  Staats,  of  Albany,  moved  that  the  publishing  committee  cause  a^ 
many  as  may  be  practicable,  of  the  addresses  of  former  presidents  of  this  so- 
ciety (which  have  not  already  been  published,)  to  be  published  in  the  transac- 
tions ot  this  society.     Adopted. 

Dr.  Bissell,  of  Utica,  moved  that  the  committee  on  Statistics  be  continued, 
and  that  the  legislature  be  requested  to  publish  the  usual  number  of  blanks. 
Adopted. 

Dr.  Hamilton,  of  Bufiklo,  moved  that  in  the  law  enacted  in  the  legislature  of 
this  State,  during  the  session  of  1857,  permitting  both  parties  to  testify  in  all 
civil  suits,  our  profession,  in  common,  perhaps,  with  the  public  generally,  have 
an  important  interest;  and  that  we  therefore  earnestly  recommend  to  the 
several  members  of  the  senate  and  assembly  from  their  respective  districts, 
that  they  resist  all  attempts  for  its  repeal ;  unless,  indeed,  it  is  fully  proven 
that  such  repeal  is  demanded  by  the  public  good,  whose  interest  ought  cer- 
tainly to  be  considered  as  paramount  to  the  interest  of  individuals  or  classes. 
Adopted. 

Dr.  Goodrich  moved  the  appointment  of  a  committee  of  three  to  inquire  into 
the  subject  ot  Anesthetic  agency,  in  regard  to  its  origin  and  its  first  intro- 
duction into  medical  and  surgical  practice  in  the  United  States,  and  that  the 
committee  report  all  facts  in  the  premises,  of  interest  to  the  medical  profession, 
and  report  at  the  next  annual  meeting.  Adopted,  12  to  14,  and  Drs.  Goodrich, 
Jones  and  F.  H.  Hamilton  were  appointed  such  committee. 

Dr.  B.  P.  Staats,  of  Albany,  called  attention  to  the  fact,  that  at  the  hst 
meeting  of  the  society,  the  physicians  of  Warren  or  Essex  counties  were  re- 
quested to  investigate  the  case  of  the  woman,  who,  it  was  alleged  lived  with- 
out eating. 

Several  gentlemen  stated  that  it  had  been  pretty  well  demonstrated  that  Uie 
case  was  an  imposition. 

Dr.  Ferguson,  however,  expressed  an  opposite  opinion,  and  gave  an  aceomii 
of  his  visit  to  the  woman  in  qu^sstion. 

The  svk^ect  was  then  dropped. 

Dr.  Handy,  of  Staten  Ishnd»  offered  Si  resolution,  that,  in  the  opinion  oCtfais 


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Meeting  of  the  New   York  State  Medical  Society.  89 

societj,  %  Qoamntinc  establLBhment,  the  object  of  which  is  to  prevent  the  in- 
troduction of  foreign  pestilential  and  infectious  diseases,  should,  in  order  to 
obtain  the  object  desired,  be  located  in  an  isolated  place,  and  an  institution  of 
this  character,  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  dense  population  and  near  large  cities, 
and  where  there  is  constant  interchange  and  (communication  between  such 
place,  and  the  places  which  it  is  designed  to  protect,  fails  to  answer  the  pur- 
poses for  which  it  was  established.     L|id  on  the  table. 

Dr.  Cotes,  of  Gencssce  county,  moved  that  a  committee  be  appointed  to  re- 
port at  the  next  meeting,  the  best  method  for  securing  the  appointment  of  % 
**  CoHuaissioB  of  Lunacy  *'  for  the  State  of  New  York.  Adopted,  and  Drs. 
Cotes,  C/Oventry,  Gray  and  Cook  were  appointed  such  committee. 

Dr.  J.  V.  P.  Qumckenbush,  of  Albany,  treasurer,  reported  the  receipts  for 
the  year,  to  have  been  $143.39,  and  the  expenditures  $88.49,  leaving  a  balanoe 
in  the  huids  of  the  treasurer  of  $54.80.  Report  accepted  and  referred  to  the 
usual  committee,  consisting  of  Drs.  Sprague,  Barnett  and  Sanders,  to  examine 
the  accounts. 

Dr.  Thompson,  of  Cayuga,  offered  a  resolution  that  the  committee  to  whom 
was  referred  so  much  of  the  president's  address  as  relates  to  the  institution  of 
the  second  degree  in  the  medical  profession,  be  authorized  to  present  the  sub- 
ject to  the  convention  of  Professors,  to  be  held  at  liOuisville,  Ky.,  in  May  next, 
as  it  may  think  proper.     Adopted. 

Dr.  Saunders,  of  Onondaga,  moved  the  appointment  of  a  committee  of  three, 
to  take  into  consideration  the  propriety  of  condensing,  in  such  a  manner  the 
forms  for  the  Registration  of  Medical  and  Surgical  Statistics,  for  the  use  of 
county  practitioners — as  will  ensure  a  better  attention  to  the  subject,  and  to 
report  at  the  next  annual  meeting.  Adopted,  and  l)rs.^  Saunders,  Orlin,  and 
Cogswell  appointed  such  committee. 

The  committee  to  examine  the  treasurer's  report,  reported  they  had  dis- 
diarged  that  duty,  and  found  the  same  correct 

The  society  then  proceeded  to  an  election  of  officers  for  the  ensuing  year, 
Drs.  Sanders  and  Burton  acting  as  Tellers. 

The  fallowing  officers  were  elected : — 

Prtnidtnt-  Peok.  B.  Fobdtck  Bakkkr,  New  York  city.  Vice  Pfenident-Hn.  Damki.  T.  Jo?ik8, 
OModaga.  SecrtUiry—h^.  Syi.vkhtkr  D.  Wilurd,  Albany.  7V«i*iir«/— Dr.  Joh.v  V.  P.  Qt^iCE- 
tticsH,  Albany. 

Permanent  Menibertt—Drn.  Franklin  TutliUl,  Uoitice  K.  Wlllard,  «eth  ghove,  Uriah  PotUfr,  Henry 
N.  Porter,  C.  M  Crandall,  A.  J.  Dallaa,  P.  II.  Strong,  John  Ball,  M.  C.  lUubrouck,  .lames  P.  Boyd, 
R.  L.  AUeo,  John  PotnaD.  Stephen  llagadorn,  J.  P.  Trowbridge,  H.  M.  Conger. 

C^mmttitM  o/PuMieaUon-^.  D.  WiUard,  Howard  Towntcnd,  A.  H.  Hoff. 

7b  h*  rtcofMtundtd  to  th^  Regents  of  the  UnUertity  for  the  honorary  ilegret  of  doctor  ofnudi- 
«MM— Drt.  B.  P.  Staata,  of  Albany  ;  M.  H.  Cash,  of  Orange ;  J.  M.  SinrdeTant,  of  Oneida  ;  Richard 
Laimliig^,  of  Tonpkloii. 

For  Honorary  Memhern—lin,  Sllaii  Durkee,  of  Boston ;  John  M .  De  La  Mater,  of  Ofclo. 

Sot^naUdfor  Honorary  Mentb^ra—Hn.  Ernest  Hart,  London,  Kngland  ;  John  JeffHts,  Botion ; 
Henry  Bronson,  New  Haven;  O.  Mendenhall,  Ohio;  W.  Fraaer,  Montreal;  Chas.  I.  Isaacs,  U.  8.  N. 

Cbmom.  FirH  DMriet—John  Ball,  Peter  Van  Buren,  John  McNulty.  Sscomi  DiittrUt-^.  B. 
I^U^  8-R.  Fr«iu3h,  George  Barr.  Third  IMtirM^B.  B.  Staatr^T.  W.  ltatchfaff«VP.  McNaogbton. 
Fbnrlh  iK«Cr<e^Al«XMder  Tbdnprnot  O.  W.  Burwell,  A.  V«a  fiyajk. 


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90  Editorial 

Delegates  to  the  American  medical  association  left  to  be  designated  on  ap> 
plication  to  the  secretary. 

Dr.  Staats  offered  a  resolution  tendering  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  president 
for  the  impartial  manner  in  which  he  had  discharged  the  duties  of  his  office. 

A  vote  of  thanks  was  extended  also  to  the  common  council  of  the  city  of 
Albany  for  the  use  of  their  chamber. 

The  president,  Dr.  Brinsmade,  then  addressed  the  society  in  a  few  parting 
words,  as  follows : — 

»  Gentlemen  : — In  retiring  from  this  Chair,  the  duties  of  which  I  have  so  im- 
perfectly performed,  I  should  do  injustice  to  my  feelings  should  I  not  mo6t 
heartily  thank  you  over  and  over  for  the  assistance,  courtesies  and  kindness  I 
have  received  from  you  all,  and  which  will  always  be  remembered  with  great 
pleasure.  I  hope  you  may  all  return  to  your  homes,  and  ordinary  arduous, 
but  honorable  duties,  and  have  pleasant  remembrances  of  this  meeting, 

The  society  then  adjourned  &ine  die. 


Editorial. 

New  York  State  Medical  Society. — We  are  enabled  to  present  to  our 
readers  this  month,  a  very  full  report  of  the  proceedings  of  this  society,  as 
published  in  the  Albany  Atlas.  It  convened  on  Tuesday,  the  Ist  of  February, 
and  'continued  its  sittings  three  days.  Thirty-seven  counties  were  represented ; 
one  hundred  and  fifty  members  were  in  attendance.  On  Wednesday  evening, 
the  annual  address  was  delivered  at  the  Capitol  in  the  Assembly  Chamber,  by 
Dr.  Thomas  C.  Brinsmade,  "  upon  the  advantages  arising  from  medical  asso- 
ciations." He  handled  the  subject  in  a  masterly  manner,  and  it  was  evident 
he  had  given  it  much  study  and  thought ;  it  was  listened  to  with  marked  at- 
tention, and  was  spoken  of  as  able,  interesting  and  instructive.  After  the  ad- 
dress was  concluded  the  members  visited  the  executive  mansion,  and  received 
the  hospitalities  of  the  (lovernor. 

By  an  examination  of  the  minutes  it  will  be  seen  that  the  society  transacted 
a  very  large  amount  of  business,  and  the  proceedings  which  will  be  published 
as  soon  as  the  committee  having  this  labor  in  charge  can  make  them  ready, 
will  form  an  interesting  and  important  volume.  The  reports  and  essays  it 
will  contain  are  from  the  most  intelligent  and  able  men  of  the  State,  and  will 
be  a  valuable  acquisition  to  the  medical  literature  of  the  country. 

In  point  of  numbers  and  influence  this  is  the  most  important  State  organi- 
zation in  our  country,  and  the  very  full  attendance  of  its  members — ^the  nu- 
merous essays  and  reports,  are  a  very  satisfactory  and  commendable  evidence 
of  the  pride  the  physicians  of  this  State  feel  in  its  growth,  position,  and  of  its 
importance  to  them  as  a  profession. 

The  Prize  Essay  on  Scarlet  Fever  was  awarded  to  Dr.  Carrington,  of  Hyde 
Park,  Dutchess  county. 

The  committee  on  vaccination  state  that :  *^  it  is  believed  that  small  pox  is 
more  prevalent  in  this  State  at  the  present  time,  ^lan  at  any  former  period 


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Pharmacy.  91 

since  the  introduction  of  yaccination,"  and  recommend  that  children  be  excluded 
from  priyileges  of  public  instruction  unless  vaccinated ;  reducing  the  matter 
to  a  school  district  organization,  and  vesting  the  responsibility  with  the  trus- 
tees of  each  school  district,  which  certainly  ought  fully  to  overcome  the  evil 
complained  of. 

Dbath  of  Professor  Tully,  op  Sprinofield,  Mass. — It  is  with  deep  regret 
we  announce  the  death  of  this  distinguished  man.  The  profession  has  lost 
one  of  its  bri^test  ornaments ;  science  one  of  its  most  valuable  contributors, 
and  ourselves  a  warm  friend.  Dr.  Church  writes  us:  ^*his  illness  was  short 
Ten  days  ago  he  had  a  call  on  to  the  Green  Mountains,  some  thirty-five  or  forty 
miles,  and  his  illness  was  attributable  to  the  journey  he  took  in  obedience  to 
that  call."  He  died  on  Monday,  February  28,  at  9  o'clock  A.  M.,  his  funeral 
will  take  place  on  Friday,  March  4,  at  10  o'clock  A.  M.,  and  his  remains  are  to 
be  taken  to  New  Haven,  Conn.,  for  interment. 

Cofrespondents  will  oblige  by  ?mting  plainly  their  names,  town,  county  and 
state.  We  have,  in  several  instances,  been  unable  to  answer  letters  because 
these  are  omitted. 


Pharmacy. 

THE  ACTION  AND  U8K8  OF  DIOITALINE. 

MM.  Homolle  and  Quevenne  have  stated,  as  the  result  of  their  experience, 
that,  in  doses  of  one  seventy-fifth  of  a  grain,  given  three  times  a  day,,  this  sub- 
stance acts  as  a  diuretic  in  general  dropsy,  and  with  great  speed  and  efficacy 
in  reducing  the  effusion ;  and  that  it  is  not  rendered  more  certain  by  any  ma- 
terial increase  of  the  dose.  They  further  found  that,  in  about  double  this  dose, 
»nd  sometimes  in  the  same  dose,  it  reduces  greatly  the  frequency  of  the  heart's 
action ;  and  that  the  dose  cannot  reach  the  one-twelfth  of  a  grain  without  pro- 
ducing nausea  and  symptoms  of  incipient  poisoning.  Dr.  Christison,  in  the 
Monthly  Journal  of  Medical  Science,  January,  1855,  gives  us  the  results  of  his 
experience  of  its  use.  He  believes  it  to  be  an  energetic  diuretic  and  sedative. 
His  first  two  trials  of  it  were  made  in  cases  of  extensive  renal  anasarca.  In  one 
case,  diuresis  commenced  towards  the  close  of  the  second  day,  and  in  the  other 
a  day  later ;  in  both  the  flow  was  profuse,  and. the  oedema  entirely  disappeared. 
He  commends  strongly  the  use  of  such  diuretics  as  digitalis,  squill,  and  bi-tar- 
trate  of  potash,  in  renal  dropsy.  He  has  not  found  them,  except  in  one  in- 
stance, increase  the  albumen  in  the  urine ;  and  believes  they  have  been  shunned 
on  grounds  purely  theoretical  and  baseless.  It  is  the  same  with  digitaline. 
In  the  first  of  the  two  patients,  the  albumen  quickly  and  greatly  diminished ; 
in  both  it  disappeared  at  last,  but  in  one,  after  some  days,  reappeared,  but  in 
diminished  proportion.  In  one  instance,  great  depression  of  the  hearf  s  action 
wag  brought  on,  instead  of  a  flow  of  urine.  He  thinks  it  very  likely  that  the 
diuretic  and  sedative  actions  do  not  concur.  He  gave  it  in  the  doses  recom- 
mended by  Homolle  and  Quevenne. — Association  Med.  Journal^  June  15,  1855, 
p.  565. 


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92  Pharmacy. 

NEW     FOKM     OF     A8TKISGENT     APPLICATION, 

By  Dr.  Wm.  Bayes^  hrighto)i, 

Piire  glycerine  dissolves  nearly  its  own  weight  of  tannin,  affording  a  very 
powerful  local  astringent  application. 

The  solution  of  tannin  in  pure  glycerine  appears  to  me  to  supply  a  desidera- 
•  turn  long  felt,  and  capable  of  a  great  variety  of  useful  applications. 

The  solvent  property  of  glycerine  over  tannin  allows  us  to  form  a  lotion  of 
any  desirable  strength,  as  the  solution  Is  readily  miscible  with  water. 

The  solution  of  tannin  in  glycerine,  in  one  or  other  of  its  strengths,  is  pecu- 
liarly applio4ible  to  many  disorders  of  the  mucous  membrane,  readily  com- 
bining with  mucous,  and  fanning  a  non-cvaporisable  coating  over  dry  mem- 
branes ;  hence  it  may  with  benefit  be  applied  to  the  mucous  membranes  of  the 
eye  and  ear  in  many  of  its  diseased  conditions.  It  forms  a  most  convenient 
'application  to  the  vaginal,  uterine,  urethral,  or  rectal  membranes,  where  a 
'Strong  and  non>irritant  a.stringent  lotion  is  desired. 

In  local  hemorrhages,  where  the  bleeding  surface  qin  easily  be  reached,  it 
will  prove  very  convenient,  and  may  bo  applied  either  with  a  sponge  or  small 
brush. 

The  solution  must  be  kept  in  the  dark,  and  should  not  be  prepared  for  any 
great  length  of  time  before  used,  or  decomposition  will  occur. 

It  is  singular  that  glycerine  does  not  possess  the  same  property  towards 
gallic  acid, — Amfeiation  Med.  Journal^  Sep.  29,  1854,  p.  886. 

1)R.\«EES    OF    TAK. 

This  substance  lias  long  enjoyed  a  reputation  a.s  a  valuable  therapeutic  agent, 
as  a  topical  remedy,  also  as  an  active  remedy  in  some  urinary  disorders.  For 
the  latter  purpose  it  has  usually  been  employed  in  the  form  of  a  solution  in 
water.  In  this  foim  of  exhibition  we  are  able  to  obtain  but  a  minute  portion 
of  its  active  principles,  at  the  most  not  to  exceed  foiu'teen  centigrammes  to  the 
litre  of  water.  M.  Dannecy  (pharmacien)  has  recently  overcome  the  difficulties 
encountered  in  the  way  of  its  exhibition  as  an  internal  medicament  by  com- 
bining it  with  magnesia.  The  Gazette  Hehdomadaire^  July  23d,  gives  us  the 
ibrmula  for  their  preparation,  as  follows : — 

Take  of  cold  Norwegian  tar  ad  lib.^  and  add  to  it  one^fifteenlh  its  weight  of 
calcined  magnesia.  After  mixing,  leave  the  substances  to  react  upon  them- 
eelves  for  five  hours,  in  a  cool  place,  as  a  cellar.  The  mixture,  at  this  time, 
l^ecomcs  easily  manipulated,  and  may  be  formed  into  dragrees  or  other  conve- 
nient forms,  and,  when  covered  with  sugar  aromatized,  is  divested  of  the  re- 
pugnant qualities  it  previously  possessed. 

Since  this  methed  has  been  devised  several  physicians  have  advantageously, 
combined  iron  or  quinine,  as  the  condition  of  the  patient  may  indicate ;  the 
mixture  is  not  incompatible  with  either. 


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Pharmacy.  98 

CHEAM'  8YRUP9. 

This  class  of  syrups  has  not  depreciated  in  public  favor,  when  dispensed  of 
good  quality.  But  the*  speedy  decomposition  which  the  cream  is  liable  to 
undergo,  and  the  trouble  of  procuring  it  at  all  times,  is  a  difficulty  which  it  is 
desirable  to  remedy  by  offering  a  substitute.  Below  is  a  recipe  for  Cream 
Syrup  which  has  gained  no  little  celebrity : — 

Take  of  01.  amygd.  dulcis  (recent) 2  f.  02. 

Pv.  gum  acaciie 2  oz. 

Aqnce  fontanas   9  ol. 

M.    ft.  cmulsio,  et  adde,  albumen  ovi,  No.  2,  sacch.  albi,  1  lb. 

M.  Dissolve  sugar  by  gentle  heat,  and  strain ;  fill  small  bottles  and  keep 
in  a  cool  place  well  corked.  This  preparation  is  easily  made  in  a  few  minutes, 
and  will  keep  for  a  long  time.  For  use,  mix  one  part  with  eight  of  any  of  the 
ordinary  syrups,  or  about  a  draclun  to  each  gla.ss,  Jt  forms  an  unequalcd 
orgeat  by  mixing  two  drachms  or  more  with  an  ounce  of  simple  sjTup,  and' 
flaror  with  a  mixture  of  bitter  almond  and  orangc-flowcr  water. 

COLLODION    AND    CASTOR-OIL  AS   AN  ARTIFICIAL  CUTICLE. 

The  mixture  has  l>een  tiscd  of  late  with  success  in  King's  College  Ho6;pital, 
as  an  application  to  bums  and  abrasions,  to  form  a  sort  of  artificial  cuticle.  It 
has  been  used  at  the  suggestion  of  Dr.  vSavage,  at  the  Samaritan  Hospital,  in 
two  cases  of  vesico-vaginal  fistula,  now  there  under  the  care  of  Mr.  Spencer 
Wells.  In  one  of  these  cases  there  is  a  recto-vaginal  fistula  also.  In  both  the 
excoriation  of  the  labia,  perinium,  and  thiglis,  from  the  constant  dribbling  of 
uriue  and  the  consequent  smarting,  has  been  very  distressing.  Extreme  clean- 
liness, careful  drying  of  the  parts,  and  the  use  of  simple  ointment,  afforded  but, 
little  relief.  The  mixture  of  one  part  of  collodion  to  two  parts  of  castor-oil  was 
•therefore  used,  and  feavo  the  most  marked  relief.  It  causes  some  smarting  for 
a  few  minutes  after  its  application,  but  it  then  forms  a  smooth  elastic  coating 
or  varnish,  which  resists  the  action  of  the  urine  for  many  hours,  and  effectually 
protects  the  exooriatedskin  from  the  irritating  fluid. — Medical  Tim  en  and  Oaz. 
Jan.  30,  1858,1^.  119. 

A  Tn5W  PRKPARATIOX  OF  SUPER PH08PHATB  OK  IRON  AND  LIMK. 
By  Dr.  Rouih. 
This  is  prepared  by  dissolving  phosphate  of  iron  and  phosphate  of  lime  in 
equal  proportions  in  hot  metaphosphoric  acid,  and  adding  sugar  to  the  solution 
to  make  a  syrup.  Some  years  ago  Dr.  Routh  recommended  the  syrup  of  the- 
supcrphospate  of  iron  (elsewhere  known  as  the  biphosphate  of  iron)  as  a  remedy 
for  weakly  children,  and  those  weak  adults  with  mental  disorders.  Its  uses  as 
such  had  been  since  amply  proved.  He  now  recommended  this  as  an  excel- 
lent remedy  in  rickets  and  weak  children  with  deficient  osseous  development 
It  was  very  pleasant  to  take,  and  did  not  bbckcn  the  stools.  It  was  prepared 
by  Mr.  Greenish,  of  New  Street,  Dorset  Square.  Each  ounce  of  the  syrup  con- 
tained five  gruns  of  Iron  and  five  of  phosphate  of  lime. — Lancet^  March  6, 
1868,  p.  260. 


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94 


Advertisements, 


EDWARD    PARRI8H, 

No.  800  Arch  Street,  Phila- 
delphia. 

(Author  of  the  "  Introdaction  to  Practical 
Pharmacy.**) 

PHARMACEUTIST,    CHEMIST, 

AKO  IMPOKTKB  OP 

FINS  DSXrOS  k  FBEPASATIOHS, 
Offers  to  Physidans  a  general  assortment  of  Medi- 
cines and  Medicinal  Wares,  of  which  the  following 
are  specially  recommended  :— 

Compoimd  Symp  of  tlie  PhoiphAtai  of  Ume, 

Iron,  Soda  and  Potaaia. 

("  Chemical  Food,**) 

This  admirable  tonic  is  adapted  to  supply  the 

waste  occurring  during  the  progress  of  chronic 

cUseases,  and  to  build  up  the  strength  wastad 

by  long  continued  111  health.    Put  up  In  1  lb. 

bottles,  at  $8  per  doc,  and  in  a  smaller  slse,  at 

$8.50  per  dosen. 

Olyoerolo  of  fhe  Hypophoqphitei, 
Used  in  the  treatment  of  Pulmonary  Consumption, 
and  as  a  tonic  in  cases  of  nenrous  and  general 
debility.  Sold  with  circulars  giving  its  composition, 
uses,  Ac,  at  $8  per  dozen  bottles. 

SYRUP  OF  THE  HTP0PH0SPHITE8, 
Similar  to  the  foregoing,  though  without  the  use 
of  Glycerin  in  its  preparation.    Price  $6  per  doc. 

IRON  LOZENGES. 
Each  containing  5  grains  of  Sub.  Carfo.  Iron,  flavor- 
ed with  Vanilla,  In  boxes,  at  1.75  per  doxen. 

PHOSPHATIC  LOZENGES, 
containing  the  ingredients  of  the   "Chemical 
food,**  in  solid  form.    $1.75  per  dosen. 

PHOSPHATE  OF  ZINC, 
A  new  remedy  in  E|pilepsy  and  other  nervous 
diseases.    Dose  8  to  5  grains. 

CrrRATB  OP  laoir  and  Stktohmia.  Dose,  8  grains. 
WISTAR*S  COUGH  LOZENGES. 
An  old  and  very  celebrated  ntlladelphia  prepara- 
tion.   Price  75  c  per  dosen. 

Jack80M*8  Couqh  Loskvobs,  $1.75  per  dosen. 

RESPIRATORS,  for  persons  with  weak  lungs  or 
throaty  as  a  filter  to  the  air,  and  a  preventive 
against  cold  on  leaving  heated  rooms,  and  for  use 
In  foggy  and  damp  weather.  Prices — of  Cork,  $1 ; 
SUver  Wire,  $1.50 ;  Gitt,  $2  each. 

PESSARIES,  elastic  ring  shaped,  S.  8.,  and 
horse-shoe,  Gutta  Pkscba,  constructed  on  the 
most  approved  principles,  and  so  as  to  be  worn 
for  months  without  becondng  offensive  or  losing 
their  perfect  surface. 

Fhyiieian't  Pretoriptioii  Setloi, 
Of  the  best  quality  and  accurate.    We  Import 
several  kinds  firom  $1  to  $8.50  each. 

Pookat  OtM  ftr  Xedidnot, 

Containing  17  bottles,  of  8  sixes,  well  corked,  and 
1  graduated  glass,  the  whole  of  convenient  size, 
and  accompanied  by  a  sheet  of  48  labels,  printed 
in  bronxe  on  steel  blue  paper,  and  ready  gummed 
for  use.  Price  $2  each.  Sold  and  sent  to  any 
part  of  the  country,  as  above. 


Tarrant's  Effervescent 
Seltzer   Aperient. 

This  valuable  and  popular  medidne,  prepared 
in  conformity  with  the  analysis  of  the  water  of  the 
celebrated  seltser  spring  In  Germany,  In  a  most 
convenient  and  portable  form,  has  universally 
received  the  most  fkvorable  recommendations  of 
the  medical  profession  and  a  discerning  public,  aa 
the  most  efficient  and  agreeable  Saline  Aperient 
In  use,  and  as  being  entitled  to  special  preference 
over  the  many  mineral  spring  waters,  seidlita 
powders,  and  other  similar  articles,  both  ft-om  Its 
compactness  and  greater  efficacy.  It  may  be 
used  with  the  best  effect  in  all  Bilious  and  Febrile 
diseases,  sick  Headache,  Loss  of  Appetite,  Indi- 
gestion, and  all  similar  complaints,  peculiarly  in- 
cident to  the  spring  and  summer  seasons. 

It  is  particularly  adapted  to  the  wants  of  travel- 
ers, by  sea  and  land,  residents  In  hot  climates, 
persons  of  sedentary  habits,  invalids  and  conva- 
lescents, captains  of  vessels  and  planters  will  find 
it  a  valuable  addition  to  their  medicine  chests. 
With  those  who  have  used  It,  It  has  hi|^  favor, 
and  is  deemed  indispensable 

In  a  torpid  wtaU  qf  1h^  lifter  It  renders  great 
service  in  restoring  healthy  action.  In  gout  and 
rheumatUm  it  gives  the  best  satbfactlon,  allay- 
ing all  Inflammatory  symptoms,  and  in  many 
cases  effectually  curing  those  aflOicted.  It»  suc- 
CMS  in  cases  o/ gravely  indigestion^  heartburn^ 
and  coHtitentss  proves  It  to  be  a  medidne  of  the 
greatest  utilitv.  Acidity  o/tAs  stomachy  and  ths 
distressing  sieknsse  so  usual  during  pregnancy 
yields  speedily  and  with  marked  success  under  Its 
healthfkil  influence.  It  affords  the  greatest  reli^ 
to  those  afflicted  with,  or  subject  to  ths  Piles, 
acting  gently  on  the  bowels,  neutraUsing  all  irri- 
tating secretions,  and  thereby  removing  all  in- 
flammatory tendencies.  In  fact,  it  Is  invaluable 
In  all  cases  where  a  gentle  aperient  or  purgative 
is  required. 

It  to  in  the  form  of  a  powder,  careftilly  put  up 
In  bottles,  to  keep  in  any  climate,  and  merely  re- 
quires water  poured  upon  it  to  produce  a  deligbt- 
tol  effervescent  beverage. 

Taken  In  the  morning,  it  never  interferes  with 
the  avocations  of  the  day,  acting  gently  on  the 
system,  restoring  the  digestive  powers,  exciting  a 
healthy  and  vigorous  tone  of  the  stomach,  and 
creating  an  elastldty  of  mind  and  flow  of  spirits 
which  give  sest  to  every  enjoyment.  It  also  en- 
ables the  invalid  to  enjoy  many  luxuries  with  im- 
punity, from  which  he  must  otherwtoe  be  debar- 
red, and  without  which  life  is  irksome  and  dis- 
tressing. 

Numerous  testlmoniato  fh>m  professional  and 
other  gentlemen  of  the  highest  standng  throughout 
the  country,  and  its  steaUy  increasing  popularity 
for  a  series  of  years,  strongly  guarantee  Its  effica- 
cy and  valuable  character,  and  commend  it  to 
the  favorable  notice  of  an  intelligent  public. 

Prepared  and  sold  wholesale  and  retail. 

Tarrait's  Compoaid  Extract  of 
Cabebs  ai4  Copaiba, 

Sanctioned  by  popular  opinion  and  high  authority 
of  the  most  distinguished  of  the  medical  faculty. 
It  offers  to  the  afflicted  a  remedy,  whose  success 
has  In  every  instance  supported  Its  deserved 
reputation.  Bdng  convenient  and  agreeable  in 
its  use,  experience  has  proved  that  it  retains  In 
every  climate  its  desirable  and  truly  valuable 
character.  It  is  In  the  form  of  a  paste,  is  tasteless, 
and  does  not  impair  the  digestion.  It  to  preparea 
with  the  greatest  possible  care,  upon  well-tested 


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THE 

JOUENAL  OF  MATEEIA  MEDICA 

AND 

PHARMAOEUTIO   FORMULARY. 

ieirt  APBIL,  1869.  [Series. 

Bemaxks  on  the  Influence  of  Climate^  Soil,  and  Cnltiyation 
on  Medicinal  Plants. 

BY  CHABLES  A.  LBS,  IC.  J>. 

SuOHT  observation  is  sufficient  to  show  that  the  nature  of  the 
T^getation  on  the  earth's  surface  is  greatly  influenced  by  climate 
and  localily.  The  organization  of  plants  proves  them  fitted  for 
different  soils,  and  different  amounts  of  light,  heat,  and  moisture. 
From  the  tropics  to  the  polar  circle,  the  Flora  is  constantly  chang 
ing  fix)m  the  palms,  bananas  and  orchids,  to  the  larches,  willows, 
mosses,  lichens  and  grasses  of  the  arctic  and  antarctic  regions.  The 
same  is  true  of  the  lofty  mountains  at  the  equator ;  different  heights 
exhibiting  the  different  Flora  of  different  latitudes.  Organic  life 
and  vigor  in  the  vegetable  kingdom,  other  things  being  equal, 
aeem  directly  proportioned  to  the  increase  of  temperature.  Heat, 
light  and  moisture  are  the  efficient  agents  in  the  promotion  of 
vegetable  growth ;  each  species  of  plants  can  bear  a  definite  range 
of  temperature,  and  each  species  requires  for  the  due  performance 
of  all  its  functions,  and  the  development  of  its  products,  a  certain 
amount  of  heat  A  plant  may  be  said  to  suit  a  particular  climate, 
when  it  not  only  lives  and  sends  out  leaves,  but  also  produces 
flowers  and  seeds,  and  elaborates  the  peculiar  products  on  which 
its  properties  depend.  Plants,  shrubs  and  trees  which  yield  tropical 
spices,  oils  and  resins,  can  not  be  expected  to  yield  ike  same  pro- 
ducts in  equal  proportion  in  the  temperate  zones.  Chmate  does 
not  depend  on  latitude ;  isotherms  are  to  be  regarded.  Plants,  like 
animals,  are  fitted  by  their  constitution  for  different  climates. 


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GEMEBAX  REMEOIE3.  \  Errhinos. 


Astringents. 

Tonics. 

Alteratives. 

Sedatives. 

Narcotics. 

General  Stimulants. 

Emollients. 

LOCAL    REMEDIES. 

Sialagogues. 


Diuretics. 

Diaphoretics. 

Cathartics. 

Emetics. 

Anthelmintics. 

Expectorants. 

Emmenagogues. 

Parturients. 

Chologogiics. 


INDIGENOUS   ASTRINGENTS. 

Astringents  have  been  defined  to  be  those  substances  that  pro- 
duce constriction  or  condensation  in  the  living  animal  fibre.  It 
is  no  explanation  of  their  modus  operandi  to  say,  that  they  produce 
these  efiects  by  causing  a  peculiar  excitement  in  the  living  con- 
tractile and  irritable  fibre ;  and  yet  this,  perhaps,  is  all  that  is 
known  on  the  subject  Headland  thinks  they  do  not  necessarily 
act  in  the  blood — ^that  they  do  not  pass  from  the  blood  to  the 
nerves — that  they  do  not  always  act  by  passing  out  of  the  body 
through  the  glands,  but  that  their  action  is  peculiar  yet  simple— 
that  they  act  directly  and  especially  on  muscular  fibre,  whether 
of  the  voluntary  or  involuntary  kind,  and  that  they  do  this 
through  the  medium  of  the  circulation.  Some  explain  the  opera- 
tion of  astringents  on  physical,  others  on  vital  principles,  through 
the  modifications  exerted  on  the  living  properties  and  actions  of 
the  secerning  vessels,  thus  checking  redundant  secretions  of  blood 
and  other  fluids,  in  virtue  of  that  change  of  vital  action.  This 
dynamic  effect,  however,  may  result  from  vital  reactions,  occasioned 
by  their  chemical  properties.  It  is  certain  that  most  astringents 
have  the  power  of  coagulating  or  precipitating  albumen ;  and  by 
virtue  of  this  power  to  constrict  many  dead  animal  matters,  as 
fibrinous  tissues.  That  they  are  absorbed  into  the  blood  is  abund- 
antly capable  of  demonstration — ^that  they  may  pass  through  the 
walls  of  the  capillaries  to  the  muscular  tissue,  is  highly  probable ; 
and  that  this  effect  may  follow  independent  of  any  influence  on 
the^ervous  system,  is  altogether  probable,  as  they  act  on  living 
vegetables.  Their  chemico-dynamic  action  is  doubtless  extended 
to  all  contractile  tissues,  and  perhaps  to  all  the  soft  solids  of  the 
body,  as  well  a.s  the  blood.  Over  the  unstriped,  involuntary  mXuB- 


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calar  fibres,  their  influence  is  slower  and  less  strongly  marked — 
but  mere  permanent  and  important  in  its  results ;  existing  as  these 
fibres  do,  in  the  coats  of  the  stomach  and  intestines,  the  middle 
coat  of  arteries,  the  lining  of  the  ducts  of  glands  generally,  in  the 
stlbstance  of  the  heart,  and  the  walls  of  capillary  vessels.  In  large 
doses  they  prove  irritant  and  poisonous ;  in  small  quantities  they 
give  tonicity  to  the  capillary  vessels — diminish  their  calibre — check 
hemorrhages  and  inordinate  secretions,  and  give  strength  to  muscu- 
lar contractions,  thus  counteracting  a  lax  state  of  the  system, 
and  proving  remedial  in  certain  morbid  conditions. 

As  styptics,  when  applied  to  bleeding  parts  externally,  they  co- 
agulate the  blood  by  their  chemical  action  on  albumen  and  fibrine, 
ihd  at  the  same  time  cause  constriction  by  influencing  the  vital 
properties  of  the  walls  of  the  vessels — ^witMn  the  blood  vessels, 
chemical  action  to  any  extent,  is  prevented  by  their  great  dilution, 
and  the  successful  resistance  of  the  same  vital  properties. 

No  class  of  remedies  has  been  employed  more  empirically  and 
injuriously  than  astringents.  If  prescribed  without  due  regard  to 
the  pathological  states  they  are  designed  to  correot,  they  prove  ex- 
tremely hazardous,  and  not  unfrequently  are  followed  by  fetal 
effects.  The  discharge  which  they  are  given  to  check  is  often 
instituted  by  nature  for  the  relief  of  congestion,  or  to  eliminate 
morbid  principles  from  the  blood,  and  can  not  be  suddenly  ar- 
rested with  impunity.  The  disease  is  overlooked,  while  a  symptom 
is  mistaken  for  it.  Hemorrhagic  effusions,  when  not  copious,  are 
the  consequences  of  a  secreting  process,  instituted  by  morbid 
states,  and  are  analagous  to  menstruation.  Of  course,  in  such 
cases,  they  are  not  to  be  suddenly  suppressed  as  a  matter  of 
course;  we  refer  more  particularly  to  h83matemesis,  haemoptysis, 
and  haemorrohidal  discharges,  as  well  as  diarrhea,  in  all  its  forms; 
leucorrhea,  gonorrhea,  &c.  Here,  nature  lays  the  foundation  of 
the  cure  in  tiiie  effusion  itself.  Interference  is  only  proper  where 
it  transcends  the  exigencies  of  the  case,  or  the  ability  of  the  sys- 
tem to  bear  it. 

The  indirect  or  remote  effects  of  astringents  are,  by  no  means, 
to  be  lost  sight  of  by  the  practitioner.  Besides  diminished  exha- 
lation and  secretion  from  all  the  mucous  and  serous  membranes  and 
of  the  skin,  and  the  increased  tonicity  of  muscular  fibre ;  we  find 
the  blood  accumulated  in  the  heart  and  larger  blood  vessels,  from 


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Let  on  Indigenous  Plants. 


the  diminislied  calibre  of  the  smaller  vessels  and  capillaries,  in 
consequence  of  which  plethora  may  ensue — ^reaction  take  place, 
with  a  full,  hard  pulse,  and  resulting,  perhaps,  in  serious  conges- 
tions or  hemorrhages.  Cerebral  congestion,  apoplexy  and  paralysis 
have,  doubtless,  resulted  from  such  plethora,  consequent  on  the 
check  given  to  the  secretions.  The  principal  rules  which  should 
govern  their  internal  administration  are,  to  av&d  their  use  in 
cases  of  febrile  or  inflammatory  excitement ;  where  general  pie 
thora  exists ;  where  excessive  secretion  is  dependent  on  active 
irritation ;  or  where  there  is  much  derangement  of  the  digestive 
organs.  To  these  rules  there  may  be  occasional  exceptions,  but 
in  genei^  they  will  hold  good.  Locally  they  are  applied  to  t^e 
akin,  eye,  ear,  mouth,  fauces,  larynx,  urethra,  rectum,  vagina,  &c. 
To  secuf  e  their  remote  effects  they  are  to  be  introduced  into  the 
stomach.  Tannic  and  gallic  acids  are  the  chief  astringent  princi- 
ples in  vegetables ;  other  agents,  as  opium  and  sedatives  generally, 
may  indirectly  prove  astringent,  by  allaying  morbid  action,  though 
not  belonging  to  astringents  proper. 

natural  Orders  of  Plants,  Indlsenovs  to  tJko  United  States,  contain- 
ing Genera,  bavins  Astringent  Properties* 


ORDER. 

GENERA. 

SPECIES. 

POPULAR  NAMES. 

AnacardiacesB 

RlltlS. 

R.  Glabra. 

Smooth  Sumach. 

{R,Browt,) 

Typhina. 

Stag  Horn  Sumach. 

Cashew  tribe. 

Copallina. 
Aromatica. 

Geraniaceas 

Geranium. 

R.  Maculatum. 

Cranesbill,  or  Crowfoot 

{Lind.) 

Carolinianum 

Geranium  tribe. 

Pusillum. 

Robertianum. 

Herb  Robert 

Bosacese. 

1.  Prunus. 

P.  Americana. 

Red  Plum— YeUow  Plum. 

(Jiteeien.) 

Ghioafia. 

Chickasaw  Plum. 

Roee  tribe. 

Maridma. 

Beach  Plum— Sand  Pium. 

2.  Cerasus. 

C.  Pumila. 

Sand  Cherry. 

Penngylva'ica 

Bird  Cherry— Wild  Rof^  Cherry, 

Virginiana. 

Wild  Cherry— Black  Chetry. 

Serotina. 

Choke  Cherry. 

Caroliniana. 

Ilidfolius. 

8.  Spiraea. 

S.   Opulifolia. 
Corymbosa. 

Nine-bark. 

SaUcifolia. 

Queen  of  the  Meadow. 
Meadow  Sweet 

Tomentosa. 

Hard-hack. 

Lobata. 

i.  Agrimonia. 

A.  Eupatoria. 

Agrimony. 

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188 


ORDER. 

GENERA. 

SPECIES. 

POPULAR  NAMES. 

Rosacess. 

5.  Geiim. 

G. 

Rivale. 

Strictum. 

Virginianum. 

Water  Arens. 
Yellow  Avens. 
White  Avens. 

6.  Fragaria. 

P. 

Virginiana. 

Vesca. 

Chilensis. 

Wild  Strawberry,  aearUL 
Alpine,  or  Wood  Strawberry. 
Chili  Strawberry. 

T.  Potentilla. 

P. 

Norwegica. 
Tridentata. 
Canadensis. 
Argentea. 

CinquefoiL 
Mountain  Potentilla. 
Common  CinquefoiL 
Silvery 

Shrubby         " 
Goose  Grass. 

Fruticosa. 

Anserina,  &c 

8.  Sangui8*ba. 

S. 

Canadensis. 

American  Great  Burnet 

9.  Rubus. 

R.  Villosus. 

High  Blackberry. 

Hispidus. 

Bristly 

Canadensis. 

Low 

Cuneifolius. 

Wedge-leaved  BUckberry. 

Odoratus. 

Flowering  Raspberry. 

Strigosus. 

Red  Wild 

Triflorus. 

Dwarf                 " 

10.  Rosa. 

R. 

Lucida. 
Nitida. 
Blanda. 
Setigcra,  &c. 

Wild  Rose. 
Shining  Rose. 
Bland 
Michigan  " 

Ericacese. 

1.  Vaccinium.;V. 

Rcsinosum. 

Black  Whortleberry. 

{UtaihworU.) 

! 

Corymbosum  Blue  Bilberry. 

' 

1 

Virgatum. 

Blue  Whortleberry. 

Pennsyrcum. 

Com.  Low  Blueberry. 

2.  Arbutus. 

A. 

Uva  Ursi. 

Bearberry. 

3.  Andromeda 

A. 

Calyculata. 

Bracted  Cassandria. 

Polyfolia.       j  Wild  Rosemary. 

Racemosa.      ■  Clustered  Zenobia. 

Arborea.         i  Sorrel  Tree. 

4.  Clethra.       C. 

Alnifolia.        i  Sweet  Pepper  Bush,  or 
1  White  Alder. 

5.  Epigaea.     |E. 

Repens.           ]  Trailing  Arbutus. 

6.  Ledum. 

L. 

Palustre. 

Labrador  Tea. 

7.  ChimaphilaC.  Umbellata. 
Maculata. 


Aquifoliaceae.  1.  Prinos. 
{HbUytcorU.)    I 


I  Princes  Pine — Pipsisa. 
;  Spotted  Wintergreen. 


8.  Monotropa.!M.  Uniflora.        1 1ndian  Pipe. 

jP.  Verticillatus.  •  Black  Alder,  or  Winterberry. 


Glaber. 


Ink  Berry. 


L 


Ebenacete.       jl.  Diospyrcs,  :D.  Virginiana.     i  Persimmon  Tree. 
{EbonadM,)  \  | 


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OBDER. 

GENERA. 

SPECIES. 

S.  Lunonum. 

POPULAR  MARES. 

Plumbaginsea 

I.  Statice 

Marsh  Rosemary. 

{LeaditorU.) 

Orobancha'jB 

1.  Orobanche. 

0.  Uniflora. 

One  flowered  Broomrape. 

{Broomrapes.) 

American. 

Squaw  root — Cancer  root 

2.  Epiphegus. 

£.  Virginiana. 

Beech  Drops,        "       " 

Hamamelacese 

1  Hamamelis. 

H.  Virginica. 

Witch  HazeL 

Oupuliferse. 

1  Qucrcus. 

Q.  Alba. 

White  Oak. 

(M<uttcori6.) 

Macrocarpa. 

Overcup  " 

SteUata. 

Iron 

Olivaeformis. 

Mossy-cup  Oak* 

Rubra. 

Red 

Tinctoria^ 

Black 

Coccinea. 

Scarlet 

Elongata,  &c. 

Spanish         '' 
Chestnut 

2.  Castanea. 

C.  Vesca. 

Pumilla. 

Dwarf  Chestnut 

3.  Corylus. 

C.  Americana. 

Hazel  Nut 

Rostrata. 

Beaked  Hazel. 

4.  Fagus. 

F.  Sylvatica. 
Americana. 

White  Beech. 

Myrice®. 

1.  Myrica. 

M.  Gale. 

Sweet  Gale. 

Cerifenu 

Bayberry—Wax  Myrtle 

2.  Oomptonia. 

C.  Asplenifolla. 

Sweet  Fern. 

Salicacese. 

1.  Salix. 

S.  Tristis. 

Sage  Willow. 

iWUlowworU) 

Candida. 

White      ** 

Nigra. 

Black       " 

Prinoides. 

Prinos  leaved  Willow^ 

Grisea. 

Grey                      " 

Sazifragaceea. 

Heuchera. 

U.  Americana. 

Alum  Root 

(JSam^affes.) 

Pubescens. 

Lythracess. 

Lythnim. 

L.  Salicaria. 

Loose  Strife. 

iLooee  Stripes.) 

Nymphseacese 

1.  Nymphaea. 

N.  Odorata. 

Water  Lily. 

{Water  LllUs.) 

2.  Nuphar. 

N.  Advena. 

Yellow  Pond  Lilly. 

CabombaceaB. 

Brasenia. 

B.  Peltata. 

Water  Target 

{Water  Shields.) 

Hypericaceje. 
{fiLJohn^aWorte.) 

Hynericum 

H.  Perforatum. 
Corymbosum 

St  John's  Wort 
Spotted 

Canadense. 

Canadian        '^ 

Hippocasta'sD 

1.  Aesculus. 

A.  GUbra. 

Ohio  Buckeye. 

[Buck  Eyee.'\ 

Flava. 

Big 

Pavia. 

SmaU       " 

Rhamnaceae. 

Ceanothus. 

C.  Americanus. 

Jersey  Tear-Red  Root. 

{Buekthome.) 

0.  Ot^IIh. 

OTal  leared  Oeftaothni. 

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185 


ORDER. 

) 

!         GENERA. 

L 

1.  Hsematox. 

) 

SPECIES. 

H.  Campeach. 

POPULAR  NAMES. 

Leguminosas 

Logwood. 

Sanuncu]ac*8e!  Hepatica. 

iCnnc/boU.)     j 

H.  Triloba. 

Liverwort. 

Cistacese. 

jHelianthem*m!H.  Canadense. 

Frost  plant— Rock  Rose. 

Berberidaceae 

[Btrhtridii\ 

Berberis. 

1 

B.  Vulgari.s. 

Barberry  Bush  (fruit) 

XJlmaceae. 

[Elnt  WortM.^ 

Ubwus. 

( 

1              1 

U.  Americana. 
<      Fulva.             ! 

American  Elm  (bark.  > 
Slippery  Elm 
Cork 

Conifereae. 

[OofUftr<\ 

Abies. 

|A.  Canadensis.     1 

1                             1 

Hemlock  (bark.) 

Pinus. 

1                             1 

P.  Rigida.            .  Pitch  pine,  (oleo  resin.) 
!      Resinosa.          Norway  pine,       ** 
1      Variabilis.       !  Yellow       - 

Labiatae.  h.  Collin8onia.,C.  Canadensis.      Horse  Balm— Rich  weed 

lLabiaUplantry\  \  | 

2.  Lycopus.     jL.  Virginkus.      j  Bugle  Weed. 


Trililacefle. 
Polygonaceffi. 


Oompositae. 

[JMtrworUJ] 


Trillium. 
Rumex. 


Polygonum. 
Erigeron. 


Solidago. 

Oleaceae.  Ligustrum. 

BoraginacesB.   Pulmonaria. 
[Borage  tribt."] 

Cynoglossum. 


T.  Pendulum. 

Oemuiun. 

Erectum. 
R.  Crispus. 

Aquaticus. 

Sanguineus. 

Britannica. 

Obtusifolius. 

P.  Aviculare. 

£.  Canadense. 
Bellidifolium. 
Philadelphicu. 
Strygosum. 

I      American. 

I 

S.  Virga  Aiu'ea. 
Odora. 

L.  Vulgare. 


Drooping  Trillium. 

Beth  Root— Birth  Root 
"        **     Wake  Robin. 

Yellow  Dock. 

Water      " 

Bloody  Veined  Dock, 
j  British  Water  Dock. 
\  Blunt  leayed  Dock. 

Knot  Grass. 

I  Common  Flea  Bane. 
j  Poor  Robin*s  Plantain. 
'  Philadelphia  Flea  Bane, 
i  White  Weed. 
Sweet  Scabious  Daisy. 

Common  Golden  Root 

!  Sweet  Scented        " 

! 

Common  Privet 
(Bark  and  Leaves.) 


L  P.  Virgin ica.  '  Virginia  Lungwort. 
2.  C.  Officinalii. 


Wild  Comfrey. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ  IC 


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Lee  on  Lidigenous  Plants^ 


Uinbelliferaa 
lUnibMi/,  tribe,] 


Cr&ssulaceae. 
[ffau96ieekPribe\ 
Compositae. 


Comus. 

Sedum. 
CdIcus. 


SPECIES. 


C.  Florida. 
Altemifolia. 
Circinata. 
Sericea, 

S.  Ternatum. 

C.  Lanceolatum. 
Altisimum. 
Virginianum. 


Onopordoa     |0.  Acanthium.      Cotton  Thistle. 


POPULAR  NAMES. 


Dogwood. 

Alternate  leaved  Dogwood. 

Round         "  ** 

Swamp 

Stone  crop  " 

House  Leek. 
Thistle,  common. 


Such  are  the  principal  natural  orders  and  genera,  including  spe- 
cies of  plants  possessing  astringent  properties,  indigenous  to  our 
country.  There  are  some  others,  but  of  too  little  consequence  to 
need  particular  mention ;  some  of  them  combine  other  valuable 
properties  with  astringent,  as  the  different  species  of  comus,  uhnus, 
rumex,  &c.  Those  in  which  a  tonic  principle  predominates,  will 
be  classified  hereafter.  The  above  list,  which  might  be  considerably 
extended,  will  show,  that  however  deficient  our  native  materia 
medica  may  be  in  some  classes  of  medicines,  yet,  that  it  abounds 
in  those  plants  posseesng  astringency,  and  to  such  extent,  that  W6 
may  be  wholly  independent  of  foreign  countries  for  our  supply  of 
articles  of  this  class.  In  nearly  all  the  above  named  articles  the 
astringency  is  evidently  due  to  tannic  and  gallic  acids;  although 
these  are  not  claimed  as  the  only  astringent  matters  in  the  vegeta- 
ble kingdom,  for  we  find  that  some  of  the  alkaloids,  neutrals,  resin- 
oids,  oleo-resins,  &c.,  have  also  a  styptic  power  as,  quinia^  cinchonxia^ 
strychnia^  co^min^  gentianin,  geramn,  hematoxylin^  myridn^  pruning 
ergoiin^  turpentine^  &c.  We  are  not,  however,  to  confound  all 
medicaments  that  restrain  fluxes,  with  true  astringents ;  for  in  that 
case,  blood-letting,  demulcents,  narcotics,  sedatives,  revulsives,  Ac., 
would  belong  to  that  class.  The  per  centage  of  tannic  acid  yielded 
by  our  different  astringent  plants  varies  extremely — ^from  2  to  40 
per  cent,  or  more.  Thus  our  common  elm  bark  has  about  6  per 
cent;  inner  bark  of  white  oak,  26;  uva  ursi,  36;  marsh  rose- 
mary, 15 ;  pomegranate,  18 ;  sumach,  16  to  25 ;  sweet  fern,  80 ; 
willow,  8  to  10  per  cent,  &c.  It  is  to  be  recollected  that  astringent 
barks,  roots,  &c.,  are  to  be  collected  in  the  spring,  as  they  contain 
a  much  larger  amount  of  tannin  at  that  season  than  at  any  other. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


Krameria  Triandra,  137 

Erameria    Triandra. 

{Rhaiany,) 

We  are  indebted  to  Buiz,  an  eminent  Spanish  botanist,  for  our 
acquaintance  with  this  remedy.  He  discovered  its  medical 
properties  in  1784,  but  he  did  not  publish  the  results  of  his  ex- 
periments till  1796,  and  his  work,  inserted  in  the  memoirs  of  the 
Bojal  Academy  of  Madrid,  was  translated  in  1808 ;  soon  i^r 
the  attention  of  other  European  practitioners  had  been  called  to 
the  astringent  qualities  of  the  drug. 

Ph^hffical  action  oj  BhaUmy. — ^Taken  in  small  doses  the  ex- 
tract of  rhatany  produces  in  the  region  of  the  stomach  a  distres- 
.sing  sense  of  heaviness,  and  centimes  of  sharp,  cutting  pains ; 
digestion  is  more  difficult  and  constipation  ensues  almost  imme- 
diately. A  short  time  after  the  exhibition  of  this  remedy,  the 
patient  experienoes  a  general  uneasiness,  slightly  pronoimced  when 
the  rhatany  has  been  given  to  a  man  in  health ;  very  marked,  on 
the  contrary,  when  it  has  been  administered  for  the  arrest  of  he- 
morrhage, and  when  the  therapeutic  end  has  been  attained.  This 
tmeasiness  manifests  itself  especially  by  yawnings,  by  great  efforts 
at  respiration,  and  by  very  painful  constrictions  of  the  chest. 
These  effects  are  common  to  timnin,  to  kino,  to  catechu,  in  fact  to 
.  all  substances  that  contain  a  large  proportion  of  taimin. 

Thempeutic  action  of  Bhatany. — The  extract  of  rhatany  has 
formed  a  special  use  in  the  treatment  of  severe  hemorrhages,  being 
one  of  the  most  powerfiil  hemostatics  we  possess.  It  is  employed 
likewise,  under  the  samecircumstanoes  as  tannin ;  chronic  diarrheas, 
chronic  pulmonary  catarrhs,  uterine,  vaginal,  urethral,  &c. ;  topi- 
cally, in  atonic  ulcers,  on  relaxed  tissues,  such  as  the  inguinal 
ring  in  hernia,  in  the  naevi  maiemi,  in  chronic  oedema. 

Khatany  has  been  highly  lauded  as  a  remedy  in  hemoiThages  of 
an  atonic  character,  when  the  blood  flows  away  from  the  small 
vessels,  because  the  tissues  of  which  they  form  a  part,  have  under- 
gcme  a  feeble  degeneration,  or  are  the  seat  of  a  congestion  which 
holds  them  in  a  state  of  tume£Eiction,  and  when  the  relaxed,  dilated 
vascular  orifices  offer  less  hindrance  to  the  passage  of  the  fluid 
than  they  receive.  Its  styptic  influence  has  arrested  the  flow  of 
.blood  in  hemoptyas,  epistaxis,  hematuria,  dysentery,  uterine 
flooding,  tfc. 


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138  Krameria  Triandra. 

It  is  recommended  in  cardialgia  and  nervous  irritability,  m 
connection  with  a  camphorated  mixture  in  typhus  fever,  in  fluor 
albus  and  menorrhagia.  When  taken  into  the  stomach  it  tinges 
the  foecal  evacuations  of  a  red  color,  which  coloration  remains  two, 
sometimes  three  days,  and  even  more  after  the  patient  has  ceased 
taking  it.  It  does  not  materially  aflfect  the  color  of  the  urine,- 
though  it  duninishes  the  quantity  of  the  secretion.  The  impression^ 
that  the  substance  makes  on  the  buccal  cavity  shows  a  very 
marked  tonic  property  and  this  impression  is  continued  through- 
out the  entire  digestive  duct  Wherever  it  is  desired  to  effect  the 
contraction  of  the  tissues  of  an  organ,  to  arouse  or  increase  the 
tone,  the  vigor  of  the  tissues,  to  combat  atony  or  relaxation  or 
any  surfEuse  or  organic  apparatus,  the  use  of  this  agent  can  be  re- 
curred to  with  confidence. 

In  inflammation  of  the  buccal  membrane  provoked  by  the  use- 
of  mercury,  in  certain  ulcerated  forms  of  inflammation  of  tiie  gums,, 
for  moderating  and  reducing  the  pain  in  idcerations  of  the  mucous* 
membranes,  and  as  an  application  to  bums,  ulcers  and  blisters  on- 
the  skin,  rhatany  effects  a  decrease  of  pain  with  a  marvellous- 
rapidity. 

Excellent  results  have  been  experienced  fix)m  its  employment 
in  hemorrhoidal  and  dysenteric  tenesmus.  In  these  cases,  after 
each  evacuation,  the  patient  should  raise  himself  fix)m  his  seat,  re- 
sisting the  efforts  of  expulsion  and  make  inmiediate  application  of 
a  lotion,  or  a  tolerably  free  injection  of  a  weak  infusion  of  rhatany* 

That  a  substance  which  makes  so  lively  a  styptic  impression  ort 
the  organs,  should  arrest  morbid  evacuations,  bloody  discharges^ 
is  a  result  not  at  all  surprising  when  its  effects  on  the  living  tissue  are 
understood.  Rhatany  always  excites  a  contraction  of  unnaturally 
dilated  openings  in  ihe  tissues :  its  characteristic  action  is  that  of 
dissipating  bloody  congestions,  when  it  exists  on  a  surfiu^  and  when 
the  old,  permanent  congestion  has  brought  about  an  atony  of  the 
capillary  vessels.  In  this  way  it  is  able  to  decide  the  cicatrisation 
of  supc^cial  ulcers.  An  hemorrhage  is  always  a  symptomatic 
phenomenon,  and  it  is  to  the  lesions  which  occasion  the  passage 
of  the  blood  out  of  the  canals  that  attention  must  be  directed  be- 
fore determining  whether  this  should  be  the  remedy  used.  It  is 
certain  tiiat  the  effect  of  this  substance  will  not  be  &vorable,  when 
the  bloody  or  humoral  evacuations  are  occasioned  by  a  violent 


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Krameria  Tnandra,  189 

inflamation  of  the  parts  which  furnish  them ;  or,  indeed,  when  the 
hemorrhages  are  supported  by  a  superabundance  of  blood  or  a 
state  of  plethora.  It  is  as  contrary  to  the  pharmacologic  doctrine 
as  to  the  results  of  experience,  to  believe  that  this  agent  can  never 
do  harm — ^that  its  use  ig  never  restrained  by  the  prospect  of  trouble- 
some results.  The  danger  offered  to  the  employment  of  any 
remedy,  badly  applied,  prescribed  at  an  improper  time,  is  in  pro- 
portion always  to  its  therapeutic  energy. 

In  softening  of  the  tissues  of  the  heart,  in  the  dilatations  of  the 
ventricles  of  this  viscus,  this  agent  can  be  employed  with  confi- 
denca  These  lesions  are  very  frequent  and  produce  numerous 
symptoms.  When  there  is  no  immediate  irritation  of  this  organ 
and  no  inflammation,  the  daily  use  of  rhatany  is  beneficial.  The 
repeated  impression  of  the  molecules  of  this  substance  on  the  tis- 
sues of  the  heart,  corrects  its  morbid  softness,  produces  a  con- 
traction of  the  fibres  which  compose  it,  tending  continually  to 
bring  back  the  dimensions  to  the  natural  size.  With  the  same  in- 
tention and  with  like  effect  it  can  be  given  in  hemoptysis,  pro- 
voked by  a  soft  degeneration  of  the  pulmonary  tissue. 

When  rhatany  is  administered  in  cases  of  looseness,  diarrhea 
and  the  like,  and  when  there  is  any  irritation  or  inflammation  in 
the  intestinal  canal,  it  produces,  after  ingestion,  a  sense  of  heat  in 
the  epigastrium,  and  in  the  abdomen,  which  spreads  to  the  sides 
of  the  body  and  even  to  the  limbs.  The  throat,  the  tongue,  the 
mouth  become  dry ;  there  is  thirst,  cardialgia,  vomiting,  distress 
in  the  intestines,  flatulence,  cholic,  &c. :  the  evacuations  become 
more  abxmdant  If  the  irritation  and  inflammation  are  moderate, 
if  they  are  of  considerable  continuance,  these  accidental  effects  are 
appeased  uAev  a  few  doses  of  the  substance.  The  morbid  sympt- 
oms that  previously  existed  become  less  violent ;  after  an  apparent 
augmentation  of  the  malady,  there  is  a  decided  improvement  in 
the  symptoms.  There  arc  fewer  evacuations,  the  stools  are  less 
liquid,  they  become  thicker,  and  lose  their  fetidity ;  there  is  more 
heat  at  the  anus  in  evacuation,  the  cholic  subsides,  the  belly  is 
supple,  the  strength  increases,  there  is  more  appetite,  the  complex- 
ion brightens,  it  is  evident  that  the  rhatany  has  proved  salutary. 
There  is  no  need  of  anxiety  by  the  effects  produced  on  the  first 
administration  of  rhatany.  This  substance,  in  order  to  bring  up 
the  intestinal  tissues  to  Iheir  normal  condition,  has  to  combat  and 
subdue  the  lesions  with  which  it  is  affected. 

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140  Krameria  Triandra, 


• 


M.  Soubeirau  made  in  1834:  an  examination  of  this  root,  which 
he  published  in  the  Jour,  de  Pharm.^  in  which  he  says : — 

"  Vogel,  Gmelin,  Peschier  and  TromsdorflF,  examined  this  root^ 
and  if  some  points  connected  with  its  analysis  are  not  completely 
elucidated,  yet  its  chemico  medical  history  has  been  fiill j  developed. 
Bhatany  contains  tannin  in  three  states: — 1st  Pure;  in  which 
case  it  is  colorless,  and  possesses  all  its  peculiar  properties.  2d. 
In  a  state  insoluble  in  water,  resulting  £jx>m  the  alteration  of  the 
tannin  by  contact  with  the  air;  in  this  state  it  has  lost  its  solu- 
bility and  astringency.  3d.  In  the  form  of  extractive,  this  is  a 
soluble  combination  of  pure  tannin  with  No.  2,  and  gives  to  the 
fluid  preparations  of  rhatany  their  characteristic  red  brown  color. 
This  root  also  contains  a  small  proportion  of  gum,  a  little  fecula, 
some  jsaccharine  matter,  and  an  acid  whose  properties  are  not  yet 
fully  determined." 

The  analyses  referred  to  are  imperfect  and  conflicting.  In  some 
cases  the  root  was  used,  in  others  the  watery  extract,  and  again 
the  bark  of  the  root ;  oon^ion  arises  where  compa^rison  is  made, 
because  the  classification  of  the  elements  is  not  the  same  in  each 
report.  The  tannic  and  gallic  acids  being  included  in  the  coloring 
matter  and  given  as  tannin,  whUe  in  the  annexed  analysis  we  give 
all  the  constituent  elements  separately,  and  shall  refer  to  the  par- 
ticulars at  another^  time. 

ANALYSIS   OF   RHATANV. 

Organic  matter,          ...        -  98.60 

Inorganic      " 6.40 

100 

Gum  and  Albumen,            -        -  1-257 

Sugar, 0.285 

Extractive  matter,      -        -        -  0.628 

Starch, 1.064 

Tannin,              -        -        .        .  8.928 

Coloring  matter,  (Resin)       -        -  20.578 

Soluble  Salts,             -        -        -  0.878 

Insoluble   "          ....  5.428 

Lignin,  etc.       ....  65.954 

100.000 


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Frasera   CaroHnensis,  141 

Fraaera  Caroli2ieD8is.--(Fxasera  Watteri.) 
{American  Cbhimbo.) 

BT  H.  G.  LUlKUUCBir,  U.  D.,  FRANKLIN,  N.  C. 

I  wish  to  call  Ae  attention  of  the  profession  to  the  virtues  of 
this  plant ;  it  has  not  receiTed  that  attention  from  medical  teach- 
ers and  writers  upon  materia  medica  to  which  its  rirtues  entitle  it 

It  k  a  beantifiil  and  stately  plant,  growing  west  of  the  Alle- 
ghanies,  in  the  middle  and  southern  states,  on  the  border  of  lakes 
and  in  rich  soils;  its  peculiar  habitat,  however,  is  variously 
described  by  various  botanists.  It  is  found  abunda&ily  in  the 
western  part  of  North  Carolma,  upper  part  of  Georgia,  and  eastern 
Tennessee. 

It  is  one  of  the  tallest  of  our  native  herbaceous  planla,  growing 
from  three  to  eight  feet  high ;  is  one  of  the  first  which  appears  in 
the  spring — flowers  in  June  and  July;  which,  however,  together 
with  the  stems  are  produced  only  in  tiie  third  year,  the  radical 
leaves  being  the  only  part  of  the  plant  which  previously  appear 
above  ground ;  it  deserves  cultivation,  if  not  for  its  medicinal 
properties  at  least  as  an  ornament  to  our  gardens.  The  generic 
name  of  Frasera  was  bestowed  upon  it  by  Walter,  in  commemora- 
tion of  Mr.  John  Fraser,  a  botanical  collector,  to  whose  industry 
and  exertions  the  gardens  of  England  were  indebted  for  numbers 
of  rare  plants. 

The  roots  are  large  and  fleshy ;  in  drying  it  shrinks  very  much.  4 
The  experiments  I  have  frequenfly  made  in  this  respect,  give 
upon  an  average  eighteen  or  twenty  ounces  of  dried  to  five  pounds 
of  green  root.  When  collected  the  roots  should  be  cut  into 
transverse  slices  and  dried  rapidly  in  a  drying  room  or  in  the  sun; 
otherwise  in  a  partially  dried  state,  in  damp  weather  it  rapidly 
absorbs  moisture  and  moulds,  losing  its  rich  yellow  color,  and 
hnparting  its  properties,  as  is  the  case  with  many  of  our  native 
articles  of  the  vegetable  materia  medica.  Much  diversity  of  opin- 
ion appears  to  have  existed  as  to  the  value  of  the  medicinal 
properties  of  this  plantr-by  some  considered  equal,  if  not  su- 
perior to  the  foreign  columbo,  while  others  considered  it  of  little 
Titilily ;  although  regarded  by  ikem  as  inferior  in  bitterness  and 
tonic  properties  to  the  foreign ;   it  was  acknowledged  as  an 


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142  Frasera    Oarolinensis. 

efficacious  bitter,  capable  of  producing  the  usual  eflfects  of  this 
class  of  remedies  when  properly  administered ;  and  much  allow- 
ance must  be  made  for  the  opinions  concerning  its  properties,  as 
we  are  not  informed  whether  in  the  experiments  named  it  was  used 
in  the  recent  or  dried  state,  for  it  should  be  noticed  that  its  tonic 
properties  are  only  developed  when  the  root  has  been  perfectly 
dried.    In  the  recent  state  it  proves  both  emetic  and  cathartic. 

Dr.  ZoUickofFer  states  "as  far  as  my  experience  goes,  I  am 
able  to  speak  in  favor  of  its  medicinal  operation.  In  several  cases 
of  a  relaxed  state  of  the  stomach  and  bowels  in  which  I  have  pre- 
scribed it,  I  have  found  it  competent  to  restore  the  appetite  and 
increase  the  digestive  powers  very  considerably." 

Dr.  Hildreth,  of  Ohio,  states  "  that  from  tiie  experiments  he 
has  made  with  it,  he  is  induced  to  believe  it  fully  equal,  if  not 
superior  to  the  imported,  and  mentions  a  case  of  gangreen  of  the 
lower  exta-emities,  in  which  it  had  proved  successful,  after  bark 
and  other  remedies  had  failed." 

My  personal  experience  with  this  article  has  been  very  satis- 
factory, and  has,  I  believe,  been  sustained  by  others  in  this  im- 
mediate district,  who  have  given  it  a  fair  trial  and  observed  closely 
its  effects.  It  was  largely  used  by  the  Cherokee  Indians  prior  to 
their  removal  from  this  country  to  Arksansas,  and  is  very  much 
used  by  the  country  people  in  " domestic  practice"  at  the  present 
time. 

As  a  tonic  it  is  of  unquestionable  value  in  dyspepsia.  I  know 
of  no  remedy  that  excells  it,  either  administered  alone  or  in  com- 
bination ;  in  complicated  cases,  as  with  other  remedies  if  combined 
its  efficiency  is  increased.  Many  persons  in  this  section,  troubled 
with  dyspepsia  or  indigestion,  chew  the  root  daily  with  marked 
benefit.  As  a  tonic  and  stomachic  it  is  similar  to  gentian,  and 
may  be  used  in  cases  where  gentian  is  indicated. 

It  has  proved  valuable  in  my  practice  in  dysentery,  cholera 
morbus,  cholera  infantum,  and  bilious  cholic. 

In  sickness  of  the  stomach,  incident  to  pregnancy,  it  acts  like 
a  charm.  I  have  never  had  a  case  when  it  not  only  immediately 
relieved  all  nausea  and  gickness,  but  So  invigorated  the  system  as 
to  prevent  a  return  of  all  the  disagreeable  symptoms. 

In  bilious  cholic  I  prepare  a  strong  tincture  of  dried  root,  and 
give  it  in  teaspoonful  doses  every  half  hour  until  the  disease  yields, 


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Remarks  on  Concentrated  Preparations^  etc.  148 

and  in  severe  cases  combine  with  valerian  and  conium  as  follows : — 
Tincture  Frasera,  -  -  .  .  One  Ounce. 

Fluid  Extract  Valerian,        -  -  ...  " 

"  Conium,  -  -  -  -  One  Dram. 

Dose — ^A  teaspooniul  eyery  half  or  every  hourf  according  to  circumstances. 

From  the  bruised  root  treated  by  ether,  I  have  obtained  a  yel- 
low crystalizable  substance,  much  resembling  columbin.  I  hope, 
at  another  time  to  give  in  detail  its  use  in  a  number  of  cases,  and 
refer  to  the  experiments  of  others  in  determining  its  active  princi- 
ple. In  the  meantime  it  would  be  interesting  if  others  having 
given  this  article  any  attention  would  conamunicate  their  ob- 
servations. 


Bemarks  on  Concentrated  Preparations,  Simple  Tests  and 
Easy  Method  of  Analysis. 

CONSTITUENTS    OF   PLANTS.  ^ 

Without  entering  into  the  particulars  of  nutrition  and  the  general 
subject  of  v^etation,  I  propose  briefly  as  possible  to  consider  the 
constituent  elements  of  v^etablee,  their  properties,  &c.,  and 
then  pass  to  the  consideration  of  the  main  subject  of  my  articles. 

In  considering  the  chemical  properties  of  a  vegetable,  we  will 
divide  them  into  three  classes. 

1st  Indifferent  or  neutral  principles. 

2d.  Acid  principles. 

3d.  Alkaloid  principles. 

Indifferent  Princples — ^These  principles  are  so-called  be- 
cause they  have  no  acid  or  alkaline  properties,  and  combine  with 
both ;  these  principles  are  numerous,  the  most  important  of  them 
we  shall  only  consider. 

1st.  CkUuhse.'-'formtUa  C."  H.**  0.**  is  the  substance  which 
is  left  after  the  action  upon  any  kind  of  vegetable  tissue  of 
such  solvents  as  are  fitted  to  dissolve  out  the  matter  deposited  in 
its  cavities  and  instertices;  is  a  flexible  mass,  insoluble  in  water, 
alcohol,  ether,  alkalies,  concentrated  hydrochloric  and  nitric  acid; 
destructive  distillation  convertEi  it  into  coal,  keeping  the  form  of 
the  cell ;  sulphuric  acid  transforms  it  into  dextrine ;  boiling  a  long 
time  in  diluted  sulphuric  acid  converts  it  into  grape  sugar  ;  iodine 
colors  it  a  pale  yellow.    In  the  process  of  vegetable  organization 


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144  liemarks  on  Cbncentrated  Preparations,  Ac 

cellulose  is  converted  into  wood  or  lignin  and  cork  substance ;  bj 
other  chemical  processes  it  is  converted  into  starch. 

Lignin  or  woody  substance  constitutes  the  fibrous  structure  of  al\ 
vegetable  substances;  is  insoluble  in  alcohol,  water,  and  the 
dilute  acids.  Soluble  \A  caustic  potassa ;  slightly  soluble  in  con^ 
centrated  sulphuric  acid;  by  boiling  for  some  time  in  diluted 
sulphuric  acid  it  is  converted  into  grape  sugar;  digested  in  nitric 
acid  it  is  converted  into  oxalic  acid. 

Cork  substance  is  very  similar  to  the  lignin,  it  is  insoluUe 
in  suljdiuric  acid,  and  not  completely  soluble  in  caustic 
potash.  M.  C!heyreul  has  extracted  from  it  a  greasy  matter  called 
suberine. 

2d.  Starch.— G.'^  H.*'  O."  Starch  is  found  in  every  vegetable^ 
and  all  parts  of  them;  is  quite  insoluble  in  cold  waier;  solu* 
ble  in  hot  water.  When  allowed  to  stand  with  water  it  ig, 
decomposed  and  converted  first  into  dextrine,  then  into  gn^ 
sugar,  and  la^  into  acetic  and  lactic  acids.  Boiled  in  diluted  sul- 
phuric acid  it  is  converted  into  dextrine,  and  by  further  action 
into  grape  sugar;  by  boiling  in  nitric  acid,  it  gives  oxalic  and 
mucic  acids;  with  iodine  it  produces  compounds  of  intense  blue 
color,  which  is  its  most  r^ouurkabie  property. 

8d.  Dextrine.— C.'*  H."  0."»  This  substance  is  of  a  yellowv 
ish  dark  brown  color,  insoluble  in  alcohol  and  ether;  solu- 
ble in  water;  diluted  sulphuric  acid  transforms  it  into  grape 
sugar. 

4th.  Sugar  is  an  abundant  vegetable  product  existing  in  the 
juices  of  many  plants.  We  meet  with  the  varieties  called  oane , 
sugar,  grape  sugar,  sugar  of  miZfe,  Jruii  sugar  and  treacle;  their 
properties  are  quite  familiar  to  every  one.  In  analysis  it  is. 
frequently  the  practice  to  dispose  of  the  sweet  substance  found  in 
vegetables,  as  sugar,  or  include  it  in  the  extractive  matter.  I  pro- 
pose to  make  a  distinct  dasnfioaAion,  because  the  varieties  are  capa- 
ble of  isolation  and  of  being  determined.  Oane  sugur  digested  in 
diluted  sulphuric  or  muriatic  acid  is  converted  into  grape  sugar ; 
with  stronger  adds  it  is  changed  into  two  brown  substances  in- 
soluble in  water,  cme  of  them  soluUe,  the  other  insoluble  in  alka- 
line liquors ;  with  nitric  aeid  it  is  converted  into  oxalic  acid;  of 
the  varieties,  however,  I  shall  tspesk  at  ancib^  time. 

5th.  Bxtin  or  vegetable  gelatine. — ^This  substance  which  is  to  be , 


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Bemarhs  on  Concentrated  Preparations^  Jcc.  145 

carefullj  distinguished  from  animal  jelly.  Pectin  is  found  in 
almost  every  kind  of  plant,  and  distributed  through  all  their  parts ; 
but  more  generally  in  the  juice  of  fruits ;  is  an  opaque  substance 
when  dried  and  powdered,  if  mixed  with  water,  it  swells  up  and 
forms  a  jelly.  Diluted  sulphuric  acid  transforms  it  into  grape 
sogar ;  if  boiled  in  alkalies  it  is  transformed  into  pectic  acid. 

6th.  Gum  is  a  common  proximate  principle  of  vegetables,  and 
is  not  confined  to  any  particular  part  of  plants.  It  exudes  from 
natural  or  artificial  cracks  in  the  barks  of  some  trees ;  in  the  natu- 
ral state  it  is  liquid,  but  becomes  solid  by  exposure  to  the  air.  Is 
soluble  in  water  and  in  alcohol  diluted  with  its  volume  of  water ; 
insoluble  in  concentrated  alcohol  and  ether,  forms  a  salt  with 
oxide  of  lead ;  formula  of  which  is  2  (PbO.)  C."  H.'"  0.*' 

7th.  Mucilage. — ^There  is  but  little  difference  between  gum  and 
mucilage,  they  are  usually  classified  as  the  same.  Gum  is  entirely 
soluble  in  water,  while  mucilage  swells  up  in  it  and  does  not 
dissolve. 

8th.  Mineral  salts. — These  salts  are  found  in  every  vegetable,  , 
in  every  part  of  it ;  their  composition  varies  according  to  the 
plant  and  the  part  in  which  it  ifl  foxmd;  the  soil  upon  which 
thf  plant  is  grown ;  the  system  of  cultivation  pursued.  The  study 
of  these  agents  is  interesting  and  instructive ;  it  is  easy  to  judge 
of  the  circumstanoes  which  render  a  soil  barren  or  productive^ 
for  each  kind  of  plant  requires  for  its  vigorous  and  healdiy  growth, 
to  be  supplied  with  inorganic  substances  of  a  specific  nature  and 
in  certain  quantity. 

We  could  include  in  the  class  of  indifferent  o/  neutral  princi- 
pals the  fixed  oils,  volatile  oils,  uax^s^  resins^  coloring  maUers^  ex- 
tractive  matter j  &c.,  but  we  prefer  to  take  them  up  after  the  con- 
sideration of  the  two  other  classes. 

II.  Vegetable  Acids. — Those  compounds  are  regarded  as 
vegetable  acids  which  possess  the  properties  of  an  acid,  and  are 
derived  from  the  vegetable  kingdom.  All  vegetable  acids  have 
very  strong  reactions;  they  clumge  the  color  of  litmus  from  blue 
to  red;  exist  in  every  vegetable,  partly  free,  partly  combined. 
The  principle  properties  of  the  acids  are  to  combine  with  the 
basis  in  different  proportions,  forming  salts.  Some  of  them  possess 
medicinal  properties.  The  tannic  acid  is  the  most  used  in  a 
free  state. 

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146  Strychnia  and  its  Uses. 

Vegetable  Alkaloids. — They  are  found  ready  formed  ia 
certain  vegetables;  are  so  named  because  they  have  identical 
properties  with  the  mineral  basis,  restore  the  color  of  litmus  red- 
dened by  an  add ;  combine  with  acids  and  form  definite  salts ; 
their  chemical  reactions  are  precisely  similar  to  tlie  mineral  base. 

Alkaloids  are  formed  of  oxygen,  hydrogen,  carbon  and  nitrogen. 
Some,  but  very  few,  contain  an  inorganic  element  like  sulphur, 
&c.  Usually  alkaloids  are  not  free  in  plants,  but  are  combined 
with  acids  forming  natural  salts,  slightly  soluble  in  water;  soluble 
in  hot  alcohol.  They  are  the  last  of  vegetable  preparations  to  be 
decomposed  by  atmospheric  action,  and  generaUy  all  alkaloids 
present  very  strong  medical  properties,  and  much  is  often  gained 
by  the  administration  of  the  active  principle, -seperated  from  the 
plant  in  the^crude  state. 

Such  are  the  different  principles  found  in  vegetables.  In  the 
next  article  I  shall  consider  those  which  axe  neither  acids  or  alka- 
loids, and  which  are  largely  used  as  remedial  agents. 


Strychnia  and  its  Uses. 

BT  H.   R.    DB  RICCI,  BSq.,  ^ 

Swrg^on  to  Ihe  BaUymahon  HoepiUd  and  Dispensary. 

(In  case  of  paralysis  arising  from  lesions  of  the  encephalon  and  in  epilepsy, 
strychnia  is  absolutely  injurious ;  whilst  in  chorea  and  paralysis  agitans,  it  is 
at  hest  useless.) 

The  diseases  in  which  I  have  found  nux  vomica  and  its  preparations  of  most 
use  are  those  where,  from  some  cause  or  other,  the  nervous  powers  are  not  as 
vigorous  as  they  should  be, — where  there  is  a  lassitude  and  a  want  of  tone  in 
the  system, — in  short,  in  cases  offunetumal  derangement;  whilst  in  lesion  or 
disease  of  the  nervous  centres,  its  employment  has  always  proved  injurious 
in  my  hands.  In  every  form  of  dyspepsia  not  arising  ftx>m  organic  lesion,  its 
use  will  be  found  advantageous,  but  most  espedally  in  the  dyspepsia  of  literary 
men,  lawyers,  and  scholars,  especially  when  accompanied  by  constipation. 
Also  in  that  relaxation  of  the  muscular  fibre,  total  lassitude,  and  want  of  tone, 
for  which  the  physician  is  so  often  consulted  by  ladies  who  go  out  much  into 
society;  a  state  almost  invariably  accompanied  by  leucorrhoea,  indigestion, 
loss  of  appetite,  and  a  certain  amoimt  of  erethismus — ^here  nux  vomica 
and  its  preparations  will  be  found  of  the  greatest  value.  But  it  is  in 
chlorosis  that  its  efficacy  will  be  really  manifested, — for  though  chlorosis  is 
ranked  as  a  blood  disease,  it  is  more  strictly  speaking  a  disease  of  impaired  in- 
nervation ;  and  the  deficiency  of  red  discs  in  the  blood,  which  causes  the  pecu- 


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Strychnia  ani  its  Uses.  147 

liar  greenish  yellow  color  of  the  patient,  and  firmn  which  resrj  appearance  the 
name  of  the  disease  is  taken,  is  the  effect  of  imperfect  assimilation,  the  primarj 
cause  being  either  an  impaired  or  perverted  action  of  the  nenrous  fonctions,  a 
&ct  which  will  be  apparent  to  the  most  superficial  observer:  for  how  often 
will  be  found,  out  of  a  large  and  healthy  &mily,  one  of  the  daughters,  and  one 
orUyy  acquiring  by  degrees  the  paUid  look  of  incipient  chlorosis,  while  all  the 
rest  retain  their  wonted  healthy  aspect ;  and  yet  the  sickly  one  has  all  the 
while  been  exposed  exactly  to  the  same  physical  conditions,  breathed  the  same 
air,  dwelt  in  the  same  rooms,  eaten  the  same  food — ^why  then  should  this  one 
be  deficient  in  blood-discs  ?  If  now  the  careful  physician  searches  into  the 
cause,  he  will,  in  all]probability,  find  out  by  degrees  that,  some  time  previous 
to  the  setting  in  of  the  disease,  the  patient  had  suffered  firom  some  strong 
mental  emotion,  a  sudden  fright,  or  sudden  unexpected  sorrow-r-and  from  that 
had  dated  the  commencement  of  her  illness. 

By  fiur  the  greater  number  of  chlorotic  cases  which  I  have  met  with  in  the 
upper  classes  had  their  origin  in  some  such  mental  impression,  and  this  &ct 
would  of  itself^  I  think,  be  sufficient  to  charact^ise  this  disease  as  one  of  de- 
ranged nervous  function,  even  if  we  had  not  the  corroborative  testimony 
derived  from  medical  treatmenC  Now,  if  a  case  such  as  I  have  supposed,  is 
treated  solely  with  chalybeates,  but  little  progress  will,  in  all  probability,  be 
made  towards  recovery ;  in  vain  you  will  administer  the  metal  so  much  needed 
by  the  system — ^the  lacteals  will  fiul  to  discern  and  appropriate  it  It  will  pass 
away  by  the  bowels,  and  there  do  mischief  by  increasing  the  constipation  al- 
ready, most  probably,  existing.  To  remedy  this  the  usual  purgatives  of  aloes 
and  otiier  such  drastics  wiU  be  recurred  to,  probably  in  heroic  doses,  and  then, 
by  increasing  the  debility,  the  patient  will  be  placed  in  a  worse  condition  than 
before.  Let,  however,  the  iron  be  combined  with  quina,  a  medicine  which  I 
need  not  say  acts  especially  on  the  nervous  system,  and  the  improvement  will 
be  manifest;  but  if  for  quina  you  substitute  strychnia,  then  the  effect  will  be 
truly  surprising.  Until  lately  I  was  in  the  habit  of  adding  the  strychnia  in 
solution  to  a  bitter  vegetable  infusion  containing  some  preparation  of  iron, 
generally  the  citrate,  but  my  friend  Dr.  Aldridge,  having  brought  imder  my 
notice  a  doable  citrate  of  iron  and  strychnia,  analagous  to  the  well-known 
preparation  of  iron  and  quina,  I  have  adopted  its  use  with  marked  advantage 
and  success.  This  salt  contains,  I  am  told,  one  grain  of  strychnia  in  every 
hundred.  The  dose  I  have  been  in  the  habit  of  oommenqng  with,  has  been 
two  grains  twice  a  day,  immediately  l>efore  or  qfter  a  meal,  selecting  in  prefer- 
ence break&st  and  lunch,  and  increasing  its  gradation  to  ten  and  fifteen  grains 
twice  a  day.  My  prescription  has  generally  been  the  following : — Citrate  of 
iron  and  strychnia,  forty-eight  grains ;  chloric  ether  and  aromatic  spirit  of  am- 
monia, of  each  a  dram  and  a  half;  infusion  of  chiretta,  suflicient  to  make  a 
twelve  ounce  mixture :  of  this  a  table-spoonful  at  dinner  and  at  lunch.  By 
the  use  of  this  combination  the  troublesome  constipation,  frequently  alterna- 
ting wiih  diarrhea,  so  often  accompanying  chlorosis,  will  be  entirely  obviated ; 
the  bowels  will  resume  their  healHiy  action,  in  consequence  of  their  peris- 


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148  Strychnia  and  its  Uses, 

taltic  motion  being  improved,  and  the  lacteals  and  abeorbents  being  aroused 
to  increai?ed  action,  will  seize  upon  the  metal  and  rapidly  assimilate  it.  The 
combination  of  strychnia  with  iron  will  also  tend  to  check  that  excitability 
which  manifests  itself  under  so  many  and  varied  forms  in  this  disease,  and 
will  correct  that  lassitude  which  is  one  of  the  characteristics  of  this  malady. 
In  illustration  of  what  I  have  been  asserting,  I  shall  subjoin  the  account  of  a 
case  which  I  had  ample  opportunity  of  watching  and  absolute  control  over, 
trusting  that  the  details  may  not  prove  uninteresting. 

The  patient,  a  young  lady  aged  seventeen,  had  been  for  some  months  de- 
clining in  health ;  she  had  a  slight  husky  oough ;  total  loss  of  appetite;  great 
palpitation  of  the  heart  on  the  smallest  exertion ;  and  was  pallid  in  the  ex- 
treme ;  but  she  had  not  the  peculiar  greenish  yellow  of  chlrosis ;  it  was  rather 
the  washy  look  seen  in  cases  of  excessive  hemorrhage, — with  all  this  she  was 
not  at  all  emaciated,  but,  on  the  contrary,  quite  plump.     Her  fiunily  were  in 
great  tribulntion  about  her,  as  some  of  her  relatives  had  died  of  consumption, 
and  the  young  lady  herselT  was  convinced  that  she  had  disease  of  the  heart, 
from  the  pain  she  suffered'  almost  incessantly  in  it,  and  the  fearful  palpitation 
which  arose  on  the  smallest  exertion.     Several  physicians,  both  in  Dublin  and 
elsewhere,  had  examined  her,  and  some  flkred  there  was  incipient  valvular 
disease.     Sir.  H.  Marsh,  had,  however,  given  a  decided  opinion  that  the  de- 
rangement was  solely  functional ;  and,  after  the  most  careful  and  repeated  ex- 
aminations, I  came  to  the  same  conclusion,  although  the  following  pecuHar 
symptom  led  me,  for  Some  time,  to  fear  a  threatning  of  disease  of  the  mitral 
valve.     When  the  heart's  action  was  at  all  excited,  its  sounij^  got  so  tumultu- 
ous and  mixed  up,  that  it  was  impossible  to  discriminate  one  t'roia  the  other ; 
but  when  it  was  comparatively  tranquil,  by  placing  the  stethoscope  over  the 
apex  of  the  heart,  one  could  hear,  amid  the  irregular  pulsations  and  clicks  of 
that  organ,  a  prolonged  musical  note,  apparently  synchronal  with  the  first 
sound.     There  were  also  marked  venous  murmurs  in  the  jugulars,  especially 
in  the  right  one.   But  as  the  case  progresed  to  a  cure  all  these  abnormal  sounds 
first  diminished,  and  then  ceased  altogether,  thus  proving  them  to  have  been 
only  due  to  functional  derangement.     Before  coming  under  my  care  this  lady 
had  been  taking  chalybcu^es  abundantly,  and  in  every  variety  of  combination 
with  tonics.     She  had  t-  ken,  among  others,  a  quantity  of  valerianate  of  iron, 
but  without  any  apparent  amendment     I  «t  once  put  her  on  strychnia  and 
iron,  which,  in  this  case,  I  employed  as  follows : — One  grain  of  strychnia  was 
dissolved  in  two  minims  of  sulphuric  acid,  added  to  thirty  ounces  of  water,  in 
which  one  dram  of  ammonio-citrate  of  iron  had  been  dissolved :  the  whole  was 
then  placed  in  a  gazogene,  and  charged  with  carbonic  acid.     The  dose  was 
one  wine-glassful  daily,  immediately  before  lunch.     The  amendment  commenced 
before  the  end  of  the  first  fortnight ;   the  bowels,  that  had  been  always  ob- 
stinately constipated,  acted  now  of  their  own  accord ;  the  want  of  appetite, 
which  had  actually  amounted  to  a  disgust  for  food,  disappeared;  the  color  re- 
turned to  the  face ;  the  heart  ceased  to  beat  irregularly,  and  at  the  end  of  three 
months,  there  was  not  a  trace  of  the  former  delicate  sickly  appearance. — Dub- 
lin Qxutrterly  Journal ^  Feb.,  1858,  p.  47. 


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Feeding  Infants.  149 

Feeding   Infants. 

BY  PROF.  A,  r.  MERRIU^ 

Great  mortality  prevails  among  children  from  ii\judidous  feeding.  Some 
persons  attempt  to  support  them  upon  articles  of  food  which  contain  little 
else  than  starch  or  gum,  neither  of  which  are  capable  of  themselves  of  sus- 
taining animal  life.  Others  confine  them  principally  to  the  milk  of  the  cow, 
the  excess  of  casein  in  which  they  are  unable  to  digest ;  and  to  these  other 
articles  are  added,  which  are  either  indigestible  or  innutritions.  Hence  the 
Urge  amount  of  sickness  and  mortality  firom  disordered  stomach  and  bowels, 
and  which  are  generally  attributed  to  teething,  to  worms,  and  to  any  and 
every  other  cause  but  the  true  one,  errors  in  diet,  producing  indigestion. 

In  the  last  July  number  of  the  American  Journal  of  the  Medical  Sciences, 
there  is  a  clever  article  on  "Natural  and  Artificial  Lactation,*'  by  Dr.  Gum- 
ming, a  brief  abstract  of  the  concluding  portion  of  which  I  am  tempted  to  pub- 
lish, for  the  information  of.  young  and  doubting  mothers.  He  says,  and  suf- 
fidently  proves  by  physiological  and  chemical  argument^  that  nothing  but 
milk  can  with  propriety  be  used  as  the  food  for  intuits ;  and  even  this  is  apt  to 
fiul,  and  to  give  rise  to  fintal  maladies,  unless  it  be  made  to  correspond  veiy 
closely  in  its  constituent  elements  with  human  milk. 

Cow*s  milk  differs  from  human  milk  in  some  important  particulars,  as  has 
been  accurately  ascertained  by  chemical  analysis.  It  contains  nearly  three 
times  as  much  casein  as  human  milk,  but  somewhat  less  than  twice  as  much 
butter ;  while  human  milk  contains  nearly  one-third  more  sugar,  and  a  little 
more  water  than  cow*s  milk.  Merely  diluting  cow's  milk  by  adding  water, 
with  the  addition  of  sugar,  therefore,  as  is  commonly  done,  will  not  fit  it  for 
easy  digestion  by  the  infant  stomach.  There  will  in  this  case  always  be  an 
excess  of  casein,  and  a  deficiency  of  butter.  But  the  proportions  are  ma- 
terially changed  by  permitting  the  cow's  milk  to  rest  undisturbed  until  the 
lighter  particles  rise  toward  the  surface ;  and  nearly  the  same  results  arc  ob- 
tained by  using  only  the  milk  last  taken  from  the  cow. 

Dr.  Gumming  proposes,  therefore,  to  have  cow's  milk  at  rest  for  four  or  five 
hours,  and  then  to  remove  the  upper  third  part  for  use ;  or  to  take  only  the 
latter  half  as  furnished  by  the  cow.  He  then  advises  us  to  add  for  a  child  not 
more  than  ten  days  old,  two  and  a  half  parts  of  water,  and  one-fourth  part  of 
sugar.  This  combination  gives  almost  the  exact  proportions  of  human  milk 
at  that  early  period  of  lactiition.  The  exact  proportions  given,  are — Milk  1000 
— Water  2643 — Sugar  243.  The  sugar  and  water  are  decreased  as  the  child 
grows  older,  until,  at  fiv«  months,  the  proportions  are  :  Milk  1000 — Water  1000 
— Sugar  104.  And  at  eighteen  months,  the  proportions  arc:  Milk  1000 — 
Water  500 — Sugar  OH.  The  child  should  take  this  food  at  a  temperature  of 
100  to  104  degrees,  and  by  suction,  An  eight-ounce  vial,  with  a  quill  rolled 
in  a  long  strip  of  Swiss  muslin  for  a  stopper,  is  the  best  arrangement  for 
cleanliness  and  coiivenitnce.  TiiJ)es  having  naiTow  passages  cannot  be  readily 
cleansed. 


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150        How  to  render  Qnu's  Milk  more  suitable  for  Children. 

A  child  ten  years  old  will  take  about  thirty-two  ounces  daily,  m  eight 
meals  of  four  ounces  each ;  and  the  meals  should  increase  in  quantity  and  di- 
minish in  number,  as  the  child  grows  older,  so  that  at  three  months  seven 
meals  of  eight  ounces  each  may  be  taken.  The  milk  should  be  given  at  regu- 
lar intervals,  except  that  the  child  should  be  early  accustomed  to  pass  six  to 
eight  hours  at  night  without  feeding.  This  regularity  of  feeding,  with  proper 
intervals,  is  in  accordance  with  a  physiological  law  of  digestion  applicable  to 
all  persons,  namely,  that  the  stomach  should  have  time  AiUy  to  digest  its  food 
before  other  food  is  taken  into  it 


How  to  render  Cow's  Milk  more  suitable  for  Children. 

BY  DB.  OtJMPRBCHT,  OF  HAMBURGH. 

Dr.  Gimiprecht  prefiftces  his  observations  by  remarking  upon  the  fact  that 
milk  often  disagrees  with  children,  producing  indigestion,  acidity,  flatulence^ 
cholic,  diarrhea,  &c,  &c.  In  consequence  of  this,  it  has  been  proposed  to  im- 
prove it  by  the  addition  of  water  and  sugar  of  milk,  which  experience  has 
proved  to  have  imperfectly  attained  the  object  in  view.  Reflecting  on  the 
effect  of  salt  in  rendering  the  food  for  adults  not  only  more  palatable,  but  also 
more  digestible,  increasing  the  activity  of  the  glands  of  digestion,  and  render- 
ing the  albuminous  substance  and  fat  soluble  in  the  fluids  of  the  stomach. 
Dr.  Gumprecht  was  led  to  the  idea  of  adding  salt  to  milk,  both  for  weaned  and 
older  children,  with  the  result  of  not  only  preventing  the  derangement  of  diges- 
tion, but  moreover  of  removing  them  in  cases  where  they  previously  existed. 
No  author  who  has  written  on  the  nutriment  of  weaned  children  has  spoken 
of  this  most  useful  addition  to  milk ;  but  a  Dutch  physician  mentioned  to  Dr. 
Gumprecht,  in  conversation,  that  in  his  practice  in  Holland  he  had  frequently 
added  a  little  salt  to  milk  for  weaned  children,  with  most  satisfactory  con- 
sequences. 

In  the  rural  districts  of  Holland,  salt  is  firequently  added  to  the  fodder  for 
pigs  and  cattle,  for  tlie  purpose  of  preventing  diarrhea,  which  so  often  exists 
in  consequence  of  iniperfect  digestion,  and  this  suggested  the  adding  salt  to 
milk,  not  merely  for  healthy  children,  but  for  strumous  children  and  such  as 
are  affected  with  wormsC  Dr.  Gumprecht  quotes  a  passage  from  L.  Nuss- 
dorff*s  "Lehrbuch  der  Gesundheitspflege,"  1856,  on  the  importance  of  salt  in 
the  nutriment  of  man  and  animals. 

With  regard  to  the  quantity  of  salt  which  should  be  added  to  the  milk,  it 
must  depend  on  the  age  of  the  child.  To  render  cow*s  milk  like  human  milk, 
it  should  be  boiled  and  skimmed,  and  a  little  sugar  of  milk  and  salt  added. — 
Journal  fur  KinderJcranlheiten,  and  Dublin  HoBpital  Qaz.y  from  Ranking*^ 
Abstract  of  Med.  Sciences, 


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Airopia  in  Epilepsy, — Indian  Hemp  in  Tetanus,  151 

Atropla  in  Epilepsy. 

FROM  THE  GERMAN,  BY  THEODORE  A.  DEMME,  M.  D. 

Dr.  Max  Maresch  ( WienzUchr^)  physician  to  the  Vienna  Hospital  for  the 
Insane,  gives  a  favorable  opinion  in  regard  to  the  efficacy  of  atropia  in  ^ilepsy. 
He  was  induced  to  make  this  therapeutic  application  of  the  alkaloid  in  conse- 
quence of  the  known  effects  of  belladonna  upon  the  vagus,  accessorius,  sy mpa- 
theticus  and  trigeminus.  We  are  inclined  to  think  that  this  application  of  the 
atropia  was  an  original  suggestion — an  idea — ^not  a  deduction  wrung  from 
certain  fixed  facts  as  premises. 

M.  M.  prescribed  the  atropia  in  eighteen  cases;  three  were  completely 
cured,  and  thirteen  much  improved,  the  attacks  being  less  frequent  and  violent. 

The  one-fiftieth  of  a  grain  was  given  every  morning  before  breakfast  for  a 
period  of  from  sixty  to .  ninety  days — an  intermission  of  thirty  to  forty-five 
days  allowed  to  the  patient,  and  then  the  medicine  again  prescribed.  It  is  im- 
portant that  the  patient  use  neither  cofifee  or  cocoa,  as  the  active  principles  of 
these  counteract  the  physiological  effects  of  the  atropia. 

In  the  above  dose  the  usual  symptoms  of  belladonna  were  produced — the 
dryness  of  the  fauces,  difficulty  of  speaking,  dilatation  of  the  pupils,  and,  in 
three  cases,  a  roseoloid  exanthem. 


Tetanus  Relieved  with  Ext.  of  Indian  Hemp. 

{Cannahis  Indica,) 

Mr.  E.  W.  Skues  relates  {Eding,  Med,  Jour.^  April,  1858,)  a  case  of  this. 
The  subject  of  it  was  a  healthy  girl  at  Honduras,  nine  years  of  age,  who  was 
suddenly  seized,  April  9th,  1857,  with  a  rigidity  of  the  right  arm  and  leg,  ac- 
companied by  pain,  particularly  in  the  arm.  When  Mr.  S.  first  saw  her,  both 
1^  and  arm  were  stiff*,  the  hand  flexed  on  the  forearm,  the  knee  semi- flexed, 
and  the  right  foot  turned  inward;  the  pulse  eighty,  soft;  the  tongue  white ; 
bowels  open ;  the  countenance  cheerful ;  and  there  was  no  difficulty  in  opening 
the  mouth. 

The  history  of  the  case  was,  that  a  month  previously  she  fell  and  cut  her 
right  wrist  on  some  broken  glass,  and  the  wound  healed  quickly,  without  any 
btd  symptom ;  that  a  few  days  previous  to  her  illness  she  complained  of  pain 
in  her  back,  but  of  no  uneasinees  in  the  cicatrix. 

There  was  an  irregularly  triangular  cicatrix  on  the  ulnar  border  of  the  right 
wrist,  over  the  tendon  of  the  flexor  carpi  ulnaris. 

A  purgative  was  ordered,  and  the  next  day  she  was  better.  Little  change 
occuired  until  the  fifth  day,  when  some  difficulty  of  opening  the  mouth  was 
observed ;  and  by  the  sixth  day  the  symptoms  were  well  marked.  There 
were  frequent  attacks  of  opisthotonos;  the  pulse  was  rapid  and  weak;  the 
countenance  was  indicative  of  distress ;  and  the  mouth  could  only  be  partly 
opened  with  difficulty. 


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152  Mitorial 

In  consultation  with  Dr.  Young,  the  public  medical  officer  of  the  settlement, 
who  kindly  &Yored  me  with  his  valuable  advice  and  assistance,  it  was  deter- 
mined to  use  Indian  Hemp. 

The  medicine  was  first  given  in  quarter- grain,  and  afterwards  in  two-grain 
doses,  repeated  hourly  until  narcotism  was  induced.  Strong  soup,  wine,  and 
arrowroot  were  fireely  given. 

The  medicine  produced  marked  relief  and  was  used  freely — ^the  quantity 
given  daily  varying  from  four  to  eighteen  grains,  and  the  child  was  kept  al- 
most constantly  narcotized.  The  attacks  of  tetanic  spasm  became  gradually 
less  severe;  and  after  twelve  days  the  medicine  was  discontinued,  and  the 
child  recovered  perfectly — ^though,  after  all  symptoms  of  the  general  disease 
had  disappeared,  some  stiffness  of  the  arm  remained  for  eight  or  ten  days. 

The  medicine  was  given  dissolved  in  spirit,  each  dose  being  mixed  with 
water  at  the  time  of  administration.  It  appeared  to  act  as  a  direct  sedative, 
creating  very  little  excitement,  and  did  not  induce  constipation. 


Editorial. 


We  commence  in  connection  with  the  article  upon  Krameria,  the  publication 
of  an  analysis  of  the  various  articles  of  the  materia  medica,  which  we  shall 
take  up  from  month  to  month ;  intending  to  pursue  this  general  plan  until 
those  which  have  not  been  the  subject  of  analysis  are  treated  upon,  and  an 
analysis  given.  Wc  regard  this  as  one  of  the  most  important  subjects  to 
which  we  can  direct  our  attention ;  instructive  and  useful  to  our  readers  as 
well  as  ourselves,  and  essential  to  the  formation  of  correct  opinions  in  the  se- 
lection and  use  of  remedies  from  the  great  variety  offered  by  our  vegetable 
materia  medica.  We  are  aware  that  a  work  of  this  kind  to  be  well  done  re- 
quires much  labor  and  investigation,  and  no  little  responsibility ;  if  we  can 
develope  anything  of  practical  utility  to  the  profession  we  shall  be  amply  re- 
warded. The  principles  by  which  these  results  are  determined  are  exceed- 
ingly elaborate  and  detailed,  if  there  is  sought  merely  a  knowledge  of  the 
general  nature  of  the  substance,  and  are  satisfied  by  the  application  of  certain 
tests,  we  obtain  evidence  of  the  presence  of  those  elements  of  which  a  com- 
pound is  made  up,  we  perform  what  is  termed  a  qualitive  analysis ;  but  if 
we  desire  to  ascertain  the  nature  and  actual  amount  of  the  elements  of  a  plant 
by  separating  the  constituents  completely  from  each  other,  we  perform  what 
is  termed  a  quantitive  analysis,  which  is  the  most  essential  to  a  correct  esti- 
mation and  comparison  of  the  properties  of  a  plant 

Numerous  and  diversified  as  are  the  forms  and  properties  of  bodies  of  vege- 
table origin — and  complex  as  in  general  their  composition,  they  are  neverthe- 
less made  up  of  oxygen,  hydrogen,  and  carbon,  and  a  large  number  contain 
nitrogen ;  distinct  compounds  of  these  which  exist,  ready  formed  in  plants 
are  called  the  immediate  or  proximate  principle,  and  determine  its  peculiar 
medicinal  characteristics ;  these  are  distributed  over  the  entire  plant,  some- 


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EdUmial  168 

timos  ccHdfined  to  a  part,  and  in  «oaie  cases  mixed  with  each  a  variety  of  other 
elements  that  distinct  prooessios  are  required  for  its  separation.    * 

To  determine  the  formula  of  the  rmn^  which  may  found,  by  organic 
analysis,  that  they  may  be  properly  classified  will  be  our  aim  particuku-ly,  as 
they  are  oomparatiTely  new  bodies  which  have  been  little  investigated  and 
studied ;  indeed  the  subject  presents  a  wide  field  for  study  and  investigatioo. 
The  analysis  of  soils — ^plants  grown  upon  particular  soils — all  the  oireum- 
stances  connected  with  the  growth  of  plants^  and  the  formation  of  their  peculiar 
principles — the  discovery  of  substances  pteviouidy  neglected  or  unknown — 
the  alleviation  of  disease  by  new  remedies  whkh  may  be  placed  at  the  com- 
mand of  the  physician — improved  processes  of  combination^  invests  the  subject 
with  more  than  usual  interest  and  commends  it  to  especial  consideration. 

Hydbocyanatb  of  Ikon. — We  have  many  letters  of  enquiry  relative  to  the 
success  of  this  remedy  in  epilepsy ;  thus  &r  all  the  reports  we  have  had  of  its 
use  are  very  favorable,  varying,  of  course,  with  the  condition  of  the  case, 
whether  of  long  standing  or  not  No  one  wil)  be  more  pleased  with  this 
statement  than  Dr.  McGugin,  who  was  the  first,  we  believe,  to  call  the  atten- 
tion of  the  profession  to  it  and  give  it  a  thorough  trial  in  his  private  practice. 
He  writes  us  under  date  of  March  30th,  that  a  patient  who  is  under  treatment 
with  the  article  states  in  a  letter  to  him :  ^4t  is  now  nearly  four  months  since 
I  have  had  even  a  symptom  of  a  paroxysm*"  Also  a  physician  writes  him  he 
is  highly  pleased  with  the  results  of  its  use  in  a  few  cases  of  epilepsy,  now  and 
for  some  time  past  under  his  care. 

Dr.  Daniel  Holmes,  of  Canton,  Bradford  Co.  Pa.,  states  that  he  commenced  the 
use  of  the  hydrocyanate  of  iron,  as  recommended  by  Dr.  McGugin  in  a  case 
of  epilepsy,  where  the  patient  had  not  sat  up  for  six  months  previous — ^had 
frequent  severe  spasms,  and  had  been  afflicted  for  six  or  seven  years — had 
taken  various  remedies  and  been  treated  by  a  number  of  physicians;  he  placed 
her  under  the  use  of  the  hydrocyanate  of  iron,  and  has  persisted  in  it  twice  a 
day  for  nearly  three  months.  His  patient  has  so  far  recovered  as  to  leave  the 
house  and  visit  her  neighbors.  Another  case — a  lad  fourteen  or  fifteen  years 
of  age,  badly  afflicted,  had  been  longer  without  a  paroxysm  than  at  any  pre- 
vious period.  Hoping  these  cases  may  be  permanent  cure's,  he  promises  us 
the  particulars  at  another  time. 

Dr.  R.  J.  Hemstreet,  of  Poland,  Herkimer  Co.  N.  Y.  writes  that  he  has 
used  the  aqueous  solution  of  extract  of  belladonna,  one  scruple  to  one  ounce 
of  water,  as  an  anti-lactescent,  as  recommended  in  the  previous  numbers  of  this 
Journal ;  the  effect   was  beyond  his  most  sanguine  expectations. 

Illinois  State  Medical  Society  meets  at  Springfield,  1st  Tuesday  in  June 
next 

ScAMMONT — PoDOPHYLLiN. — A  pFoccss  has  been  patented  in  England  by  Dr. 
Williamson,  for  extracting  the  pure  resin  directly  from  the  root     Dr.  A.  B. 


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154  Mitorial 

Garrod,  Professor  of  Materia  Medica  at  University  College,  has  made  it  the- 
especial  ebject'of  experiment  to  test  its  comparative  cathariic  powers  with  the 
best  commercial  resin,  and  has  made  a  report  which  is  published  in  detail  in 
the  March  number  of  the  London  PharmaceuticalJoumal,  by  which  it  appears  • 
that  the  resin  is  produced  mudi  cheaper  than  if  obtained  from  scammony, 
containing  the  largest  p^  centage  of  resin,  and  that  the  cathartic  energy  is 
somewhat  greater.  It  appears  from  the  large  number  of  trials  made,  that 
twelve  grains  administered  to  a  person,  in  many  cases  would  produce  only  one 
action ;  in  others  the  same  dose  would  produce  four  of  five  actions.  From 
eight  to  ten  grains  appears  to  be  the  average  doses  of  the  pure  resin  necessary 
to  produce  the  usual  number  of  actions  of  cathartics  generally. 

The  large  doses  requhred  suggest  with  much  force  the  substitution  of  podo- 
phyllin  for  scammony,  both  as  a  simple  remedy  and  in  all  compound  prepara- 
tions— ^the  dose  being  from  one-half  to  two  grains,  diminishing  the  bulk  of  the 
pill,  and  if  economy  is  the  point  is  much  cheaper,  producing  as  good  an  effect, 
a  desideratum  unquestionably  much  desired. 

Dr.  Stabler  in  an  essay  upon  podophyllin,  in  the  transactions  of  the  Amer. 
Pharmaceutic  Association,  says: — ^^That  podophyllin  may  be  advantageously 
substituted  for  extract  of  jalap  in  the  compound  cathartic  pill  of  the  pharma- 
copoeia, we  have  abundant  evidence  to  believe.  The  object  of  that  preparation 
was  to  combine  smallness  of  bulk  with  efficiency  and  comparative  mildness  of 
purgative  action,  and  a  peculiar  tendency  to  the  biliary  organs.^' 

Medical  and  Literary  Weekly  is  the  title  of  a  weekly  paper  just  issued  by 
Drs.  Taliaferro  and  Thomas,  of  Atlanta,  GJa.  The  introduction  of  the  literary 
with  the  medical  is  a  new  feature  in  the  journals  of  the  day,  and  we  think  a 
very  good  one.  Such  a  journal  will  have  a  wide  circulation,  and  much  good 
will  be  done  if  the  objects  they  have  stated  in  their  introduction  are  steadily 
pressed  upon  the  consideration  of  the  public.  They  announce  as  a  particular 
feature,  that  they  intend  to  expose  the  mystery  and  secrecy  of  quackery  and 
give  the  people  such  information  as  will  cause  them  to  avoid  the  indiscriminate 
use  of  the  worthless  panaceas  and  nostrums  so  extensively  advertised  over  the 
country ;  every  physician  will  commend  this  plan,  and  we  hope  the  editors 
will  give  it  their  attention. 

Correction. — The  editors  of  the  Journal  of  Materia  Medica,  &c.,  have  at- 
tributed an  article  on  Ammonio  Ferric  Aliun  to  our  pen,  which  is  due  to  that 
of  W.  Hodgson,  Jr.,  of  Philadelphia.  The  error  has  arisen  from  the  article  in 
question  having  been  inserted  in  the  editorial  department. — Ameri4san  Jowr^ 
of  Pharmady. 

Correspondents  will  oblige  by  writing  plainly  their  names,  town,  county  and- 
state.  We  have  in  several  instances,  been  unable  to  answer  letters  because 
these  arc  omitted. 

Book  of  Formula — Eight  pages  of  this  work  will  be  appended  to  each* 
number  of  the  Journal  hereafter. 

Subscribers  will  please  notify  us  if  they  do  not  receive  the  Journal  regukrly.- 


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Pharmacy.  155 


Pharmacy,    &o. 

▲MOUNT   OF    CAFFEIN    IN    COF?ES    BERRIES. 

Dr.  A.  Vogel  reoomjneDds  the  uee  of  benzol  for  the  purpose  of  extracting 
caffein  from  the  berries.  This  substance  dissolves  both  the  caffein  and  the  oil 
contained  in  the  berries,  but  when  the  solution  is  eraporated  to  dryness  and 
the  residue  is  mixed  with  hot  water,  the  cafifein  alone  is  dissolved,  and,  after 
the  separation  of  the  oil  that  floats  on  its  surfiuse,  may  be  obtained  as  fine 
crystals  by  evaporating  the  solution. 

OILED  PAPER  AS  A  SUBSTITUTE   FOB   OILED   SILK  AND  OUTTA  PSBCHA  IN  6UR- 

QICAL   DRESSINGS. 

This  material  was  introduced  by  Dr.  James  McGhie,  of  the  Olasgow  Royal 
Infirmary,  and  has  been  used  with  success  in  hospital  practice.  The  follow- 
ing is  the  mode  of  preparing  it  ^ 

Having  secured  a  paper  of  good  texture,  the  next  desideratum  is  the  fluid 
or  varnish  by  which  it  is  to  be  coated  and  waterproofed.  This  is  made  by  re- 
boiling  boiled  linseed  oil  with  htharge,  acetate  of  lead,  sulphate  of  zinc,  and 
burnt  umber,  an  ounce  or  two  of  each  to  the  gallon  of  oiL  No  artificial  heat 
is  employed  in  drying.  A  square  board  is  now  procured,  several  inches 
broader  than  the  size  of  the  sheet  to  be  prepared.  Upon  this  the  sheet  is 
^iread,  and  well  covered  by  means  of  a  broad  brush,  with  the  mixture.  The 
first  sheet  should  be  brushed  on  both  sides.  On  this  a  second  sheet  is  placed, 
slightly  projecting  over  the  first,  at  one  end,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  lifting  of 
the  sheets  when  they  are  to  be  hung  up  to  dry.  This  is  also  to  be  coated  ^ 
with  the  mixture.  This  process  is  to  be  repeated  till  a  mass  of  sheets,  from. 
twenty  to  fifty  in  number,  is  prepared.  The  board  is  then  to  be  carried  to 
some  unoccupied  i^Mrtment,  across  whidi  cords  have  been  stretched,  and  the 
sheets  are  to  be  lifted  seriatim^  and  attached  by  one  end  to  the  cords  by  means 
of  bent  slips  of  zinc  or  tinned  iron.  A  very  small  space  is  sufficient  to  hold  a 
hundred  sheets  or  more.  After  twenty-four  hours  or  more,  it  is  ready  to  be 
taken  down.  As  the  sheets  are  found  to  be  liable  to  stick  to  one  another, 
they  may  be  dusted  with  French  chalk,  whidi  prevents  adhesion.  The  ad- 
dition of  a  little  wax  and  turpentine  renders  the  dusting  or  any  other  measure 
mmeoessary.  There  is  only  one  part  in  the  above  process  where  any  manipu- 
latory difficulty  may  at  first  be  encountered,  and  that  is  in  spreading  evenly 
and  expeditiously,  the  dry  sheet  on  the  oiled  one.  This  is  easily  overcome  by 
woridng  the  brush  freely  firom  the  centre  to  the  circumference  of  the  sheet 

The  following  are  its  more  obvious  advantages : — 

1.  Its  extreme  cheapness  does  away  with  any  inducement  which  might 
otherwise  exist  to  employ  the  same  piece  more  than  once.  A  ream,  or  480 
sheets  of  paper  costs  from  7s.  6d.  to  10s.,  and  a  gallon  <^  the  prepared  oil  about 
88.,  so  that  each  sheet  costs  a  fhu^on  of  a  half-penny.  This  does  not  include 
the  cost  of  manu&cture,  which  would  slightly  increase  the  expense. 


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156  Plw/nnacy. 

2.  Its  transparency. — When  applied  over  the  dressings  of  a  stump,  or  any 
•cut  surface,  when  hemorrhage  may  bs  fbared,  the  danger  can  be  seen  at  once 

and  obviated; 

3.  Its  lightness. — It  adds  littfc  to  the  weight  of  dressings,  and  it  can  cause 
IHtle  or  no  pressure  on  a  tender  surface.  It  is  particularly  useful  in  this 
respect  for  covering  large  burnt  surfaces. 

4.  Its  extreme  adaptability. — ^It  can  be  supplied  with  great  niceness  to  any 
part,  so  as  to  give  rise  to  littie  or  no  inconvenience.  When  applied  in  any 
particular  way,  it  retains  the  form  impressed  upon  it. 

5.  It  can  be  torn  easily  in  any  direction.  In  this  respect  it  contrasts  favora- 
bly with  oiled  silk  and  gutta  percha. 

(5.  It  can  bo  made  of  any  required  strength  by  folding  it  one,  two,  three,  or 
more  times,  without  becoming  inconveniently  thick. 

7.  It  possesses  a  certain  amount  of  adhesiveness^  which  is  increased  by  the 
heat  of  the  body,  and  thereby  more  effectually  prevents  evaporation  from  wet 
•applic|tionfi. — Land.  Pharm.  Jour. 

BOTTLES  TO  PREVKNT  ACCIDENTAL  POISONING. 

A  bottle  has  been  recently  patented  in  England,  to  obviate  the  frequent  re- 
currence of  accidental  poisoning,  which  has  of  late  years  excited  so  much  pain- 
ful attention  in  that  country. 

The  object  sought  to  be  obtained  was  a  bottle  which  should  present  so 
marked  and  sensible  a  difference  in  appearance,  touch  and  use,  to  those  em- 
ployed for  ordinary  purposes,  that  the  possibility  of  mistake  would  be  avoided. 
The  Lan€$t  gives  the  following  description  of  the  bottle : — "  In  shape  the  bottles 
arc  hexagonicnl,  with  deep  flutings  or  grooves  running  lengthways  along  the 
bottles.  To  si^t  and  touch  they  instantaneously  present  most  striking  points 
of  difference  from  any  other  kind  of  bottle.  Vessels  of  this  description,  made 
in  blue  glass,  are  intended  to  be  used  for  external  applications  only.  For 
poisonous  or  powerful  medicines,  prepared  or  not  from  prescriptions,  the  doso 
of  which  is  a  tea^spoonful  and  under — bottles  similarly  shaped  and  fluted,  in 
white  glass,  are  proposed  to  bo  employed.  The  bottles  are  provided  with  an 
■entirely  new  contrivance,  the  effect  of  which  is  to  make  it  impossible  to  pour 
out  the  contents  otherwise  than  very  slowly  and  gradually — almost  drop  by 
drop.  This  is  accomplished  by  the  simple  and  inexpensive  plan  of  contracting 
the  neck  ot  the  bottle  at  the  lower  part  of  the  shoulders,  and  the  mouth  being 
of  the  usual  size^  the  process  of  filling  is  but  slightly  affected  by  the  contracting. 
The  very  deliberate  and  cautious  action  thus  produced,  will,  it  is  believed,  de- 
ter any  one  from  taking  over  doses  of  medidne ;  while  it  is  difficult  to  imagine 
a  case  in  which  any  one  could  pour  out  and  take  the  whole  contents  of  one  of 
these  bottles  in  mistake  for  something  else. 

To  illustrate  the  manner  in  which  the  patent  bottle  acts  in  comparison  with 
ordinary  ones,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  not  more  than  a  tea-spoonful  would 
come  out  of  the  one,  in  the  same  time  that  an  onlinary  phial  would  take  to 
discharge  its  contents.     A  person  being  about  to  take  a  wrong  medicine,  say 


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laudanum,  contained  in  a  paUnt  bottle,  and  proceeding  to  pour  it  would  be 
struck  by  finding  tbat  in&tead  of  the  whole  draught  having  run  into  the  wine 
glass  at  once  as  usual,  merely  a  teaspoonful  would  have  left  the  bottle.  This 
would  naturally  lead  to  an  examination  of  the  label  and  consequent  discovery 
of  the  dangerotts  error. 

Although  to  employ  a  two  ounce  bottle  would  tire  the  hand  and  arm  of  the 
holder,  yet  when  only  the  proper  dose  is  sought  to  bo  withdrawn,  the  patience 
is  not  taxed  in  the  slightest  degree." — Med.  and  Surg,  Reporter. 

ON  THB  PBEPABATION   OF   UQUID   TARTRATE   O^  POTASH,  AMMONIA,  AND  PE-^ 

ROXIDE    OP   IRON. 

By  if.  Carrie^  Pharmacein  of  Paris. 

The  potassio-tarirate  of  iron  being  incapable  of  preservation  in  aqueous^ 
solution,  on  account  of  its  tendency  to  rapid  decomposition.  M.  Carrie,  a. 
pharmacicn  in  Paris,  has  conceived  the  idea  of  insiunng  its  solubility,  and  par- 
tieulariy  of  preserving  it,  by  the  addition  of  ammonia,  liie  following  is  tho^ 
mode  of  preparation  recommended  by  the  author : — 

Take  sixteen  ounces  of  bi tartrate  of  potash ;  dissolve  one-half  in  three  quarts; 
of  warm  distilled  water ;  saturate  this  solution  with  pure  sesquicarbonate  of 
ammonia;  add  the  remainder  of  the  bi  tartrate;  ndse  to  a  moderate  hoat^  ad- 
ding by  degrees,  and  to  exoess,  recently  precipitated  and  still  moist  peroxide 
of  iron;  afterwards  filter,  to  separate  the  uncombined  oxide;  evaporate  at  the 
heat  of  a  water-hath,  until  the  cold  liquor  marks  seven  degrees  on  the  sacchar- 
ometer ;  add  a  few  drops  of  liquid  ammonia ;  shake ;  allow  it  tf  deposit  during; 
twenty-four  hours ;  filter  again,  and  preserve  for  use. 

The  preparation  of  tartrate  of  potash,  ammonia,  and  peroxide  of  iron  thu» 
obtained,  is,  according  to  M.  Carrie,  a  liquid  of  an  agreeable  taste,  possessing 
a  reddish  brown  color,  keeping  for  an  indefinite  period,  tod  containing  one 
part  of  iron  in  nine  of  water. — Bui,  Gen.  de  Thera,  15th  July,  1858,  p.  28,, 
and  Dublin  Hospital  Gazette. 

ARNICA   CERATE. 

N.  Hynson  Jennings  {Journal  of  Maryland  College  of  Pharmaey^)  prepares 
a  pla&ter  of  hard  cerate  of  arnica,  in  the  following  way :— >Take  of  arnica 
flowers,  four  ounces ;  olive  oil,  six  ounces ;  beeswax,  ten  ounces ;  diluted  alco- 
hol, sulph.  ether,  of  each  a  sufBcient  quantity..  Ha/fing  reduced  the  flowers  to 
a  tolerably  fine  powder,  moisten  with  diluted  alcohol,  and  pack  firmly  in  a 
glass  funnel ;  exhaust,  and  by  means  of  a  water  bath,  evaporate  to  about  five 
fluid  ounces,  and  mix  with  the  oil  and  wax,  previously  heated  togethor ;  then 
bofi  over  a  slow  fire  till  all  moisture  is  dissipated,  and  lastly  steain.  A  little 
ether  is  required  to  dissolve  the  resin  deposited  on  the  sides  of  a  porcelain  dish. 

He  states  that  it  has  been  found  to  affi>rd  great  relief  in  tenderness  of  the 
feet,  produced  by  exposure  to  intense  cold. — Peninsular  Journal, 


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158 


AdverUsemenis. 


J.  W.  N0BCB0S8  &  CO. 

91  FULTOH  STBEET,  H.  T. 

ItnparUrt  qf 

£unor£/is  FAtitcv  ooops 

FOR  DRUGGISTS, 

Fiue    Toilet  Articles, 


BRUSHES,  AND 

DRUQQI8T8'  SUNDRIES, 

EMBRACINO 

A  ML  fUMrtamit  of  ArtielM  in  this  Use, 
Adapted  to  the  wants  of  a  Ont-elaBi  trade. 


Oar  long  experience  in  erery  department  of 
thlfl  bniinese  as  Importers,  and  the  facilities  ac- 
quired by  direct  eommonleation  with  leading 
manafacturers,  throngh  a  member  of  oar  firm, 
who  is  In  lorope  mdoh  of  the  time,  enable  os  to 
offer  oar  goods  to  purchasers  on  the  most  Csrorable 
terms. 

The  trade  are  respeetlnUj  incited  to  examine 
our  stock  before  making  purchases. 


THOMAS    LORD, 

Successor  to  Baj  k  Baldwin, 
43  LAKE   STBBBT,   CHICAGO,    ILL., 

WSOLHAIJI  DBUJW  Df 

Drugs,  Medlelnes,  Chemicals, 

PATIENT  MEDICINES,  PERFUMERY, 

D7E-8TUFFS, 

PAINTS,  OILS,  TARNISHES,  BRUSHES,  WIN- 
DOW-GLASS, HOLLOW  GLASS,  Ac,  Ac, 

A  complete  and  tnH.  assortment  of  Tilmh's  oele- 

brated 

FMd  and  SoUd  SmtraeU,  CkmemUraUd  Pr*^ 

paraUonSy  arid  Si*gar-Ooat6d  JPharma- 

e6uUc  FOU. 

Orders  from  Merchants,  Phjsldans,  and  others 

carefully  and  promptly  attended  to. 

BUROIN  &  SONS,    ~ 
Chemists  k  Class  Nanvfactirers, 

Ko.  188  ABCH  8IBXBT,  Phfladftlphla, 
Manufacturers  of  Bi-OAKBOMAra  or  Soda,  Soda- 
Saljukatits,  SjlL-Sooi.  and  all  kinds  of  German 
fUnt,  Green  and  Blaek  Glassware.  We  aieet  res- 
pectfully solicit  orders,  with  the  assurance  that 
all  articles  manufaotured  by  us  will  be  of  stand- 
ard quality. 


Tarrant's  Effervescent 
Seltzer    Aperient. 

This  yaluable  and  popular  medldne,  pr^ared 
In  conformity  with  the  analysis  of  the  water  of  the 
celebrated  seltser  spring  in  Germany,  in  a  moat 
conyenient  and  portable  form,  has  nniyersalliy 
received  the  most  favorable  recommendations  of 
the  medical  profession  and  a  discerning  public,  as 
the  most  efficient  and  agreeable  Saline  Aperient 
in  use.  and  as  being  enUtled  to  special  preference 
over  the  many  mueral  spring  waters,  seidlita 
powders,  and  other  similar  articles,  both  fkrom  Its 
compactness  and  greater  efficacy.  It  may  be 
used  with  the  best  effect  in  all  BOious  and  Febrile 
diseases,  sick  Headache,  Loss  of  Appetite,  Indi- 
gestion, and  all  similar  complaints,  peculiarly  In- 
cident to  the  spring  and  summer  seasons. 

It  Li  particuiariy  adapted  to  the  wants  of  trarel- 
ers,  by  sea  and  land,  residents  in  hot  dimatas, 
persons  of  sedentanr  habits,  invalids  and  conra- 
lescents,  captains  of  vessels  and  planters  will  find 
it  a  valuable  addition  to  their  medicine  cheats. 
With  those  who  have  used  it,  it  has  high  fSTor, 
and  is  deemed  Indispensable 

In  a  torpid  tUOe  qf  the  Meer  it  renders  praaft 
service  in  restoring  healthy  action.  In  gout  and 
rhtumaUmn  It  gives  the  best  satisfaction,  allay- 
ing  all  inflammatory  symptoms,  and  in  manj 
cases  effectually  curinc  those  afBlcted.  Jtt  avo- 
OMS  iti  oa9t8  e/grctvUt  indigutUm^  h^arUmn^ 
and  oosWrewsss  proves  It  to  be  a  medicine  of  tha 
greatest  utUitT.  Aoidilff«^t/Uttomaoli,andth4 
dMru9ingHoins9i9oui%tal  during  prtffnanejf 
yields  speedily  and  with  marked  suocess  imder  na 
healthftU  influence.  ItqfbrdstksgreaUitrelisf 
to  thoM  aJUeted  vUh,  or  mO^oet  to  tko  JHioa^ 
acting  gently  on  the  bowels,  neutralising  all  Ini- 
tating  secretions,  and  thereby  renmvlng  all  in- 
flammatory tendencies.  In  fact,  it  is  InvaluaM* 
in  all  cases  where  a  gentle  iH>erient  or  pnrgatlTa 
is  required. 

It  is  in  the  form  of  a  powder,  eareftaUy  put  up 
In  bottles,  to  keep  in  any  climate,  and  merely  re- 
quires water  poured  upon  It  to  produce  a  deUghi- 
txd  effervescent  beverage. 

Taken  in  the  morning,  it  never  interferes  wHh 
the  fi^---.**  T-  -f  tTie  (lay,  acting  gently  on  tha 
Bj'Ai'Ui,  Tt^iunng  ihth  di^eitlv«  j^o^crs,  escltlQ^  ^ 
henkhy  A&4  vt^ormu  tooifi  oT  ibe  frtamadht  and 
cr^-iitlDg  4D  eliisiidty  of  mlmd  end  Q^3tt  of  spMla 
wlil.'h  iJTe  *tBi  lo  uTtfy  tojoyonjijt,  I|  also  as^ 
Abli'»  the  InrnUd  to  Qn^oftnuas  ltiicarl»ft  wttb  Im- 
puiiltj,  ft-Ciia  which  bt!  inujl  othenrUe  b«  det}ai> 
reel,  1,11  d  wiih<}ii<  whldi  Uf'c^  ii  irksome  and  dls- 
treuLng. 

N'qjotroi^  tcstliDoaliiifl  ttom  profesitonal  and 
f^iher  £^nL]erai!&  of  Uhf  Mfh  ^t  ^ttftDdng  tbrougbout 
till!  coaatry I  Had  Jta  lieadliy  ider^faslcif  popularity 
f.vr  &  eedi»  of  f  ti&rs,  tstrofiK^y  jniaJ^^nret  iu  efflca- 
Qj  and  TuIuBtr})^  ebaritiCttirt  hwX  CDimmend  It  to 
the  fELvor^iblis  ["dU^:^  of  aa  lidticfJiigeut  pul^Uc 

Tarrant's  C«Bpeu4  Extract  ef 
Cttkete  aii4  Copalka, 

Sanctioned  by  popular  opinion  and  hi^  anthoiHy 
of  the  most  distinguished  of  the  me<ttcal  fkcuHy. 
It  offers  to  the  aiBleted  a  remedy,  whose  Wiceesi 
has  in  every  Imttance  supported  Its  deserved 
reputation.  Being  oonvenient  and  agraeabla  Ib 
Its  use,  experience  has  proved  that  it  retains  In 
every  clfanate  its  desirable  and  truly  yaluahla 
character.  It  is  in  the  form  of  a  paste,  is  tsstelesi. 
and  does  not  impair  the  Agestion.  It  Is  prepared 
with  the  greatest  possible  care,  upon  welHestad 


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THE 

JOURNAL  OF  MATERIA  MEDICA 

AND 

PHARMAOEUTIO   FORMULARY. 

lew] JUNE,  1859. [Serief. 

Farther  Remarks  on-  Indigenous  Astringent  Plants. 

BY  CHARLES  A.   LEE,   M.  D^ 

NUM6EB  YL 

We  liave  seen  that  tannic  and  gallic  acids  are  the  chief  as- 
tringent principles  pontained  in  plants;  and  it  may,  perhaps,  be 
safely  assumed  that  these  acids,  in  an  isolated  form,  are  capable 
of  ftifilling  the  purely  astringent  indication  with  greater  prompt- 
ness, cerUunty  and  success,  than  the  crude  articles  containing  them 
in  any  of  their  forms  of  exhibition.  Being  more  concentrated, 
ihey  may  be  given  in  smaller  doses,  and  are,  therefore,  less  liable 
to  derange  the  digestive  organs.  As  they  are  more  readily  ab- 
sorbed, they  are,  consequently,  more  speedy  in  their  action. 
Moreover,  they  are  less  unpleasant  to  the  taste,  and  being  freed 
from  other  matters  which  might  modify  their  effects,  greater  re- 
liance can  be  placed  on  their  fulfilling  the  astringent  indication. 
We  are  not,  however,  to  suppose  that  these  agents  used  alone, 
can  produce  all  the  therapeutic  effects  attainable  by  the  employ- 
ment of  other  preparations  of  the  plants  containing  them,  or,  in 
whicb  they  predominate,  as  the  solid  or  fluid  extracts.  This 
might  be  expected,  from  the  fact  that  they  are  often  associated 
with  other  important  principles,  as  rhvharharic  acid  in  rhubarb, 
oounteractong  the  astringency  and  rendering  it  cathartic ;  a  tonic 
principle  in  cinchona,  gentian,  comus,  wild  cherry,  &c.  As  a 
well-known  example  of  this  modifying  power  we  may  instance 
the  combination  of  tannic  acid  with  quinia;  a  small  quantity  of 


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162  Lee  on  Indigenous  Plants, 

the  former  adding  greatly  to  the  antiperiodic  power  of  this  alka- 
loid. In  most  cases  of  atonic  hemorrhage,  whether  uterine,  gas- 
tric, pulmonary  or  cistic,  pure  tannic  or  gallic  acid  will  accom- 
plish all  that  is  desired ;  but  in  cases  of  great  relaxation  of  the 
tissues,  with  debility  of  the  digestive  organs,  consequent  on  pro- 
tracted illness,  or  the  result  of  diminished  nervous  energy,  and 
especially  if  complicated  with  proftise  serous,  cutaneous  or  mu- 
cous discharges,  a  judicious  combination  of  tonic,  astringent,  and 
in  some  cases,  laxative  principles,  will  best  meet  the  exigencies  of 
the  case.  As  a  general  rule,  then,  it  will  probably  be  found  that 
the  extracts  of  astringent  plants,  prepared  in  vacuo,  combining, 
as  they  do*,  astringent,  tonic,  laxative,  or  other  important  princi- 
ples are  best  adapted  to  a  majority  of  cases — perhaps,  all,  except 
where  the  purely  astringent  influence  is  wanted.  Most  of  the 
valuable  tonic  barks  and  roots  contain  a  greater  or  less  quantity 
of  tannic  and  gallic  acids,  which,  doubtless,  greatly  add  to  their 
efficacy.  These  natural  combinations  may  be  imitated,  but  they 
cannot  often  be  improved  by  art.  Though  the  isolation  of  the  active 
proximate  principles  of  plants  has,  in  several  instances,  been  at- 
tended with  strikingly  beneficial  results ;  it  may  well  be  doubted 
whether  the  practice  has  not  been  carried,  in  some  instances,  too 
far ;  and  whether  greater  curative  power  would  not  be  exerted 
by  such  preparations  as  contain  all  the  active  principles  of  the 
plant  separated  from  inert  matters.  Conceding  much  that  is 
claimed  for  the  vegetable  alkaloids,  acids,  fixed  and  essential  oils, 


NoTB. — ^It  is  now  generally  conceded  that  the  alkaloids  of  barks  (quinia,  cinchona^ 
eta,)  are  not  the  only  constituents  which  give  these  barks  their  medicinal  properties, 
hut  that  their  antiperiodic  power  depends,  in  part,  on  other  ingredients,  and  especially 
upon  the  combination  in  which  the  alkaloids  are  found  in  the  natural  state  of  the  bark. 
In  consequence  of  this  fact  Mr.  Donovan,  of  Dublin,  introduced,  a  few  years  sinoe,  an 
improved  ayrup  of  har\  obtained  by  repeated  percolations  with  proof  spirits  and  sub- 
sequent concentration  by  evaporation,  and  the  addition  of  refined  sugar.  The  fluid 
extract  of  harkj  prepared  in  vacuo,  is  however,  a  superior  preparation,  as  it  contains 
all  the  virtues  of  this  important  drug  in  a  state  of  perfect  jureservation,  and  it,  more- 
over presents  tlie  active  ^lg^edient6  .exactly  in  their  natural  state,  which  is  essential, 
when  we  require  its  antiperiodio  effect.  The  evaporation  being  conducted  in  vacuo, 
the  proximate  principles  have  undergone  no  change  whatever;  we  have  found  it  suit- 
ed to  many  cases  where  quinine  seemed  to  disagree  or  to  fail  of  the  desired  effect  A 
good  plan  to  exhibit  it^  is  to  combine  it  with  some  aromatic,  as  fennel  or  anise,  which 
perfectly  mask  the  bitterness  of  quinine,  and  simple  syrup.  Cinnamon  water  with 
lemon  syrup  are  ako  good  vehicles.  ^ 


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Lee  en  Indigerums  PJants.  168 

resins,  kc.j  when  given uncombined,  we  must  still  maintain  that 
equal  if  not  greater  advantages  may  often  be  obtained  by  combi* 
nation ;  for  as  Paine  has  well  observed,  if  we  enter  nature's  la- 
boratory and  examine  her  prescriptions,  we  shall  soon  be  satisfied 
that  several  of  her  more  potent  remedies  do  not  owe  their  valuable 
powers  to  any  one  specific  ingredient,  but  to  the  combined  or 
modified  energies  of  various,  and  sometimes  opposite  principles. 
We  see  this  truth  well  illustrated  in  the  various  articles  usually 
ranked  in  the  class  of  tonics ;  beginning  with  those  that  are 
simply  bitter,  we  proceed  through  different  species  combining 
aromatic  properties  with  bitterness,  till  we  reach  a  third  class, 
which  add  to  these  the  prineiple  of  astringency,  as  in  cinchona^ 
cinnamon,  wild  cherry,  the  tulip  tree,  kc.  Thus,  by  adding  a 
small  quantity  of  tannin  and  some  aromatic,  as  cinnamon  or 
cloves  to  quinine,  we  add  much  to  its  efficacy ;  opium  will  check 
diarrhea  and  mucous  discharges,  procure  sleep  and  excite  p^spi- 
ration,  when  morphia  would  fail  to  produce  these  effects;  and  if 
all  the  virtues  of  this  drug  were  contained  in  its  morphia,  it 
ought  to  have  ten  times  the  power  which  it  is  known  to  possess. 
The  great  superiority  of  the  hop  in  the  manufacture  of  malt 
liquors,  consists  in  its  combining  aromatic,  tonic,  and  astringent 
properties.  The  union  of  tonic  and  astringent  powers  in  the 
rhubarb  has  been  already  alluded  to;  we  might  also  refer  to  the 
sedative  and  cathartic  virtues  in  colchicum ;  and  to  that  perfect 
alimentary  compound — ^milk,  combining  the  four  great  staminal 
principles  of  nutrition,  viz:  water,  sugar,  albumen  and  oiL  We 
do  not  pretend  to  question  the  advantages  of  correct  analyses  of 
the  compound  productions  of  nature,  for  it  is  obviously  from  a 
knowledge  of  their  respective  elements,  and  from  a  study  of  the 
influence  which  each  exerts  in  the  combination,  that  we  may  ex- 
pect to  derive  important  aid  in  improving  the  arrangements  of 
art ;  while  art  in  return  may  thus  be  enabled  to  modify  and 
adapt  to  particular  purposes  the  products  of  nature. 

In  regard  to  the  action  of  astringents,  varied  and  multiplied  ex- 
periments have  ftdly  established  the  benefits  resulting  from  their 
combination  with  other  agents.  With  tonicsj  in  senile  cough  and 
humoral  asthma,  as  sulphate  of  zinc  with  quinine ;  or  passive  he- 
morrhage, where  the  haetoorhagic  diathesis  is  to  be  corrected, 
while  die  bleeding  vessels  are  constricted ;  with  diaphoretics^  where 


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164  Lee  on  Indigenous  Plants. 

it  is  necessary  to  relax  the  cutaneous  vessels,  while  we  astringe 
those  of  the  intestinal  canal ;  with  antacidsj  where  we  wish  to 
neutralize  acids,  and  at  the  same  time  check  the  abdominal  secre- 
tions, as  by  the  pulvis  creioe  compositus;  with  narcotics,  where 
diarrhea  is  dependent  on,  or  associated  with  acrid  fluids  in  the 
intestines ;  wheti  we  allay  irritability  by  a  narcotic^  restrain  the 
inordinate  secretion  by  an  astringent,  and  neutralize  the  acrid  and 
acid  matters  by  an  absorbent  These  instances  will  suffice  to 
show  the  advantages  'arising  from  a  combination  of  astringent 
with  other  virtues  in  the  same  prescription ;  and  these  we  have 
in  a  great  variety  of  forms,  naturally  existing  in  the  same  plant 
Indeed,  a  careful  examination  of  our  indigenous  astringent  vege- 
tables will  result  in  the  conviction  that  no  two  of  them  possess 
the  same  identical  properties,  but  that  each  has  qualities  peculiar 
to  itself  and  that  these  depend  on  other  principles  variously  as- 
sociated in  the  same  substance,  by  which  the  astringent  effect  is 
differently  modified,  so  that  although  the  several  virtues  act  as  a 
whole,  that  which  is  most  predominant  gives  the  greatest  determi- 
nation to  the  nature  of  the  impression  that  may  be  produced. 
Even  no  two  species  of  the  same  genus  have  precisely  similar 
properties;  each  has  a  range  of  application  peculiar  to  itself. 
This  is  well  illustrated  in  the  different  species  of  rhus,  comus, 
salix,  Tubus,  trillium,  erigeron,  quercus,  ulmus,  &c.;  some  of  the 
species  of  which  differ  more  widely  in  regard  to  their  physiological 
and  therapeutical  properties  than  many  genera.  It  is  this  variety 
which  adapts  these  agents  to  so  many  different  pathological  con- 
ditions; and  the  &ct  that  each  species  has  specific  powers  best 
adapted  to  certain  forms  of  morbid  action,  justifies  more  extended 
trials  and  experiments  than  have  hitherto  been  made.  The  idea 
then,  of  substituting  tannin  or  gallic  acid  in  place  of  the  extracts 
of  these  different  plants  is  neither  founded  in  just  and  correct 
theory,  nor  accurate  clinical  observation. 

When  we  speak  of  tannic  acid,  we  refer,  of  course,  to  that  va- 
riety obtained  fix)m  gall-nuts  and  oak  bark,  and  which  precipi- 
tates the  sesquisalts  of  iron  of  a  bluish  black  color.  In  these  it  is 
associated  with  gallic  acid ;  but  the  other  varieties  of  tannin,  such 
as  are  found  for  example,  in  kino,  catechu,  cinchona,  and  rhatany 
are  not  associated  with  it,  except  in  minute  quantities.  Nor  are 
iheir  infusions  converted  into  it  on  standing,  or  exposure  to  at- 


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Lee  on  Indigenous  Plants.  166 

moepheric  air,  while  they  precipitate  the  salts  of  iron  of  a  green- 
ish black  or  greyish  black  color.  Indeed,  the  varieties  of  tannin 
are  so  nnmerous,  that  it  has  been  supposed  by  some  chemists  to 
be  merely  an  association  of  resinous  matters  with  an  acid--often 
the  gallic,  which  is  supposed  to  render  them  soluble  in  water. 
What  lends  some  probability  to  this  view  is,  that  it  has  hitherto 
been  foimd  impossible  to  obtain  tannin  &ee  &om  acid,  and  more- 
over by  treating  any  resin  or  charcoal  with  nitric  acid,  or  by  act- 
ing on  camphor,  the  resins  or  some  of  the  gum  resins  by  sul- 
phuric acid,  an  artificial  tannin  may  be  obtained,  possessing  all 
the  properties  of  the  tannin  of  gall-nuts  or  oak  bark.  Besides^ 
the  presence  of  the  acid  employed  in  its  preparation  may  always 
be  detected  in  artificial  tannin,  as  long  as  it  retains  its  character- 
istic property.  Supposing,  then,  that  tannin  is  essentially  nothing 
more  than  a  mixture  of  some  acid  with  a  resinous  substance,  it 
must  not  only  partake  of  the  specific  properties  of  each  of  its 
elements,  but  it  may  also  contain  either  bases  or  other  foreign 
substances,  which  will  give  it  accessory  characters,  in  addition  to 
those  that  are  essential  to  it  Thus  the  acid  combinations  of 'the 
tannin  of  cinchona  bark  are  more  soluble  in  water  than-  those  of 
the  tannin  of  oak ;  the  tannin  of  catechu  is  less  soluble  in  ether 
than  that  of  cinchona ;  the  tannin  of  kino  is  red,  and  very  little 
soluble  in  cold  water,  insoluble  in  ether,  and  gives  no  precipitate 
with  carbonate  of  potash  or  tartrate  of  antimony  and  potash ;  the 
tannin  of  the  gall-nut  is  insoluble  in  alcohol;  as,  then,  these  sub- 
stances differ  in  so  many  important  respects,  it  has  been  suggested 
that  they  should  be  distinguished  from  the  tannic  acid  of  gall- 
nuts  and  oak  bark  by  designative  epithets  derived  from  the  medi- 
cine. Thus,  that  variety  obtained  from  kino  may  be  called  JcinO'. 
tannic^  or  kinoic  acid ;  that  fix)m  catechu,  catechu-tannic,  or  caiechuic 
acid;  that  from  rhatany,  krameric  acid;  from  cinchona  bark, 
cinchonatannic  acid,  &c.  Were  such  a  nomenclature  adopted,  it 
would  evidently  lead  to  more  definite  ideas  regarding  the  nature 
and  proper  use  of  this  class  of  substances. 

One  feet  in  regard  to  the  chemical  history  of  tannin  is  too  often 
lost  sight  of  by  the  practitioner,  namely,  that  though  it  possesses 
acid  properties,  it  is  precipitated  by  various  acids,  such  as  the 
muriatic,  nitric,  phosphoric,  and  arsenious,  as  its  solution  produces 
with  the  salts  of  all  vegetable  alkaloids— insoluble  precipates — 


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166  Lee  on  Indigenous  Plants. 

tannates  of  the  organic  bases  thrown  down — it  may  often  be  em* 
ployed  with  advantage  in  cases  of  poisoning  by  alkaloids,  and 
especially  by  the  tartrate  of  antimony  and  potassa.  It  must, 
however,  be  recollected  that  owing  to  the  frequent  presence  of 
hydrochloric  or  other  acids  in  the  stomach,  a  solution  of  tannin 
can  never  be  regarded  as  a  perfectly  reliable  antidote. 

Gallic  acid  has  recently  been  extensively  employed  in  the  place 
of  tannin,  in  all  cases  of  internal  administration  where  a  pure  as- 
tringent indication  was  present.  Prof.  Simpson  was  one  of  the 
first  to  employ  it  in  cases  of  uterine  hemorrhage,  and  finding  it 
more  efficacious  than  tannin,  it  was  inferred  that  it  might  prove 
equally  successful  in  other  forms  of  hemorrhage.  Nimierous  trials 
have  tended  to  sustain  this  conclusion.  It  has  long  been  known  that 
the  two  substances  yield  the  same  set  of  products  when  submitted 
to  destructive  distillation,  and  the  researches  of  Braconnot  go  to 
prove  that  tannin  is  a  compound  acid,  composed  of  gallic  acid  in 
combination  with  the  elements  of  grape  sugar ;  three  atoms  of 
tannic  acid  being  equivalent  to  six  atoms  of  gallic  acid  and  one 
of  grape  sugar.  When  its  solution  is  taken  into  the  system,  or 
heated  in  the  open  air,  the  elements  of  grape  sugar  are  oxydized 
into  carbonic  acid  and  water,  and  gallic  acid  is  set  free ;  and  in 
this  manner  it  has  been  supposed  that  gallic  acid  passes  out  of  the 
blood  into  the  secretions  and  exerts  an  astringent  action  at  distant 
parts  of  the  system.  Headland  remarks  that  as  tannic  acid  loses 
weight  by  the  decomposition,  it  follows  that  a  dose  of  gallic  acid 
produces  a  greater  effect  as  a  medicine  than  an  equal  amount  of 
the  former.  We  might  also  refer  to  the  experiments  of  M.  Pelletier, 
who  found  that  a  mixture  of  a  solution  of  gallic  acid  with  one  of 
gum  precipitates  albumen,  though  neither  of  them  affects  it 
separately.  But  as  gum  has  the  same  composition  as  grape  sugar, 
and  the  latter  is  continually  forming  in  the  blood.  Headland 
thinks  it  probable  that  gallic  acid  may  act  along  with  this  sacchar- 
ine matter  in  the  circulating  fiuids,  and  thus  acc[uire  an  astringent 
power,  which  it  has  not  when  employed  extemallyi  as  the  sac- 
charine matter  is  required  in  the  system  for  special  purposes,  the 
gallic  acid  passes  out  into  the  secretions  alone.  It  is  probable 
that  tannic  acid,  if  absorbed  as  such,  of  which  some  physiologists 
have  doubted,  is  not  decomposed,  or  changed  into  gallic  or  pyro- 
gallic  acids  until  it  is  about  to  be  separated  from  the  blood  by 


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Chadboume  on  Ckdtivaiton  of  Medicinal  Plants.  167 

glandular  action.  This,  however,  is  a  point  which  requires  fur- 
ther examination.  If  tannin  is  converted  into  gallic  acid  by  oxi- 
dation, immediately  on  its  absorption,  it  is  difficult  to  explain  its 
astringent  action  on  chemical  principles;  and  on  the  other  hand 
if  gallic  acid  is  instantly  converted  into  tannic  acid  on  its  intro- 
duction into  the  blood,  by  the  presence  of  grape  sugar  it  will  not 
be  easy  to  explain  why  it  should  prove  more  efficacious  as  an 
astringent  than  the  latter.  The  following  formula,  however,  shows 
how  the  elements  of  tannic  acid  may  be  constructed  out  of  those 
of  gallic  acid  and  grape  sugar : — 

Tannic  ocia.— C."  H.«  0J'+2  aq. 
QaUic  acid.—C:  H  0.'+2  aq. 

Three  equivalents  of  anhydrous  tannic  acid  amount  to  six  of 
gallic  add  and  one  of  grape  sugar. 

8  (C."  tt*  0.»^— 6  (C  H  O.O  +C."  H."  0." 

It  is  very  easy  to  construct  theoretic  formula,  to  explain  aU  the 
changes  which  food  or  medicine  may  be  supposed  to  undergo  in 
the  himian  body ;  but  whether  they  actually  do  occur  or  not, 
must  always  remain  rather  a  matter  of  surmise  and  assumption, 
than  of  demonstration.  But)  however,  the  modus  operandi  may 
be,  the  fact  is  now  generally  admitted  by  practitioners  that  gallic 
acid  is  &r  more  efficient  as  an  internal  astringent  than  tannic  acid, 
while  the  latter  only,  possesses  styptic  properties. 


Fro£  Chadboume  on  Cultivation  of  Medicinal  Plants. 

Messrs.  Editobs. — ^I  submit  the  following  letter  from  Pro£ 
Chadboume,  of  William's  College,  on  a  subject  which  I  lately 
discussed  in  your  pages,  viz.,  the  "  influence  of  cultivation,  climate, 
soil,  &C.,  on  medicinal  plants,"  which  you  will  oblige  your  read- 
ers, probably,  by  laying  before  them.  You  will  notice  that  he 
substantially  confirms  the  views  then  presented;  though,  with 
myself,  he  considers  that  much  remains  to  be  settled  by  further 
experiments.  Many  facts  ha.ve  come  to  my  knowledge  since  the 
article  referred  to  was  written,  all  going  to  prove  that  proper  cul* 
tiyation,  in  all  cases,  increases  the  medicinal  properties  of  plants; 
that  is,  of  those  whose  development  is  compatible  with  the  climate, 
and  this  embraces,  probably,  nine-tenths,  if  not  a  larger  propor- 


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168  Ohadboume  on  Cultivation  of  Medicinal  Plants, 

tion,  if  we  include  the  whole  extent  of  the  United  States,  There 
is  every  probability  that  senna,  liquorice,  rhubarb,  buch\i,  opium, 
sarsaparilla,  manna,  arrowroot,  jalap,  scammony,  colocynth,  &c., 
may  be  produced  in  our  southern,  middle,  and  some  of  them  in  our 
northern  states,  and  of  as  good  quality  as  is  now  obtained  from 
foreign  sources.  I  shall  feel  obliged  to  any  of  your  correspond- 
ents, for  facts  in  regard  to  this  subject  Charles  A.  Lek. 


•  "BowDOiN  OoLLEGB,  February  22,  1869. 

**  My  answer  respecUng  the  effect  of  cultivation  on  medicinal  plants  must  be 
very  brief  on  account  of  press  of  labors.  I  know  of  nothing  in  th«  history  of 
cultivated  plants  justifying  that  sweeping  generalization  which  some  have 
made;  that  cultivation  alway$  injures  the  value  of  plants  for  medicinal  pur- 
poses, by  decreasing  the  amount  of  active  principle.  That  this  is  true  of  soms 
plants  is  well  known;  and  that  change  of  climate  affects  the  amount  of 
active  principle  is  also  well  known.  But  what  will  be  the  result  in  a  given 
case,  must  be  decided  by  actual  experiment  I  know  some  consider  it  very 
unphilosophical  to  bring  the  consideration  of  ***  final  causes'"  into  any 
scientific  discussion ;  but  they  have,  nevertheless,  been  of  great  advantage, 
and  it  seems  to  me  they  may  well  be  considered  in  connection  with  the  history 
of  cultivated  plants. 

**  Plants  have  been  changed,  but  in  what  different  directions  ?  Take  the 
apple  and  rose— two  plants  belonging  to  the  same  natural  order.  Cultivation 
has  changed  ihej¥uit  of  the  apple,  causing  it  to  break  up  into  untold  forms — 
with  almost  every  possible  tint  and  flavor ;  no  important  change  has  been 
produced  in  its  flower.  The  rose,  on  the  other  hand,  becomes  more  beautifiil 
as  a  flower.  In  the  apple  the  original  idea  seems  to  have  been  utility  in  its 
firuit  In  the  rose,  on  the  other  hand,  the  beauty  of  the  flower  seems  the  main 
design  of  its  creation.  So  fixed  and  so  well  understood  are  these  two  charac- 
teristics that  no  one  expects  any  change  from  cultivation  in  these  two  plants, 
except  improvement  of  firuit  in  the  apple  and  of  flower  in  the  rose. 

The  potato  and  tomato  plants  of  the  same  genus,  might  also  be  cited.  No 
one  expects  by  cultivation  to  cause  the  tomato  to  produce  underground  stems 
like  potatoes,  nor  does  he  expect  to  cause  the  potato  balls  to  develope  into 
edible  fruit  like  the  tomatoes,  though  they  correspond  exactly  in  their  relation 
to  the  plant  The  potato  improves  in  one  direction — the  tomato  in  another — 
each,  as  it  seems  to  me,  according  to  the  leading  idea  in  the*  creation  of  the 
plant  Examples  might  be  multiplied  to  any  extent  If  this  be  a  true  princi- 
ple we  might  expect  that  medicinal  plants  would  be  improved  sometimes  by 
cultivation,  unless  we  adopt  the  notion  that  there  is  no  plant  in  which  the 
healing  property  is  the  leading  idea.  There  is  very  great  difference  in  plants, 
in  their  readiness  to  change  by  cultivation,  and  there  is  very  much  yet  to  be 
learned  respecting  the  conditions  under  which  the  active  principle  of  plants  is 
increased  or  diminished. 


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Sanionine.  169 

But  I  think  we  know  enough  to  saj  that  cultivation  does  not  necessarily  de- 
tretae  the  quantity,  but  on  the  other  hand,  it  may  be  increased.  And  this 
must  be  determined  by  eicpcriment  on  each  plants  in  each  new  place  and  under 
each  new  condition  of  cultivation.  This  is  the  only  philosophical  course.  And 
it  is  a  subject  of  very  great  scientific  as  well  as  pecuniary  interest  Climate 
<annot  be  controlled  and  that  will  limit  the  home  of  some  species,  but  all  else 
iseems  resolved  into  methods  of  cultivation^  and  there  seems  no  reason  to  sup- 
pose that  there  may  not  be  methods  of  cultivating  successfully,  medicinal,  as 
well  as  nuirfUve  plants.  Very  truly  yeurs, 

P.  A.  Cmadbourne.** 


-^- 


Santonine. 

{Artemisia  Santontca.) 

Santonine  is  prepared  from  the  artemisia  santonica  or  worm- 
seed,  whicli  does  not  consist  of  seeds,  but  of  small  globular,  unex- 
panded  flowers  of  the  plant,  mixed  with  broken  peduncles  4nd 
minute  obtuse  smooth  leaves  with  greenish  appearance,  of  strong 
aromatic  odor  increased  by  friction,  and  disagreeable  taste.  The 
plant  is  abundant  in  the  Levant,  and  is  much  used  as  a  vermifuge 
in  those  countries,  and  in  many  parts  of  Europe. 

From  ten  to  thirty  grains  were  generally  given  in  substance, 
mixed  with  sugar  or  milk ;  the  dose  being  repeated  at  short  in- 
tervals and  followed  by  a  purgative.  The  eflfects  as  might  be 
expected  were  uncertain,  but  the  evident  power  of  the  herb  led 
to  an  investigation  of  the  nature  of  its  active  principle ;  a  resinous 
extract  and  an  essential  oil  were  obtained,  but  subsequently  a 
eaU^  which  is  the  principle  now  mostly  employed  as  a  vermifuge. 

It  was  discovered  and  described  by  Kahler  and  Alms,  and  sub- 
sequently carefully  investigated  by  OberdorfiTer,  and  especially  by 
Trommsdorff  the  younger.    It  was  seperated  by  Kahler,  in  1880. 

Methods  of  Preparation. — The  process  of  M.  M.  Kochler  was  to 
treat  the  seed  by  sulphuric  ether,  and  distill  off  the  ether  to 
obtain  crystals;  these  were  purified  by  solution  in  alcohol,  to 
which  a  little  hydrochloric  acid  had  been  added. 

That  of  Merck  consists  of  submitting  the  seed  to  the  action  of 
hydrate  of  lime  and  alcohol.  Evaporating  the  tincture  to  one- 
fourth  ;  filter  to  separate  the  resin,  and  treating  it  while  hot  with 
concentrated  acetic  acid.  The  santonine  is  deposited  in  crystals 
on  cooling ;  it  is  purified  by  boiling  it  several  times  with  alcohol 
and  animal  charcoal. 


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170  Santonine. 

M.  A.  Guillemette  macerates  the  seeds  in  cold  water  six  hours; 
expresses;  pulverizes  the  cake;  macerates  again  for  eight^a 
hours  in  cold  water  and  expresses.  The  mass  having  been  dried 
and  pulverized  is  digested  in  alcohol  pf  89°  for  twenty-four  hours^ 
and  expressed;  this  process  is  repeated  until  the  seeds  are 
exhausted.  The  alcoholic  solutions  are  mixed  and  evaporated  to 
three  hundred  and  fifty  grammes  which  is  set  aside  to  crystalize, 
and  are  purified  by  alcohol  and  charcoal. 

M.  Lecocq  reduces  one  part  of  seied  to  coarse  powder,  and  boila 
for  fifteen  minutes  with  ten  parts  of  water,  after  which  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  slacked  lime  is  added  to  render  the  liquor  slightly 
alkaline ;  it  is  again  boiled  for  ten  minutes,  strained  and  pressed, 
if  the  seed  is  not  sufficiently  exhausted,  which  may  be  ascertained 
by  ^he  hot  pungent  taste  of  the  seed ;  it  is  again  boiled  with  five 
quarts  of  water  and  a  little  slacked  lime,  strained  and  pressed ;  the 
united  liquors  are  evaporated  to  the  weight  of  the  seed  employed^ 
placed  in  an  earthen  pot,  allowed  to  cool,  and  then  treated  with 
an  excess  of  hydrochloric  acid.  A  fatty,  resinous  matter  instant- 
ly separates  in  thick  flakes*  wiich  float,  while  the  santonine  is 
precipitated  as  an  impalatable  powder.  Strain  to  separate  the 
resinous  matter ;  allow  a  days  repose ;  the  impure  santonine  is. 
deposited ;  to  purify  this  it  is  put  into  a  porcelain  capsule  with 
two  quarts  of  distilled  water  and  boiled  ;  fifty  or  sixty  grammes 
of  pulverized  quick  lime  is  added  and  the  combination  is  effected 
in  a  short -time.  The  liquor  is  filtered  and  decolorized  by  animal 
charcoal,  and  then  treated  by  hydrochloric  acid,  which  imme- 
diately precipitates  the  santonine;  collect;  wash  well  and  dry 
in  a  dark  room. 

The  difficulty  experienced  in  procuring  pure  santonine,  and  on 
account  of  its  high  price  induced  M.  Gtiffard  to  endeavor  to  ob- 
tain from  wormseed  a  product  which  may  possess  the  advantages 
of  the  santonine,  and  at  the  same  time  ^  free  from  the  objections 
to  the  crude  article.  He  calls  his  the  brown  or  impure  santonine  ; 
his  process  is : — 

Aleppo  Wormseed,         -        -        -        -        -  8  Ounces. 

Carbonate  of  Potash, 1        " 

Slacked  Lime,  sifted,      -        -        -        .        .  ^       ." 

Water, 8  to  8i  Pints. 


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Sanionine,  171 

Boil  the  mixture  for  an  hour;  express  through  a  linen  cloth  ;  settle,  decant 
and  add  hydrochloric  or  nitric  acid  until  it  reddens  litmus  paper,  without  bein^ 
BOisibly  acid  to  the  tongue ;  allow  it  to  rest ;  pass  it  through  a  filter ;  allow 
the  product  which  remains  on  the  filter  to  dry  in  the  open  air  until  it  acquires 
the  consistence  of  firm  butter.  This  product  is  a  mixture  of  santonine,  resin^ 
and  essential  oil,  and  answers  for  many  of  the  forms  in  which  practiticmers 
wish  to  exhibit  it 

The  chemical  properties  of  this  substance  are  somewhat  re- 
markable. According  to  M.  Merck  pure  santonine  is  in  brilliant, 
colorless  elongated  quadrilateral  prisms,  inodorous  and  tasteless. 

"Santonii\e  is  in  brilliant,  colorless  prisms,  without  taste  or 
smell ;  when  exposed  to  the  rajs  of  the  sun  it  becomes  yellow ; 
is  soluble  in  alcohol,  and  its  solution,  which  is  at  first  yellow, 
soon  loses  its  color  and  furnishes  the  santonine  as  at  first. 

"  When  it  is  heated  in  a  platina  crucible  it  melts,  and  volatilises 
without  being  decomposed.  The  diluted  acids  have  little  action 
upon  it ;  and  although  it  is  not  acid,  it  forms  real  salts  with  alka- 
line and  other  bases,  which  salts  are  crystalizable,  as  those  of  lime, 
barytes  and  lead.  These  combinations  take  place  with  very  re- 
markable phenomena.  When  a  mixture  of  quick-lime,  water, 
santonine  and  alcohol  is  heated,  the  fluid  at  first  assumes  a  beauti- 
ful red  color ;  on  cooling,  the  calcareous  salt  crystalizes  in  needles 
of  a  silky  appearance,  losing  its  color  from  above  downwards  and 
at  kst  becomes  perfectly  white.  To  purify  this  salt,  it  is  to  be 
dissolved  in  warm  water,  and  the  excess  of  lime  precipitated  by 
a  current  of  carbonic  acid  gas.  The  calcareous  combination  is 
not  decomposed  by  the  carbonic  acid,  whilst  that  of  lead  is  de- 
stroyed by  mere  exposure  to  the  air. 

"  The  red  color  is  also  produced  when  santonine  is  heated  with 
barytes,  ammonia,  strontian,  soda  or  potash,  but  only  if  alcohol 
be  added;  otherwise  although  the  combinations  are  perfectly 
formed,  they  remain  of  a  pure  white. 

When  santonine,  changed  to  a  yellow  by  the  effect  of  the  sun's 
rays,  is  used  in  making  these  basic  salts,  the  products  are  as  white 
as  if  white  santonine  be  used,  but  during  the  evaporation  a  yellow 
color  is  observed  which  disappears  on  cooling  like  the  red  tint 
spoken  of  above. 

M.  Liebig  has  not  yet  determined  the  atomic  weight  of  the 
calcareous  combination  of  santonine,  but  an  analysis  of  it  has  fur- 
nished him  with  the  following  results : — 


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172  SanUmine, 

Carbon,        --..-.        70.609 

Hydrogen, 7.466 

Oxygen, 22.025 

100.000 

Wachenroder  found  in  the  Levant  wonnseed : — 

Volatile  Oil, 00.39 

Bitter  matter, 20.25 

Resinous  bitter  substance,    -        .        .  04.45 

Green  Resin, 06.05 

Cerin,  00.85 

Gummy  extractiye, 15.50 

Ubnin, 08.60 

Malate  of  lime  with  trace  of  Silica^  -  00.02 

Woody  fibre, 85.45 

Earthy  matter, 06.70 

Subsequent  analysis  has  given  to  Santonine  the  formula — 
€/•  H.«  0.« 

According  to  M.  Calloud  santonine  is  a  specific  poison  for  in- 
testinal worms.  He  administered  it  to  hundreds  of  infants  with 
results  that  exceeded  his  expectations,  and  several  physicians  to 
whom  he  distributed  it  obtained  similar  results. 

M.  Mialhe  says : — "  Santonine  constitutes  without  doubt  a  medi- 
<5al  agent  destined  to  render  most  important  services;  being 
nearly  insipid,  it  will  be  generally  preferred  to  the  volatile  oil  of 
semen  contra^  the  bitterness  of  which  is  such  that  few  infents  can 
bear  it ;  but  it  may  be  said,  since  this  stearopten  has  no  decided 
iaste,  since  it  is  scarcely  soluble  in  water,  how  is  it  possible  that 
it  can  possess  a  so  decided  deleterious  action  on  these  parisites? 
Nothing  is  so  easy  as  to  answer  this  question.  Santonine,  it  is 
true,  is  nearly  insoluble  in  water,  but  it  becomes  soluble  in  every 
proportion  in  the  presence  of  an  alkali.  The. liquid  contained  in 
the  portion  of  the  intestinal  canal  in  which  the  parisites  in  ques- 
tion ordinarily  occur,  has  a  very  distinct  alkaline  reaction ;  it  has 
therefore,  the  power  of  rendering  this  substance  soluble,  and  con- 
sequently active.  I  may,  moreover,  observe,  that  the  property 
which  santonine  possesses  of  being  soluble  and  absorbable  only  in 
the  inferior  portion  of  the  alimentary  canal,  renders  its  efficacious- 
ness more  certain.  In  fact,  every  good  anthelmintic  agent  must 
necessarily  belong  to  the  class  of  bodies  which  are  little  or  not  at 


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Santonine.  178 

all  absorbable  in  the  stomach.  Why,  for  instance,  do  a  few  centi- 
grammes of  calomel  constitute  a  yermifuge  far  more  certain  in  its 
eflfects  than  a  quantity  of  corrosive  sublimate,  equal  to  that  which 
would  result  jQrom  the  partial  transformation  of  the  protochloride 
of  mercury  into  the  bichloridie,  imder  the  influence  of  the  alka- 
line chlorides  contamed  in  our  secretions?  It  is  because  a  weak 
dose  of  corrosive  sublimate,  administered  as  such,  is  absorbed  in 
the  prtnwe  vice,  while  the  partial  transformation  of  the  calomel  into 
sublimate  takes  place  throughout  the  whole  extent  of  the  di- 
gestive canal,  which  enables  the  poison  to  attain  the  intestinal 
worms  in  whatever  portion  o#the  canal  they  may  be  situated." 

Dr.  Wells,  surgeon  of  the  Eoyal  Navy  says:  "  The  experience 
of  medical  men  with  whom  I  have  conversed,  and  my  own  obser- 
vation, have  convinced  me  that  this  salt  woidd  be  a  most  valuable 
addition  to  our  pharmacopoeia.  Many  think  its  effects  more  cer- 
tain upon  lumbrid  than  upon  taenia,  but  I  have  found  it  equally 
efficacious  in  both.  The  dose  for  an  adult  is  from  five  to  eight 
grains,  and  for  a  child  from  two  to  four,  given  as  a  powder  in 
sugar  or  preserve,  at  bed-time,  and  washed  down  by  a  glass  of 
water.  In  many  cases  the  worms  are  passed  on  the  following 
morning,  but  not  unfrequently.  it  is  necessary  to  give  a  second 
dose  on  the  succeeding  evening.  I  have  not  yet  found  more  than, 
the  second  dose  required.  In  Corfii  it  is  usual  to  combine  the 
santonine  with  a  moderate  dose  of  calomel,  and  to  follow  it  up  by 
a  saline  aperient;  but  I  have  not  done  so,  as  I  thought  the  trials 
of  the  real  power  of  the  salt  itself  would  thus  become  less  satis- 
fectory.  Very  little  griping  is  produced,  and  the  worms  are 
passed  dead.  If  the  dose  exceed  five  grains  in  an  adult,  a  curious, 
effect  upon  the  retina  is  produced — the  patient,  for  an  hour  or 
more,  occasionally  seeing  all  objects  tinted  green  or  yellow,  as 
though  he  was  looking  through  colored  spectacles.  No  visible 
change  in  the  eye  can  be  detected  in  such  cases.  In  two  persons 
I  have  seen  the  urine  very  highly  colored  for  a  few  hours.  The 
men  to  whom  I  administered  it  were  strong  seamen  or  marines, 
and  some  of  them,  who  had  previously  taken  turpentine  on  dif- 
ferent occasions,  said  they  thought  the  new  medicine  equally  or 
more  effectual,  far  less  unpleasant  to  take,  and  less  painful  in 
operation.  Forming  a  small  and  almost  tasteless  powder,  it  is  pe- 
culiarly adapted  to  children." — {To  be  continued.) 


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174 


Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association, 


Twelfth    Aimnal  Meeting   of  the   American   Medical 
Association. 

The  association  met  on  Tuesday,  May  dd,  at  eleven  o'clock,  A.  If.,  in 
Mozart  Hall,  the  president,  Dr.  HarVey  Lindsly,  of  the  District  of  Cohimbia^ 
in  the  chair,  supported  by  Drs.  W.  L.  Sutton,  of  Kentucky,  Thomas  0.  Ed- 
wards, of  Iowa,  Josiah  Crosby,  of  Massachusetts,  and  W.  C.  Warren^  of  N(nrth 
Carolina,  as  vice  presidents,  with  Drs.  Alexander  J.  Semmes,  of  the  District 
of  Columbia,  and  S.  M.  Bemiss,  of  Kentucky,  acting  as  secretaries.  Dr.  Cas- 
par Wistar,  of  Penn.,  treasurer,  was  also  in  attendance. 

The  president  announced  the  Rev.  Mr.  Robinson,  of  Louisyille,  who  opened 
the  proceedings  with  prayer. 

Dr.  Robert  J.  Breckenridge,  chairman  ^f  the  committee  of  arrangements, 
then  welcomed  the  delegates  to  the  city. 

Prof.  Joshua  B.  Flint,  of  Louisville,  accompanied  by  Drs.  Sutton,  Chipley, 
Spillman  and  Snead,  all  ex-presidents  of  the  association,  then  came  forward 
and  presented  a  resolution  of  welcome  from  the  state  medical  society  of  Ken- 
tucky, and  in  behalf  of  the  state  society,  in  a  neat  and  appropriate  address 
welcomed  the  president  and  members  of  the  association  as  guests  of  their  Ken- 
tucky brethren. 

The  secretary,  Dr  Bemiss,*  then  called  the  roll  of  members  of  the  associadon, 
and  the  following  gentlemen  were  in  attendance : — 

OHIO.  John  DatIs, 

Thomas  W.  Gordon, 


DI8T.  or  COLUMBIA, 

Hanrey  Llodsly, 
Cornelius  Boyle, 
Alex.  J.  Semmes. 

VIROUfU. 

L.  S.  Joynes, 
P.  0.  Spencer, 
A.  8.  Payne. 

GBOKOIA. 

Henry  F.  OampbelU 
Joeeph  Jones, 
W.  H.  Doaghty, 
J.  T.  Banks, 
A.  Q.  Thomas, 
John  W.  Jonea, 
J.  Q.  Weslmnreland, 

LOUISUMA. 

8.  O.  Scruggs, 
R.  A.  New. 

MARTLAND. 

G.  W.  Lawrence. 

80CTH  CABOLIXA. 

Henry  R.  Frost, 
H.  W.  Qlbbs, 
John  F.  Gaston, 
W.  H.  Huger, 
Francis  J.  Miles, 

PKNHSTLVAKIA. 

Caspar  Wistar, 
Robert  K.  Smith, 
Jamea  Bryan, 
W.  B.  Atkinson, 
Frank  Kiesor, 
WlUlam  Hunt, 
John  Shrack, 
D.  D.  Clarke, 
W.  W.  Townsend, 
Caleb  Swayne. 

RUODB  ISLAITD. 

James  H.  Eldrldge. 


Jl.  H.  Baker, 
W.  W.  Dawson, 
Thomas  M.  Taggart, 
H.  E.  Foote, 
John  C.  Beck, 
0.  G.  Comegys, 
8.  P.  Hunt. 
James  Graham, 

B.  F.  Richardson, 
T.  J.  Mullen, 

J.  B.  Smith, 
Robert  Thompson, 
Charles  8.  IVipler, 
Stephen  Bonner, 
John  A.  Murphy, 
E.  P.  Tyffe, 
Daniel  TUden, 
J.  Helmick, 
George  Fries, 

A.  B.  Heighnay, 
Joseph  Clements, 
J.  G.  Rodgers, 
H.  G.  Gary, 
WilUara  Mount, 

C.  McDermott, 
R.  L.  Rea, 

W.  H.  Lamme, 

B.  8.  Brown, 

G.  A.  Dougherty, 
J.  C.  Devise, 
George  MendenhaU, 
8.  G.  Armor, 
E.  B.  Stevens, 
L.  G.  LeckUder, 
W.  L.  Scbneck, 
J.  P.  Judkins, 

D.  B.  Cotton, 
W.  F.  Kincaed, 


W.  C.  Hull, 
W.  B.  Davis, 
P.  H.  KeUey, 
Usher  P.  Lelghton. 

NSW  TORK. 

Lewis  A.  Sayre, 
Thomas  W.  Blatchford, 
David  Meredith  Reese, 
J.  Carey  Selden, 

A.  L.  Saunders, 
Douglas  Bl>', 
David  L.  Rogers, 
Daniel  G.  Thomas, 
John  L.  Zabrlskie, 
M.  M.  Marsh, 

TBNirBSSKB. 

John  H.  Callender, 
J.  C.  Newnan, 
James  M.  Keller, 
G.  C.  E.  Weber, 
H.  R.  Robards, 
J.  8.  White, 
W.  K.  Bowling, 

E.  B.  Haskins, 

F.  Rice, 

J.  B.  LlndsIy, 
T.  L.  Maddin, 

D.  F.  Wright, 

W.  C.  Cavanaugh, 
R.  C.  Foster, 

E.  D.  Wheeler, 

B.  W.  Arrant, 
W.  D.  Haggard, 
Paul  F.  Eve, 

J.  M.  Brannock, 

KBNTDCKT. 

J.  W.  singleton. 
N.  B.  Anderson, 
H.  K.  Pttsey. 


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Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association. 


175 


Oiarcfalll  J.  Blaokbom, 
W.  H.  Miller, 
R.  C.  Hewitt, 
JohB  L.  Disatfaest 
J.  B.  Flint, 
JbknHanttn, 
W.  A.  Tomer, 
M.  Goldimlth, 
UtweUjm  Powell, 
0.  W.  Bayleas, 

DftTld  Canunint, 
0.  M.  Wlble, 
A.  B.  Cooke, 
D.  W.  TftBdell, 
]>.  D,  Tbonuoii, 
S.  J.  Breckenridge, 
&  M.  Bemlat, 
John  B.  Cook, 
Henry  MQler, 
T.  P  tetterwhlte,      , 
>€.  W.  Ronald, 
lewitfBogen, 
J.  Hopeon, 
J.  Q.  A.  Foster, 
LBoMell, 
Hn|di  L.  Oivint, 
•0.  H.  SpiUman, 
H.  D.  Stirmnn, 
M.  B.  Manhall, 
M.  D.  Foree, 
•T.  8.  Bell, 
JL  P.  Letcher, 
A.  Callaway, 
>&  D.  Weatberford, 
J.  L.  Landnun, 
D.  J.  0*RelUy, 
Jamael  Reid, 
John  H.  PoUn, 
W.  8.  Chlpley, 
W.  D.  Holt, 
W.  £.  OUpin, 
A.B.8teiuurt, 
Wb.  Hayea, 
Ihmnaa  Marshall, 
'W.  L.  Sutton, 
.0.  P.  Mattlogly, 
fllanton  P.  Biyan, 
J.  W.  Bosh, 
H.  M.  BkUtman 
Ju  Bnckner  Todd, 
W.  R.  Erans, 
W.  C.  Bnead, 
^.  B.  Caldwell, 
W.  H.  Gardner, 
1.0.  Brown, 
Ju  B.  Richardson, 
A.  U.  adrely, 
P.  G.  Montgomery, 
J.  A.  Hodge, 
W.  W.  Clearer, 
Hn^  Berkley, 
A  B.  Field, 
W.  N.  Gsrther, 
JUL  Ridiardson. 


MICHIQAir. 

MoaeaGonn, 
Z.  PUcher, 
Wm.  Broctte, 
John  Bennet, 

niLAWABI. 

H.  F.  Askew. 


Landon  A.  Smith, 

E.  Flthlan, 
Joaeph  Fithian, 
Alex.  N.  Dottgberty, 
Abraham  Coles, 

nW  HAMPSBiaS. 

Dixi  Crosby. 

ALABAICA. 

Ckorge  D.  Norrls, 
J.  B.  Coons, 
W.  P.  Reese, 

A.  J.  Reese, 

J.  N.  Tnmey. 

MORTH  OkmOUMA, 

Bdward  Warren. 

MUSOirEI. 

Montrose  A.  Pnllen. 
J.  M.  AUen, 
John  H.  Walters, 
Joseph  N.  McDowell, 
Stephen  Ritchie,        ' 
M.  L.  Linton, 
J.  R.  Washington, 
Chas.  A.  Pope, 
W.  M.  McPheeten, 
J.  M.  Allen. 

F.  B.  Fraxer. 

WIS0OS8I|l. 

C.  B.  Chapman. 

IOWA. 

J>.  L.  McGngln, 
Thos.  0.  Edwards, 
Daniel  Meeker, 
Wm.  Watson. 

nmiAHA. 
Charles  FIshback, 

B.  a  Woodworth, 
W.  R.  Winton, 
CalTin  West, 
Isaac  Capelberry, 
J.  N.  Green, 
R.  D.  Maury, 
Geo.  Sutton, 
Isaac  Mendenhall, 
M.  H.  Hardin, 
L.  D.  Personett, 
A.  B.  Butler, 
R.  E.  Houghton, 

D.  W.  Taylor, 
8.  &  Boyd. 
J.  H.  Brower, 
A.  McPbeeters, 
J.  Langes, 
Joel  Pennington, 
L.  H.  Kennedy, 
J.  Joel  Wright, 
H.  G.  Sexton, 
Joseph  Somers, 

VKiTiD  STATU  AKMT.— Cbarles  S.  Tripler. 


John  Mofflt, 

D.  Morgan, 

H.  P.  Ayes, 

Wn.  Dickey, 

D.  H.  Jestup, 

Joseph  H.  D.  Rogers, 

Be^J.  Newland, 

John  Sloan, 

T.  R.  Austin, 

R.  R.  Town, 

A.a»PP,  ^ 
F.  W.  Beard, 
Wm.  Reeder, 
D.  M.  Jones, 
Chas.  Bowman, 
R.&  Shield, 
John  M.  Kitchen, 
S.  Darts, 
George  W.  New, 
J.  H.  Woodbora, 
&  M.  Linton, 

C.  Brown, 
A.  G.  Boynton, 

F.  M.  Mothershead, 
T.  Bullard, 
W.  A.  Clapp, 
W.  W.  HIt^ 

A.  J.  MuUen, 
Jno.  M,  Ufaikle, 
J.  D.  MaxweU, 
Jno.  M.  ReiUy, 
J.  A.  Windle, 

B.  C.  Rowan, 
L.  Ritter, 
R.  Curran, 
J.  W.  l^ivls, 
W.  T.  S.  Cometl, 
A.  V.  TaUbet. 

MASSACHCSITTS. 

Plerson  F.  Kendall, 

G.  Shattuck, 
Bet\J.  F.  Heywood, 
SoL  D.  Townsend, 
Joslah  Crosby, 
J.  B.  Upham, 
Enos  Hoyt, 

ILLUOIS. 

J.  W.  Fruer, 
Daniel  Brainard, 
N.  8.  Davis, 
R.N.  Isham, 
J.  H.  Hollister, 
H.  A.  Johnson, 

D.  W.  Young, 
0.  Goodbrake, 
H.  Noble, 
J.  M.  Steele, 
A.  H.  Ince, 
J.  N.  Graham, 
J.  B.  Curtis, 
F.  B.  HaUer, 
H.  Nance, 
Thomas  Wllklns, 
T.  D.  Fltch^^ 

C.  Johnson, 

D.  0.  McCord. 


The  president  then  appointed  the  following  gentlemen  a  committee  on  yolun- 
iary  essajs : — ^Drs.  L.  P.  Yandell,  of  Kentucky,  Bryan,  of  Philadelphia,  and 
•Gomegys,  of  Ohio. 

Dr.  R.  J.  Breckinridge,  from  the  committee  of  arrangements  announced  the 
hours  of  business  from  9  A.  M.  to  12  M.,  and  from  3  P.  M.  until  such  hour 
as  the  convention  should  adjourn  upon  resolution,  which  arrangement  was 
adopted. 


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176  Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association, 

Dr.  Harvej  Lindsly,  Che  president  of  the  association,  then  read  his  retiring*- 
address,  which  was  listened  to  with  marked  attention,  and  was  an  eloquent 
tribute  to  the  dignity  of  the  medical  profession  and  the  importance  of  its  im- 
provements. 

After  he  had  concluded,  Dr.  L.  A.  Smith,  of  New  Jersey,  moved  that  the 
thanks  of  the  association  be  tendered  to  the  president  for  his  able  and  eloquent 
address,  and  it  was  ordered  to  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  appropriate  com-^ 
mittee  for  publication,  among  the  proceedings  of  the  meeting. 

Dr.  Caspar  Wistar,  chairman  of  the  committe  on  publication,  read  the  an-- 
nual  report,  and  on  motion  of  Dr.  Sayres,  of  New  York,  the  following  resdu- 
tions  app^ided  to  it  were  unanimously  adopted : — 

JRMolwdf  That  hereafter  erery  paper  intended  for  publication  In  the  Trani actions  moat  not  onljr 
be  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  committee  of  pnblicatlon  by  tlie  1st  of  June,  bat  it  most  also  be  so> 
prepared  as  to  require  no  material  alteration  or  addition  at  the  hands  of  the  author. 

BMolved^  That  authors  of  pM>ers  be  required  to  return  their  proofii  within  two  weeks  after  their 
reception,  otherwise  they  will  be  passed  over  and  omitted  from  the  rolume. 

Adjourned  until  three  o^clock,  P.  M. 

AFTERNOON  SES8I09. 

Dr.  W.  L.  Sutton,  one  ot  the  vice-presidents,  took  the  chair  in  the  absence^ 
of  the  president 

Dr.  D.  Meredith  Reese,  of  New  York,  chairman  of  the  committee  on  nomi- 
nations, reported  the  following  officers  for  the  ensuing  year : — 

President — Henry  Miller,  of  Kentucky.  Vice  Preaidente — ^H.  F.  Askew,. 
Delaware ;  Chas.  S.  Tripler,  U.  S.  Army ;  L.  A.  Smith,  New  Jersey ;  Calviib 
West,  Indiana.  TWasurer — Caspar  Wistar,  Pennsylvania.  Secretary — S.  M.. 
Bemiss,  Kentucky. 

Dr.  Sayre  moved  the  adoption  of  the  report,  which  was  unanimously  agreed  to. 

Dr.  Brainard,  of  Ulinois,  moved  the  appointment  of  a  committee  to  conduct 
the  newly  appointed  officers  to  their  respective  chairs.  The  acting  president 
selected  Drs.  Brainard,  of  IlL,  Mattingly,  of  Ky.,  Sutton,  of  Ind,  McDowell,  of 
Mo.,  and  K  J.  Breckinridge,  of  Ky.,  and  they  accordingly  performed  the  duties 
assigned  to  them. 

The  newly  elected  president,  on  taking  the  chair,  addressed  the  convention 
in  substance  as  follows : — 

Gentlemen  of  the  American  Medical  Association: — I  am  wholly  at  a 
loss  to  command  language  to  express  the  dee^  sense  of  obligation  put  upon  me- 
by  calling  me  to  the  Presidency  of  your  Association.  It  is  an  honor  any  maa 
may  well  be  proud  of^  and  although,  I  admit,  in  all  sincerity,  that  you  might 
witiiout  difficulty  have  selected  an  individual  more  worthy  the  position,  I  may 
be  allowed  to  say  you  could  not  have  conferred  it  upon  one  who  would  prize 
it  more  highly,  or  cherish  it  longer  with  the  most  grateful  recollection.  I  do 
esteem  it  the  greatest  honor  ever  conferred  upon  me  by  the  profession  that  I 
love,  and  to  which  I  have  devoted  a  long  life ;  nay,  more — it  is  the  greatest 
honor  that  could  be  conferred  upon  any  man  by  the  medical  or  any  other  pro- 
fession in  this  or  any  other  country;  for  any  decoration  of  honor  or  any  mark 
of  approbation  conferred  by  a  crowned  head,  I  should  regard  as  a  bauble  in 


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Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association.  177 

eomiMuriaon.  Who  are  you,  gentlemen,  when  nghtly  considered?  You  arc 
the  rightful  representatives  of  the  great  American  Medical  Profession — an 
army  forty  thousand  strong,  and  a  body  of  men,  no  matter  what  captious 
criticism  may  say  in  disparaging  comparison  with  the  European  branch  of  the 
profession,  in  my  humble  judgment,  &r  superior  to  the  same  number  of  medi- 
cal men  to  be  found  in  any  quarter  of  the  globe.  Although,  as  a  body  you 
may  not  be  so  learned,  so  critically  and  nicely  framed  in  all  the  minutiso  of 
the  profession,  yet  for  strength,  integrity,  and  precision  in  all  the  great  princi- 
ples guiding  to  a  successful  combat  with  disease,  this  body  is  equal  if  not  su- 
perior to  that  of  any  kingdom  of  continental  Europe.  ^ 

To  be  called  to  the  presidency  of  such  a  body  of  men  is  in  my  sober  judg- 
ment the  greatest  compliment  that  could  be  conferred  on  mortal  man,  provided 
that  man  is  a  devotee  of  medicine,  who  has  given  his  whole  mind,  soul,  heart, 
and  strength  individuaUy  to  the  profession,  and  has  that  high  regard  for  it 
which  will  not  suffer  any  less  noble  pursuit  to  interfere  with  the  daily  though 
laborious  duties  of  the  profession.  Comkig  so  recently  from  a  sick  bed,  and 
still  enfeebled  in  health,  I  beg  to  be  excused  from  further  remarks  and  desire 
yoQ  to  acc^t  this  brief  and  imperfect  acknowledgement  of  the  distinguished 
honor  conferred  upon  me,  instead  of  what,  under  other  circumstances,  I  might 
be  disposed  to  say. 

The  president,  after  this  grateful  address,  sat  down  amid  much  applause, 
when  Dr.  R.  J.  Breckinridge  moved  that  the  thanks  of  the  association  be 
tendered  to  the  retiring  officers  for  the  fiiithful  and  assiduous  manner  in  which 
they  have  conducted  the  business  committed  to  their  charge,  which  was  unani- 
mously adopted. 

A  long  and  discursive  debate  then  ensued  on  the  admission  of  members  by 
invitation.  The  plan  of  organization  pertnits  practitioners  of  respectable 
standing  from  sections  of  the  United  States  not  otherwise  represented  at  the 
meeting,  to  receive  appointment,  by  invitation  of  the  meeting  after  an  intro- 
duction from,  any  of  the  members  present,  or  any  absent  permanent  members, 
to  hold  connection  with  the  association  until  the  dose  of  the  annual  session 
at  which  they  are  received,  and  to  be  entitled  to  participate  in  all  its  afiairs, 
as  in  the  case  of  delegates.  The  point  of  difficulty  seemed  to  be  whether  the 
invitations  should  be  extended  by  the  committee  of  arrangements  or  by  open 
vote  of  the  association.  It  was  finally  settled  by  referring  all  the  applicant's 
names  to  the  committee  on  arrangements. 

Dr.  J.  R  Lindsly,  of  Tennessee,  offered  the  following : — 

J?Mo2c«(i,  Tliat  a  eommlUee  of  three  be  appointed  by  the  chahr  to  Inquke  into  and  report  upon  the 
profnieCy  of  diridlng  the  AModation  into  sections,  for  the  purpose  of  performing  such  part  of  ita 
Bdentific  labors  as  may  relate  to  particular  branches  of  medicine  and  surgery. 

Dr.  Brodie  moved  its  reference  to  the  nominating  committee. 

Dr.  Brainard  explained  at  some  length  the  object  of  the  resolution  of  inquiry, 
and  enforced  its  adoption  as  the  means  of  giving  more  effect  and  usefulness  to 
the  proceedings  of  the  association,  the  reports  of  which  had  heretofore  gone 
out  unmatured,  in  consequence  of  the  want  of  concentrated  action. 


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178  Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Associaiion, 

A  motion  by  Dr.  Sayre  to  lay  the  motion  on  the  table  was  negatived,  and 
the  motion  of  Dr.  Lindsly  was  then  adopted. 

Dr.  Davis  moved  that  no  person  be  permitted  to  speak  more  than  twice  on 
the  same  subject,  or  more  than  ten  minutes  at  one  time,  except  by  consent  of 
the  association,  which  was  adopted. 

The  standing  committee  on  prize  essays  was  called  on  for  their  report,  but 
without  a  response.  This  was  also  the  case  with  the  committee  on  medical 
education.     The  committee  on  medical  literature  had  no  report  to  present 

A  letter  from  Dr.  J.  G.  F.  Holston,  of  Ohio,  chairman  of  the  special  commit- 
tee on  the  microscope  was  read,  reporting  progress  and  begging  a  continuance 
for  more  extended  investigation,  which  was  referred  to  the  committee  on 
nominations. 

A  letter  from  Dr.  Stephen  Smith,  of  New  York,  from  the  special  committee 
on  medical  jurisprudence  had  the  same  reference. 

The  special  committee  on  quarantine  was  not  ready  to  report 

Dr.  Mattingly,  of  Kentucky,  from  the  special  committee  on  diseases  and 
mortality  of  boarding  schools,  asked  a  continuance  until  next  year,  in  order  to 
obtain  further  information  requisite  to  the  full  investigation  of  the  important 
subject     The  request  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  nominations. 

The  special  committees  on  surgical  operations  for  the  relief  of  defective 
vision,  on  milk  sickness,  and  on  the  blood  corpuscle  had  the  same  reference. 

A  report  from  the  committee  on  medical  ethics,  signed  by  Dr.  John  Wat- 
son, of  New  York,  was  read,  laid  on  the  table,  and  made  the  spedal  order  for 
to-morrow  at  12  o'clock  M. 

Continuances  were  asked  by  the  committes  on  the  pons  varrolii,  medulla  ob- 
longata, and  spinal  marrow — ^their  pathology  and  therapeutics ;  on  American 
medical  necrology ;  on  the  hygienic  relations  of  air,  food  and  water  the  natu- 
ral and  artificial  causes  of  their  impurity,  and  the  best  methods  by  which  they 
can  be  made  most  effectually  to  contribute  to  the  public  health ;  on  the  effect 
of  the  virus  of  rattlesnakes,  &c.,  when  introduced  into  the  system  of  the  mam- 
malia ;  on  the  climate  of  the  Pacific  coast  and  its  modifying  influences  upon 
inflammatory  action  and  diseases  generally;  on  the  constitutional  origin  of 
local  diseases,  and  the  local  origin  of  constitutional  diseases ;  on  the  physio- 
logical effects  of  the  hydro  carbons ;  on  epilepsy ;  on  the  causes  of  the  impulse 
of  the  heart,  and  the  agencies  which  influence  it  in  health  and  disease,  and  on 
the  best  substitutes  for  cinchona,  and  its  preparations  in  the  treatment  of  in- 
termittent fevers,  &c.,  all  of  which  were  referred  to  the  committee  on  nominations. 

The  special  committee  on  government  meteorological  reports,  made  a  report 
written  by  Dr.  R.  H.  Coolidge,  of  the  U.  S.  Army,  but  read  by  Dr.  Paul  F. 
Eve,  of  Tennessee,  which  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  publications. 

The  committee  appointed  in  May,  1857,  on  criminal  abortion,  submitted  a 
report,  written  by  Dr.  Storer,  of  Boston,  which  was  read  by  Dr.  Blatchford,  of 
New  York,  and  referred  to  the  committee  on  publication.  The  following  reso- 
lutions appended  to  this  report  were  unanimously  adopted : — 

Bedolvedf  That  while  physicians  hare  long  been  united  In  condemnfiog  the  act  of  producing  abor- 
tion, at  every  period  of  gestation,  except  as  necessary  for  prcsenring  the  life  of  either  mother  or  child, 


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Meeting  of  t/ie  American  Medical  Association.  179 

It  hu  become  the  duty  of  this  AMOciation,  hi  view  of  the  prevalence  and  hicreashig  fireqaency  of  the 
crime,  publicly  to  enter  an  earnest  and  solemn  protest  against  such  unwarrantable  destruction  of 
kdnan  Ufe. 

BMohedf  That  fai  porsoance  of  the  grand  and  noble  calling  we  profess — the  saving  of  human  Hres 
— «nd  of  the  sacred  responsibilities  thereby  devolvhig  upon  us,  the  Association  present  this  subject 
to  the  attention  of  the  several  legislative  assemblies  of  the  Union,  with  the  prayer  that  the  laws  by 
vbich  the  crime  of  procuring  abortion  is  attempted  to  be 'Controlled  may  be  revised,  and  that  such 
«ther  action  may  be  taken  In  the  premises  as  they  In  their  wisdom  may  deem  necessary. 

S4iok!€«f,  That  the  Association  request  the  sealous  co-operation  of  the  various  State  medical  so- 
cieties in  pressing  the  subject  upon  the  legislatures  of  their  respective  States,  and  that  the  president 
and  secretaries  of  the  Association  are  hereby  authorized  to  carry  oul  by  memorial  these  resolutions. 

The  convention  then  adjourned  till  Wednesday  morning  at  nine  o'clock. 

SECOND  DAY. 

The  president,  Dr.  Miller,  called  the  Association  to  order  at  nine  oVlock. 

Dr.  D.  Meredith  Reese,  chairman  of  the  committee  on  nominations,  called  at- 
tention to  the  &ct  that  the  committee  could  not  act  definitely  until  the  place 
for  next  year's  meeting  should  be  designated.  He  also  stated  that  tho  State 
medical  society  of  Connecticut  had  requested  that  an  amendment  to  the  con- 
stitution proposed  two  years  smce  should  be  taken  from  the  table,  relative  to 
the  time  of  meeting. 

It  was  moved  by  Dr.  Blatchford  and  seconded  by  Dr.  Sayre,  that  the  amend- 
ment to  the  third  article  of  the  constitution  be  taken  up,  which  proposes  to 
add  after  the  words  "first  Tuesday  of  May"  the  words  "or  first  Tuesday  of 
June,"  and  after  the  words  "shall  be  determined  "add  the  words  "with  the 
time  of  meeting." 

The  amendment  was  adopted  by  a  constitutional  vote. 

Dr.  D.  M.  Reese  also  stated  that  the  Connecticut  State  society  had  extended 
a  pressing  invitation  to  the  association  to  hold  its  next  meeting  at  New  Haven, 
which  invitation  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  nominations. 

Dr.  Reese  also  called  attention  to  the  necessity  of  some  radical  change  in 
the  mode  of  appointing  committees  to  prepare  treatises  on  scientific  subjects  to 
be  reported  at  the  annual  meetings.  It  had  been  seen,  that,  on  yesterday,  a 
large  majority  of  the  committees  made  no  reports  and  did  not  even  see  proper 
to  send  in  any  communication  explanatory  of  delay.  The  difficulty  heretofore 
has  originated  in  the  mode  of  selection  adopted  by  the  nominating  committee. 
It  has  been  customary  for  gentlemen  to  hand  in  their  names  and  the  proposed 
subjects  on  slips  of  paper,  and  the  committee  without  further  investigation, 
have  so  published  in  the  annual  reports.  Thus  it  has  happened  that  appointments 
have  been  most  injudiciously  made,  and  gentlemen  to  whom  a  special  duty  has 
been  assigned  have  been  found  to  know  less  of  that  than  any  other  subject. 
He  therefore  hoped  that  no  committee  of  last  year  would  be  reappointed  or 
continued  from  which  no  report  had  been  had,  and  no  communication 
received. 

On  motion,  the  nominating  committee  was  unanimously  instructed  to  act 
opon  the  suggestions  of  the  chairman,  who  also  stated  that  there  should  be 
some  definite  expression  of  disapprobation  as  to  the  course  of  those  gentiemen 
who  had  volunteered  essays  and  had  their  names  reported  in  the  newspapers 
and  spread  over  the  land,  and  then  paid  no  further  attention  to  the  matter. 


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180  Meeting  of  (he  American  Medical  Association, 

Dr.  Flint,  from  the  committee  on  prize  essays,  begged  leaye  to  report  that 
they  received  four  dissertations  in  time  for  a  careful  and  thorough  examina- 
tion ;  and  two  others,  quite  voluminous,  only  two  days  before  the  meeting  of 
the  Association.  The  latter  we  have  felt  constrained  to  exclude  altogether 
from  the  competition  of  the  present  year,  on  account  of  the  absolute  impossi- 
bility of  reading  them  with  a  critical  purpose  and  effect  The  others  have 
been  carefully  examined  by  all  the  surviving  members,  of  the  committee— one 
estimable  associate,  Dr.  Evans,  having  been  called  from  all  his  earthly  labors 
before  the  active  duties  of  the  committee  began. 

More  than  one  of  the  four  essays  we  examined  exhibited  much  labor,  and  a 
commendable  scholarship  in  their  preparation — are  voluminous,  and  in  some 
respects  very  meritorious  papers ;  but,  in  the  unanimous  judgment  of  the  com- 
mittee, neither  of  them  possesses  the  degree  and  species  of  merit  which  should 
entitle  its  author  to  the  Association  prize. 

The  committee  beg  leave,  furthermore,  to  report,  that  in  their  opinion  and 
as  the  suggestion  of  their  own  recent  experience,  the  association  should  de- 
termine in  more  precise  and  formal  manner  than  has  yet  been  done  the  terms 
and  conditions  of  competition  and  of  success  in  the  contest  for  prizes,  for  the 
government  alike  of  contestants  and  the  committee  of  adjudication,  and  that  a 
committee  be  now  appointed  to  consider  and  report  upon  that  subject 

Dr.  J.  B.  lindsly,  chairman  of  the  committee  appointed  to  inquire  into  the 
propriety  of  dividing  the  Association  into  sections,  for  the  better  performance 
of  its  work  in  considering  the  various  branches  of  medicine  and  surgery,  re- 
commended the  adoption  of  such  a  plan  as  being  indispensably  necessary  to 
making  this  body  a  working  scientific  association.  They  do  not  deem  it  ne- 
cessary to  enter  into  any  argument  in  favor  of  this  plan,  it  being  the  one  al- 
ready universally  adopted  by  similar  bodies.  They  would  simply  recommend, 
for  fhe  present,  a  division  into  the  following  sections,  as  being  most  suitable 
to  fiusilitate  the  transaction  of  business,  viz: — 

1.  Anatomy  and  Physiology. 

2.  Chemistry  and  Materia  Medica. 

8.  Practical  Medicine  and  Obstetrics. 
4.  Surgery. 

The  committee  do  not  propose  that  this  subdivision  of  labor  shall  in  any 
manner  interfere  with  the  regular  business  of  the  Association  as  now  conducted ; 
but  only  that  after  having  assembled  each  day  in  general  session,  each  section 
shall  meet  separately  for  the  purpose  of  hearing  and  discussing  papers  on  such 
subjects  as  properly  belong  to  them,  and  they,  therefore,  recommend  that  the 
committee  of  arrangements  for  the  ensuing  year  be  requested  to  provide  suita- 
ble accommodations  for  the  services  of  these  sections,  and  that  each  of  said 
sections  shall  be  authorized  to  make  such  arrangements  as  may  be  required 
for  the  proper  transaction  of  its  business. 

This  report  was  considered  and*  adopted  after  a  very  able  speech  in  its  sup- 
port by  Dr.  Davis. 


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Meeting  of  ike  American  Medical  Association.  181 

Dr.  J.  W.  Singleton,  of  Kentucky,  moyed  the  suspension  of  the  rules  for 
the  introduction  of  the  following : — 

Besdvedf  That  In  the  death  of  Dr.  A.  Evans,  of  Kentucky,  the  ABSoclation  has  lost  one  of  Ha 
moat  manly  and  efficient  members,  and  society  a  fHend  and  benefeetor. 

The  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted. 

Dr.  W.  L.  Sutton,  under  the  resolution  appointing  a  committee  on  registra- 
tion of  births,  marriages,  &c.,  proposed  a  plan  of  general  action,  an  abstract  of 
which  he  read  on  motion  of  Dr.  Gibbs,  of  S.  C,  and  on  motion  of  Dr.  L.  P. 
Tandell,  the  subject  was  referred  to  a  committee  to  report  during  the  present 
session. 

Drs.  Sutton,  Lindsly,  W.  R.  Gibbs,  Bryan,  Pitcher,  and  Crosby  were  ap- 
pointed such  committee. 

Dr.  Blatchford  stated  that  he  had  receired  from  Dr.  Willard,  secretary  of  the 
New  York  State  medical  society,  fifty  volumes  of  their  transactions  for  1859, 
for  distribution  to  the  medical  press,  the  medical  colleges,  and  all  medical  so- 
dedes  of  the  south,  and  sent  with  a  request  for  an  interchange  of  civilities. 
GknUemen  present  can  be  supplied  by  application  to  Dr.  Bemiss,  and  if  the 
number  sent  be  not  sufficient  for  the  supply  they  will  be  cheerfully  forwarded 
to  any  gentleman,  by  application  to  the  secretary.  Dr.  S.  D.  Willard,  Albany, 
N.  Y.,  the  postage  being  included  in  the  application,  which  is  twenty-two  cents. 

A  voluminous  report  from  Dr.  Thomas  Logan,  of  California,  on  medical 
topography  and  epidemics,  was  received  and  referred  to  the  committee  on 
publications. 

The  chairman  of  the  committee  on  voluntary  essays,  stated  that  he  had  re- 
ceived a  paper  on  a  case  of  extra-uterine  foetation  from  Dr.  Enos  Hoyt,  of 
Transylvania,  Mass. ;  and  another  on  a  case  of  accidental  poisoning  by  Strych- 
nine, from  Dr.  Douglas  Bly,  of  Rochester,  N.  Y.  He  also  presented  a  very 
voluminous  paper  entitled  "  observations  on  some  of  the  chang^es  of  the  solids 
and  fluids  in  malarial  fever,  by  Joseph  Jones,  Professor  of  medical  chemistry 
in  the  medical  college  of  Georgia,  at  Augusta.*'  By  request,  Prod  Jones  gave 
a  verbal  abstract  of  his  paper  and  an  exposition  of  his  theory,  and  on  motion 
of  D.  W.  Yandell  the  communication  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  publi- 
cations. 

Dr.  D.  W.  Yandell  announced  that  the  following  railroad  companies  had 
agreed  to  pass  delegates  to  this  convention  over  their  roads  at  half-price : — 
Pittsburgh,  Fort  Wayne  and  Chicago ;  Pennsylvania  Central ;  Jeffersbnville ; 
New  Albany  and  Salem  ;  Louisville  and  Nashville,  and  Cleveland  and  Pittsburg. 

On  motion,  a  vote  of  thanks  was  tendered  to  these  companies  for  their 
liberality. 

Dr.  J.  B.  Flint  offered  the  following  resolution  : — 

Whereas,  oar  brethren  of  Great  Britain  are  engaged  in  erecting  a  monnment  to  the  oAmory  of 
John  Hunter,  whose  invaluable  services  in  behalf  of  Physiology  and  Surgery  are  recognlied  and 
honored,  as  well  on  thlg  side  of  the  Atlantic  as  in  Enrope ;  and  whereas,  this  Association,  as  the  re- 
prestntatiTes  of  American  medicine,  would  rejoice  In  some  suitable  manner  to  participate  in  so  grate> 
All  a  testimonial  of  gratitude  and  respect ;  therefore, 

Bwolv^y  That  a  comndttee  of  three  be  appointed  to  consider  in  what  manner  this  participation 
can  best  be  effected  so  as  to  be  acceptable  to  our  British  brethren,  and  consistent  with  our  own  means 
and  opportunities  of  action,  with  instructions  to  report  at  the  next  annual  meeting. 


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182  Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Asssociatwn, 

The  resolution  was  adopted,  and  Drs.  Flint,  Bowditch  and  Shattuck 
appointed  as  the  committee. 
Dr.  Harvey  Lindsly  offered  the  following : — 

Whereas,  ParUamentary  rules  of  order  are  nomeroas,  complicated,  sometimes  obscure,  and  < 
inapplicable  to  such  a  body  as  the  American  Medical  Association ;  and  whereas,  from  the  natnre  or 
the  pursuits  of  medical  men,  they  cannot  be  familiar  with  these  rules.    Therefore, 

lieaolcedj  That  a  select  committee  of  three  members  be  appointed  to  prepare  a  system  of  rules  Wmf 
the  government  of  this  Association,  as  few  In  number,  as  concise  and  as  perspicuous  as  possible,  to  hm- 
reported  to  the  next  annual  meeting. 

This  resolution  was  adopted,  and  Drs.  Lindsly,  Comegys,  and  Blatchford 
appointed  as  the  committee. 

The  paper  of  Dr.  Bly,  on  accidental  poisoning  by  strychnine,  was  read  by 
its  author,  and  as  individual  cases  are  not  reported  in  the  journals  of  the  as- 
sociation, thanlcs  were  returned  for  the  communication,  with  a  request  that  it 
be  published  in  some  medical  journal. 

An  invitation  from  grand  master  Morris,  of  the  Masons,  was  received, 
urging  medical  brethren  to  attend  the  Masonic  convention  now  in  session  In 
this  city. 

The  nominating  committee  made  the  following  report : — 

The  next  annual  meeting  to  take  place  at  New  Haven,  on  the  first  Tuesday 
of  June,  1860.     Dr.  Eli  Ives  is  elected  junior  secretary. 

CJommittee  of  arrangements — Drs.  Clias.  Hooker,  Stephen  G.  Hubbard,  and  Beigar 
min  Sullivan,  Jr.,  with  power  to  add  to  their  numbers.  CJommittee  on  prize  essays — 
Drs.  Worthington  Hooker.  Conn. ;  U.  C.  Shattuck,  Mass. ;  Usher  Parsons,  R.  I. ;  P. 
A.  Jewett,  Conn. ;  and  John  Knight,  Conn.  Committee  on  publication — Drs.  F.  O- 
Smith,  Philadelphia,  Pa. ;  Wistar,  do. ;  Bemiss,  Louisville,  Ky. ;  Ives,  New  Havoiv 
Conn. ;  Hollingsworth  and  Hartshome,  Philadelphia,  Pa. ;  and  Askew,  'Wilmington,. 
Del  Committee  on  medical  literature — Drs.  Henry  Campbell,  Ga. ;  D.  P.  Wrig^t^ 
Tenn.;  0.  Wendell  Hohnes,  Mass.;  S.  G.  Ormer,  Ohio;  and  W.  H.  Byford,  HL 
Committee  on  medical  education — Drs.  D.  M.  Reese,  N.  T. ;  W.  R.  Bowling,  Tenn.  ;- 
Charles  Rshback,  Ind, ;  John  Bell,  Penn. ;  Z.  Pitcher,  Mich. 

The  following  special  committees  were  appointed : — 

On  morbus,  coxarius,  and  surgical  pathology  of  articular  inflammation — Dr.  Lew» 
A.  Sayre,  of  New  York.  On  the  surgical  treatment  of  strictures  of  the  urethra— 
Dr.  James  Biyan,  of  Philadelphia  On  drainage  and  sewerage  of  large  cities,  th^ 
influence  on  public  health — Drs.  A  J.  Semmes,  D.  C,  chairman,  Cornelius  Boyle,  and! 
G.  M.  Dove.  On  the  periodicity  of  diseases  prevailing  in  the  Mississippi  valley — ^Dr. 
J.  W.  Singleton,  of  Smithland,  Ky.  On  puerperal  tetanus ;  its  statistics,  pathology,, 
and  treatment — Dr.  D.  L.  McGugin,  of  Keokuk,  Iowa  On  hospital  epidemics — ^Dr. 
R.  K  Smith,  of  Philadelphia.  On  puerperal  fever — ^Dr.  J.  N.  Green,  of  Stellisville^. 
Ind.  On  anosmia  and  chlorosis — Dr.  H.  P.  Ayres,  of  Fort  "Wayne,  Ind.  On  vera- 
trum  viride — Dr.  James  B.  McCraw,  of  Richmond,  Va.  On  alcohol  j  its  therapeuti- 
cal efrects — Dr.  J.  R.  W.  Dunbar,  of  Baltimore,  Md.  On  meteorology — Dr.  J.  O. 
Westmoreland,  Atalanta,  Ga.  On  milk  sickness — Dr.  Robert  Thompson,  Columbua^ 
Ohio.  On  manifestations  of  disease  of  nerve  centres — ^Dr.  C.  B.  Chapman,  Wisoonain. 
On  the  medical  topography  of  Iowa — ^Dr.  T.  0.  Edwards^  Iowa.  On  microscopic  ob- 
servations on  cancer  cells — Dr.  George  D.  Norris,  New  Market,  Ala.    On  the  philoso- 


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Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association.  183 

phj  of  practical  medicine — Dr,  James  Graham,  Cincinnati,  Ohia  On  some  of  the  pe- 
culiarities of  tlie  North  Pacific,  and  thou:  relations  to  climate — Dr.  W.  H.  Doughty, 
Georgia.    The  following  special  committees  were  continued  or  altered : — 

On  microscope — John  C.  Dalton,  Jr.,  N.  T. ;  David  Hutchinson,  Ind. ;  A.  R  Stout, 
CaL ;  Calvin  Kills,  Mass. ;  Christopher  Johnson,  Md.  On  diseases  and  mortality  of 
boarding  schools — Dr.  C.  Mattingly,  Ky. ;  and  Dixi  Crosby,  N.  H.  On  the  various 
surgical  operations  for  the  relief  of  defective  vision — Drs.  M,  A.  Pullen,  Mo. ;  T,  J. 
Cogley,  Ind. ;  and  W.  Hunt,  Penn,  On  the  blood  corpuscle — Dr.  A.  Sayre,  Michigan. 
On  American  medical  necrology — Dr.  C.  C.  Cox,  Maryland,  On  the  hygienic  rela- 
tions of  air,  food,  and  water — the  natural  and  artificial  causes  of  theur  impurity,  and 
the  best  methods  by  which  they  can  be  made  most  efiectually  to  contribute  to  the 
public  health — Dr.  C  0.  Cox,  Md.  On  the  effect  of  virus  of  rattlesnake,  eta,  when 
introduced  into  the  system  of  mammalia — Dr.  A.  S.  Pame,  Yirginia.  On  the  climate  of 
the  Pacific  coast  and  its  modifying  influences  upon  inflammatory  action  and  diseases 
generally — ^Dr.  0.  Harvey,  Califomias  On  the  constitutiontd  origin  of  local  diseases, 
and  the  local  origin  of  constitutional  diseases — Drs.  W.  H.  McKee,  North  Caro- 
lina, and  C.  F.  Heywood,  New  York. 

On  motion  of  Dr.  Brodie,  Dr.  A.  J.  Semmes  was  requested  to  serve  as  secret 
tary  pro  tern.,  during  the  remainder  of  the  session. 

The  association  took  up  the  special  order,  being  the  report  on  medicaV 
ethics  to  which  had  been  referred  the  action  of  the  Dubuque  medical  society  \. 
which,  after  debate,  was  laid  over  until  twelve  o^  clock  to-morrow. 

On  motion  of  Dr.  H.  F.  Campbell,  a  section  of  meteorology,  medical  topo* 
graphy,  and  epidemic  diseases,  and  of  medical  jurisprudence  and  hygiene,  was 
added  to  those  already  adopted  by  this  association. 

Amendments  to  the  oonstitution  of  the  association  were  then  taken  up,  and 
a  provision  acted  upon  that  no  individual  who  shall  be  under  sentence  of  ex- 
pulsion or  suspension  from  any  State  or  local  medical  society,  of  which  he  may 
have  been  a  member,  shall  be  received  as  a  delegate  to  this  body,  or  be  al- 
lowed any  of  the  privileges  of  a  member  until  he  shall  have  been  relieved  from 
such  sentence  by  such  State  or  local  society.  This  amendment  to  the  consti- 
tution was  adopted. 

The  next  amendment,  lying  over  from,  last  year,  was  the  proposition  of  Dr. 
Kyle,  of  Ohio. 

That  the  constitution  of  the  association  be  so  amended  as  to  prohibit  the 
admission  as  a  delegate  or  the  recognition  as  a  member  of  any  person  who  is 
not  a  graduate  of  some  respectable  medical  college. 

This  amendment  was  rejected ;  but,  on  the  question  of  re-consideration,  a 
long  and  animated  debate  ensued,  which  called  forth  all  the  oratorical  abilities 
and  much  of  the  personal  feelings  of  the  delegates.  Without  arriving  at  a 
vote,  the  association  adjourned  for  dinner. 

AFrERHOOir  SBSSION. 

Upon  the  re-assembling  of  the  association,  the  discussion  was  renewed  on 
the  motion  to  re-consider  the  vote  by  which  the  amendment  to  the  oonstitution 
was  negatived,  prohibiting  the  admission  as  a  delegate  or  the  recognition  as  a 
member  of  any  person  who  is  not  a  graduate  of  some  respectable  medical 
college. 


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184  Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association. 

Dr.  Kincaid  moyed  a  further  amendment  to  insert  the  word  "hereafter," 
after  "prohibiting." 

Dr.  Askew,  of  Delaware,  one  of  the  yice  presidents  in  the  chair,  ruled  the 
amendment  out  of  order  at  the  present  stage,  or  until  the  association  decide 
upon  the  question  of  re-consideration. 

After  a  long  discussion,  Dr.  Davis,  of  Ind.,  moyed  to  lay  the  motion  to  re- 
consider on  the  table,  which  was  carried ;  97  yeas,  nays  not  counted,  so  the 
amendment  stands  registered. 

The  next  proposed  amendment  to  the  constitution  was  that  suggested  by 
the  New  Jersey  medical  society,  asking  for  sudi  changes  as  would  establish  a 
board  of  censors  in  every  judicial  district  of  the  supreme  court,  who  should  ex- 
amine and  grant  diplomas  to  all  proper  members  of  the  association. 

This  was  temporarily  laid  on  the  table  for  Dr.  Crosby  to  offer  a  report 
of  the  medical  teacher's  convention  which  met  on  Monday  last  He  strongly 
recommended  a  committee  from  this  body  to  confer  with  the  teacher's  commit- 
tee, and  felt  great  confidence  that  something  beneficial  to  medical  education 
would  be  the  effect  of  such  conference. 

Dr.  Comegys  moved  the  appointment  of  a  committee  of  five  to  confer  with 
the  committee  of  medical  teachers,  and  veport  at  the  next  annual  meeting,  pro- 
vided that  no  medical  teacher  be  selected  on  the  part  of  this  association. 

This  again  gave  rise  to  an  excited  debate,  clearly  showing  that  there  was 
a  great  deal  of  bad  feeling  between  the  professors  and  the  laymen  of  the  pro- 
fession. Prof.  McDowell,  of  Missouri,  was  extremely  happy  in  some  of  his  hits 
and  kept  his  auditors  in  a  roar  of  laughter.  He  acknowledged  that  Philadel- 
phia and  New  York  had  the  advantage  of  location ;  the  railroads  took  students 
there  as  they  did  the  horses  and  cattle  of  the  West,  and  sometimes  its  asses. 

Prof.  Crosby,  of  Dartmouth  college,  contended  that  the  elevation  of  the 
standard  of  medical  education  depended  more  upon  practitioners  than  the 
colleges ;  if  bad  materials  were  sent  up  from  physicians'  offices  for  professors 
to  model  into  physicians,  it  could  not  be  expected  that  good  results  would  fol- 
low. He  wanted  a  committee  of  conference,  not  based  on  any  sectional  feel- 
ings, and  he  believed  the  whole  matter  could  be  arranged  satis&ctorily. 

Dr.  D.  W.  Yandell  wished  to  reply  to  one  remark  of  Prof  Crosby,  as  to  the 
bad  materials  sent  by  private  teachers  to  the  colleges.  He  had  himself  re- 
jected students  who  were  too  big  fools  to  be  made  physicians,  and  these  same 
persons,  in  a  few  months,  had  gone  to  some  of  the  colleges  and  come  back  with 
their  diplomas  in  their  pockets.  AAer  a  very  eloquent,  appropriate,  and  con- 
ciliatory speech  from  Dr.  Davis,  the  resolution  of  Dr.  Comegys  was  unani- 
mously adopted. 

The  resolutions  from  the  New  Jersey  medical  society  were  then  taken  from 
the  table  and  referred  to  the  committee  of  conference. 

Dr.  Davis  offered  a  resolution  instructing  the  same  committee  to  confer  with 
the  State  medical  societies  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  more  decisive  and 
uniform  action  throughout  the  profession,  in  carrying  into  effect  the  standard 
of  preliminary  education,  adopted  by  this  association  at  its  organissation  in 
1847.    This  was  carried. 


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Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association,  185 

Dr.  Gibbs,  from  the  committee  to  examine  into  a  plan  of  uniform  registra- 
"iion  of  births,  marriages  and  deaths,  offered  the  following  report : — 

They  have  given  the  same  a  careful  consideration,  and  they  unanimously 
recommend  that  the  report  be  adopted  and  referred  to  the  committee  on 
publication. 

They  also  recommend  that  the  same  committee  be  continued,  with  instructions 
to  add  to  the  report  in  time  for  publication  in  the  ensuing  volume  of  transac- 
tions, a  form  of  registration  law  which  may  be  likely  to  answer  the  require- 
ments of  the  several  states. 

Dr.  Sayre,  of  New  York,  oflFered  the  following . — 

Whereas,  The  medical  profession  at  large  have  an  interest  in  the  character  and  qnailflcations  of 
thoee  who  are  to  be  admitted  as  their  associates  in  the  profession ;  therefore, 

Se»ol9sd,  That  each  State  mescal  society  be  reqneated  to  appoint  annnaUy  two  delegates  for  each 
coflege  in  Uiat  State,  whose  duty  it  shall  be  to  attend  the  examination  of  all  candidates  for  gradua- 
tion ;  and  that  the  colleges  be  reqaested  to  permit  such  delegates  to  participate  in  the  examination 
and  rote  on  the  qoaliflcatlons  of  all  such  candidates. 

This  was  referred  to  the  committee  of  conference. 

The  paper  of  Dr.  Jones,  presented  at  the  morning  session,  was  taken  from 
the  committee  on  publication  and  referred  to  the  committee  on  prize  essays 

Dr.  Eve  moved  to  record  the  name  of  Dr.  Benj.  W.  Dudley,  as  a  permanent 
member,  which  was  adopted  by  a  unanimous  vote,  the  delegates  all  rising  to 
their  feet  in  token  of  respect. 

The  following  gentlemen  have  been  admitted  to  the  association  as  members 
by  invitation : — 


IKDIAKA. 

OHIO 

J.  A.  Hodge, 
S.  B.  Menlfleld, 

B.  C.  Bowan, 

W.  0.  HaU. 

N.  D.  Held, 

N.  B.  Baris. 

Joshua  Gore, 

.John  8.  Rowe, 

H.  M.  Berkely, 

B.Conran, 

J.  BL  Brannoch. 

MIStiOCBI. 

V.  WUey, 

KKMTUCKT. 

J.  M.  Allen, 

J.  A.  Wlndle, 

W.  N.  Garther, 

ALABAMA. 

A.  V.  Talbot. 

S.  B.  Fields, 

Dr.  Boylman, 

J.  W.  DftTls. 

W.  S.  Cain, 

Dr.  Tumey. 

Brw  BAMPHHiBi. — ^Darld  Kay.  ckitbd  states  akmy. — Chaiies  S.  Tripler. 

The  whole  number  of  delegates  in  attendance  was  801,  exclusive  of  members 
.by  invitation.  '^ 

Adjourned  till  Thursday  morning. 

THIRD  DAV. 

The  president  called  the  association  to  order  at  nine  o*clock,  and  the  reading 
of  the  minutes  of  yesterday  was  dispensed  with. 

The  first  business  in  order  was  an  amendment  to  the  constitution,  laid  over 
•from  last  year,  and  proposed  by  Dr.  T.  L.  Mason,  of  New  York,  to  insert  in 
the  first  line  of  the  second  paragraph  of  article  2,  after  the  words  "shall  re- 
i^ive  the  appointments  from,"  the  words  "  any  medical  society  permanently 
organized  in  accordance  with  the  laws  regulating  the  practice  of  physic  and 
-surgery  in  the  State  in  which  they  are  situated,  and  consisting  of  physicians 
and  surgeons  regularly  authorized  to  practice  their  profession."  Also  to  add 
to  the  sixth  paragraph  of  the  same  article,  the  words  "  but  each  permanent 
jnember  of  the  first  class  designated  in  this  plan  of  organization  shall  be  en- 
titled to  a  seat  in  the  association  on  his  presenting  to  this  body  a  certificate  of 


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186  Meeting  of  Oie  American  Medical  Association, 

his  good  standing,  signed  by  the  secretary  of  the  society  to  which  he  may  be- 
long at  the  time  of  each  annual  meeting  of  this  body/' 

Dr.  Linden  A.  Smith,  of  New  Jersey,  said  amendments  to  the  constitutioil 
should  be  adopted  with  care,  and,  though,  perhaps,  that  now  proposed  might 
be  desirable,  still  as  Dn  Mason,  who  had  proposed  it  was  not  present  to  explain 
his  views,  he  moved  that  the  subject  be  laid  over  until  next  year.  This  sug- 
gestion was  adopted. 

Another  constitutional  amendment,  proposed  by  Dr.  Henry  Hartshome,  of 
Penn.,  and  laid  over  from  last  year  under  the  rules,  provides  to  add  to  the  2d 
article,  the  words  '^  no  one  expelled  from  this  association  shall  at  any  time 
thereafter  be  received  as  a  delegate  or  member,  unless  by  a  three-fourths  vote 
of  the  members  present  at  the  meeting  to  which  he  is  sent,  or  at  which  he  is 
proposed.''     This  amendment  was  adopted. 

Another  amendment  proposed  by  J^  Berrien  Lindsly,  of  Tenn.,  was  called 
up,  to  omit  in  article  2  the  words  *'  medical  colleges,  hospitals,  lunatic  asylums, 
and  other  permanently  organized  medical  institutions  in  good  standing  in  the 
United  States ;  and  also  to  omit  the  words  ^^  the  faculty  of  every  regularly 
constituted  medical  college  or  chartered  school  of  medicine  shall  have  the 
privilege  of  sending  two  delegates.  The  professional  staff  of  every  chartered, 
or  municipal  hospital  containing  an  hundred  inmates  or  more,  shall  have  the 
privilege  of  sending  two  delegates,  and  every  other  permanently  organized 
smedical  institution  of  good  standing  shall  have  the  privilege  of  sending  one 
delegate." 

This  was  laid  on  the  table  until  the  next  annual  meeting. 

An  invitation  was  received  from  Mons.  Qroux,  requesting  the  delegates  to- 
meet  him  at  the  hall  of  the  University,  at  noon  to-day,  to  witness  experiments 
on  his  congenital  fissure  of  the  sternum,  which  was  deferred  until  four  o*clodc 
this  afternoon,  as  the  association  had  previously  accepted  the  hospitality  or 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  J.  Ward,  at  the  former  hour. 

Dr.  Singleton  offered  a  series  of  resolutions  from  **Toung  Physic^'*  depreca-^ 
ting  the  introduction  of  schisms,  and  reflecting  on  the  harmony  of  the  associa- 
tion ;  which,  after  a  vigorous  speech  from  Dr.  McDowell,  was  unanimously 
laid  on  the  table,  with  a  request  that  it  should  not  appear  on  the  minutes. 
Dr.  Davis  regarded  the  evidences  of  harmony  and  good  feeling  exhibited  here 
this  year  as  greater  and  more  cheering  than  on  any  previous  oocasion,  and  de- 
precated any  insinuation  that  unkindly  sentiments  existed.    . 

Dr.  McDermott  submitted  the  following  resolutions: — 

Whereas,  A  vMt  proportion  of  the  dlteMe  and  misery  that  afflicts  our  race  Is  caused  by  the  ezoM- 
slve  use  of  Intoxicating  liquors,  and  whereas,  in  the  opinion  of  this  association  the  cTils  of  intoxica- 
tion can  be  most  effeciaally  remedied  by  the  establishment  of  Inebriate  Asylums,  wherein  the  Tlctims 
of  intemperance  may  be  snl^ected  to  such  restraints  and  treatment  as  shall  effect  a  thoroogh  reform 
nation  of  thehr  habits ;  therefore, 

B69ole^^  That  this  association  recommend  the  establishment  of  Inebriata  Asylums  In  the  variooa 
States  of  the  Union. 

JRetoleedt  That  the  State  and  County  medical  societies,  and  all  members  of  the  medical  professioo 
be  requested  to  unite  in  dilfaslng  among  the  peofde  a  better  knowledge  and  appreciation  of  the  be- 
Bifldent  purposes  and  important  benefits  that  would  be  conferred  upon  society  by  the  eetabflshment- 
ot  such  Asylums  throughout  the  rarlous  sections  of  the  countiy. 


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Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association.  187 

This  resolution  was  referred  to  the  mover  as  a  special  committee,  with  a 

request  that  he  would  report  thereon  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  association. 

Dr.  Shattuck  offered  the  following,  which  was  adopted  : — 

Re^eed^  That  the  committee  appointed  in  May,  185T,  on  criminal  abortion,  be  requested  to  con- 
tinae  their  labors,  and  especlallj;  to  take  all  measures  necessary  to  carry  into  effect  the  resoluUonf 
reported  by  them  on  the  first  day  of  the  meeting. 

Dr.  Yandell,  from  the  committee  on  voluntary  essays,  made  a  further  report 
that  a  communication  had  been  received  from  Dr.  Langer,  of  Iowa,  on  suben- 
taneous  injections  as  remedials,  which,  on  motion,  the  author  read. 

The  essay  was  referred  to  the  writer  as  a  special  committee,  with  the  re- 
quest that  he  would  report  further  at  the  next  annual  meeting  of  the  associa- 
tion and  continue  his  investigations. 

Invitations  to  visit  the  Insane  Asylum,  and  the  library  and  museum  of  the 
Transylvania  University  were  received. 

The  president  appointed  as  the  committee  of  conference  to  meet  the  com- 
mittee fipom  the  teachcr^s  convention,  the  following  gentlemen : — Dr.  Blatch- 
fiml,  Troy,  N.  Y. ;  Condie,  Philadelphia,  Pa. ;  Bozeman,  Montgomery,  Ala. ; 
Brodie,  Detroit,  Mich. ;  and  Snead,  Frankfort,  Ky. 

Dr.  D.  Meredith  Reese,  from  the  nominating  committee  made  the  following 
final  report : — 

Special  committees  continued. 

On  quarantine — Drs.  D.  D.  Clark,  Penn. ;  Snow,  R.  I. ;  Jewell,  Penn. ; 
Fenner,  La. ;  and  Houck,  Md.  On  medical  ethics — Drs.  Schuck,  Penn. ;  Mur- 
phy, Ohio ;  Linton,  Mo.  ;  Powell,  Qa. ;  Eve,  Tenn.  On  trachetomy  in  mem- 
branous croup — Dr.  A.  V.  Dougherty,  N.  J.  On  the  effects  of  lithotomy, 
performed  in  childhood,  upon  the  sexual  organs  in  after  life — Dr.  White, 
Memphis,  Tenn.  On  mercurial  fumegation  in  syphilis — Dr.  D.  "W".  Yandell, 
Louisville,  Ky.  On  the  improvements  in  the  science  and  art  of  surgery,  made 
duringthelast  half  century — ^Dr.  Joseph  McDowell,  St.  Louis,  Mo.  On  the 
cause  and  inicrease  of  crime  and  its  mode  of  punishment — Dr.  W.  G.  Snead, 
Frankfort,  Ky.  On  the  education  of  imbecile  and  idiotic  children — Dr.  H.  P. 
Ayres,  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.     On  the  uses  and  abuses  of  the  speculum  uteri — ^Dr. 

C.  H.  Spillman,  of  Kentucky.  On  the  topography  of  Vermont — Dr.  Perkins, 
of  Vermont  On  the  pons  varolii,  Ac. — Dr.  S.  B.  Richardson,  of  Kentucky, 
and  Dr.  Fishback,  of  Indiana.  On  the  physical  effdcts  of  the  hydro-carbons 
— ^Dr.  F.  W.  White,  of  Ulinots.  On  the  effect  of  the  periodical  operations 
fw  urinary  calculi  upon  procreation  of  the  male — ^By  J.  S.  White,  of 
Tennessee.  ' 

The  paper  fVom  Dr.  Ellis,  of  Massachusetts,  on  the  subject — "does  the  mi- 
crosoope. enable  us  to  make  a  positive  diagnosis  of  cancer,  and  what,  if  any  are 
the  sources  of  error  ?  "  Was  referred  to  the  special  committee  on  the  micros- 
cope, of  which  Dr.  Dalton  is  chairman. 

Honorary  resolutions  were  passed  to  the  memory  of  the  following  members, 
of  the  association,  deceased: — ^Dr.  W.  W.  Bowling,  of  Alabama;  Dr.  Thomas 

D.  Mutter,  of  Pennsylvania ;  Dr.  P.  C.  Gaillard,  of  South  Carolina ;  Dr.  Jabez. 
G.  Goble,  of.  New  Jersey ;  Dr.  John  K.  Mitchell,  of  Pennsylvania. 


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188  Editorial 

Dr.  R.  K.  Smith,  of  Philadelphia,  submitted  the  following : 

Se9olved^  That  the  death  of  Dr.  John  K.  Mitchell,  one  of  the  members  of  this  Association,  has 
1»een  to  this  bodj^  loss  Iceenly  felt  by  every  man  who  knew  him.  His  eminence  as  a  tcadier,  his 
▼aried  acquirements  in  every  department  of  lean^g,  and  his  generous  social  qualities  In  every  re- 
lation, endeared  him  to  every  member  of  the  profession  who  bad  the  pleasure  of  his  personal 
acquaintance. 

£€9oltitdy  That  the  family  be  notified  of  the  action  of  this  Association. 

Other  more  formal  resolutions  were  offered  and  feeling  eulogies  pronounced. 
Dr.  Sayre  offered  the  following,  which  were  adopted  by  acclamation: — 

Be9oUDtd^  That  the  thanks  of  the  American  Medical  Association  are  eminently  due,  and  are  here- 
hy  presented  to  the  citisens  of  LoulsvUle,  Ky.,  for  the  princely  hospitality  publicly  and  privatelj 
extended  to  the  members  of  this  body  during  its  present  session. 

JiMolved^  That  to  the  committee  of  arrangements  and  the  profession  of  Louisville  generally,  our 
^thanks  are  due  for  their  kind  and  assiduous  attention  to  the  Association,  and  for  the  hearty  welcome 
with  which^they^have  greeted  our  convention  in  their  flourishing  city. 

On  motion  of  Dr.  Davis,  the  association  adjourned,  to  meet  at  New  Haven, 
-on  the  first  Tuesday  in  June,  1860. 

The  registration  book  during  the  day  announced  the  names  of  Drs.  D.  G. 
Thomas,  of  New  York;  William  S.  Cain,  of  Kentucky;  and  Peter  Allen,  R. 
.K.  McMeans,  and  W.  R.  Kable,  of  Ohio— making  three  hundred  and  five  mem- 
bers in  attendence  diurlng  the  session  of  the  association. 


Editorial 


TwELFTU  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association. — 
We  give  this  month  a  large  amount  of  space  to  the  proceedings  of  this  asso- 
ciation, to  the  exclusion  of  other  matter.  To  abridge  its  proceedings  more 
than  we  have  done  was  quite  impossible,  and  give  to  our  readers  anything  like 
;a  correct  history  of  its  proceedings. 

It  convened  at  Louisville,  Kentudcy,  on  the  8d  of  last  month ;  the  attend- 
ance was  quite  large ;  the  proceedings  are  very  interesting,  and  its  delibera- 
tions appear  to  have  been  conducted  with  good  feeling  and  harmony. 

Kentucky  was  honored  with  the  selection  of  the  president  for  the  ensuing  year 
— ^Dr.  Henry  Miller,  a  gentleman  whose  character,  experience,  and  high  social 
.standing  eminently  qualify  him  for  the  position ;  who  entertained  the  mem- 
bers of  the  association  at  his  residence,  on  the  evening  of  the  4th. 

A  small  number  of  reports  were  presented  to  the  association,  most  of  the 
<x>mmittees  being  unprepared,  and  asked  for  a  continuance  until  another  year. 

The  next  annual  meeting  will  be  held  at  New  Haven,  Conn.,  on  the  first 
Tuesday  of  June  1860. 

Convention  of  Medical  Teacheks. — This  convention,  caAed  under  a  reso- 
lution adopted  at  the  last  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Medical  Association, 
met  at  Louisville,  on  Monday,  May  2d,  and  were  organised  by  the  choice  of 
Prof.  Dixi  Crosby,  of  Dartmouth  College,  as  chairman,  and  Prof.  George  C. 
Blackman,  of  Ohio  medical  college,  at  Cincinnati,  as  secretary.     Some  thirty 


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Editorial.  189^ 

delegates    were    present,    including    one    (Pro£    Shattuck)    from    Harvard 
University. 

A  series  of  resolutions  was  offered,  stating  the  objects  of  the  convention^ 
which  we  will  publish  next  month. 

Berkshire  Medical  College. — The  annual  course  of  lectures  will  com- 
mence  on  the  4th  of  August,  (the  first  Thursday,)  and  continite  sixteen  weeks. 
For  particulars  see  announcement 

Medical  convention  for   revising  the    pharmacopoiia   op   the  united" 
STATES. — The  medical  convention  for  revising  the  pharmacopoeia,  whigh  met 
at  Washington  in  May,  18S0,  provided  for  assembling  a  convention  for  the  ' 
purpose,  in  the  year  1860,  by  the  following  resolutions: — 

^M.  The  president  of  the  convention  shidl,  on  the  first  day  of  May,  1859,. 
issue  a  notice,  requesting  the  several  incorporated  State  medical  societies,  the 
incorporated  State  medical  colleges,  the  incorporated  colleges  of  physicians- 
and  surgeons,  and  the  incorporated  colleges  of  pharmacy,  throughout  the 
United  States,  to  elect  a  number  of  delegates,  not  exceeding  three,  to  attend  s 
general  convention  to  be  held  at  Washington,  on  the  first  Wednesday  ia 
May,  1860. 

**2.  The  several  incorporated  bodies,  thus  addressed,  shall  also  be  requested 
by  the  president  to  submit  the  pharmacopoeia  to  a  careful  revision,  and  to 
transmit  the  result  of  their  labors,  through  their  delegates,  or  through  any 
other  diannel,  to  the  next  convention. 

^*8.  The  several  medical  and  pharmaceutical  bodies  shall  be  further  re»- 
qaested  to  transmit  to  the  president  of  the  convention,  the  names  and  residen- 
ces of  their  respective  delegates,  as  soon  as  they  shall  have  been  appointed,  a 
list  of  whom  shall  be  published,  under  his  authority,  for  the  information  of 
the  medical  public,  in  the  newspapers  and  medical  journals,  in  the  month  of 
March,  1860." 

In  accordance  with  the  above  resolutions,  the  undersigned  hereby  requests- 
the  several  bodies  mentioned  to  appoint  delegates,  not  exceeding  three  in  num- 
ber, to  represent  them  in  a  convention,  for  revising  the  pharmacopoeia  of  the 
United  States,  to  meet  at  Washington  on  the  first  Wednesday  in  May,  1860 ; 
and  would  also  call  the  attention  of  these  bodies  to  the  second  and  third 
resolutions,  and  request  compliance  with  the  suggestions  therein  contained. 
Geo.  B.  Wood,  Fret,  of  the  Contention  <>/'1850. 

PkUadtlphia,  May  \9t,  18C0.  ' 

Physicians  wishing  a  location  are  referred  to  the  advertisement  of  Dr.  J.  N. 
Moore. 

Correspondents  will  oblige  by  writing  plainly  their  names,  town,  county  and 
state.  We  have  in  several  instances,  been  unable  to  answer  letters  because 
these  are  omitted. 

Book  of  Formula — ^Eight  pages  of  this  work  will  be  appended  to  each 
number  of  the  Journal  hereafter. 
Subscribers  will  please  notify  us  if  they  do  not  receive  the  Journal  regularly. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ  IC 


222 


AdvertiaeTnenis. 


J.W.NORCROSS&GO. 

91  FVLTOH  ST&EBT,  H.  T.    , 

Importers  qf 

mm?uti  fAmv  goods 

FOR  DRUGGISTS, 

Fine    Toilet  Articles, 

BRUSHBS,  AND 

DRUQQI8T8*  SUNDRIES, 

EMBRACING 

A  ftiU  MMrtment  of  Artidoi  ia  this  line, 

Adapled  to  the  wuitt  of  a  flrtt-clsM  trade. 


Tarrant's  Effervescent 
Seltser   Aperient 


Our  loAg  experience  In  every  department  of 
tUs  butlneee  as  Importer8>  and  the  facUittes  ae- 
quired  by  direct  comma&Ieatlon  with  leading 
msttttfacturerf,  thronsfa  a  member  of  our  Ann, 
who  is  In  Europe  much  of  the  time,  enable  qs  to 
oflhr  our  goods  to  purchasers  on  the  most  fatorable 
terms. 

The  trade  are  respectfully  Invited  to  examine 
our  stoclc  before  making  purohases. 


WEEKS   St.   POTTER, 

WHOLESALE  DRP«6I8TS, 

IM  Wadiington  St,  Boston,  Xasik, 
Offers  to  the  trade  a  large  assortment  of 
DRUGS,  MEDICINES,   CHEMICALS,  PAHTTB, 
OILS,  DYB8TUm,*e. 
Also,  a  very  fhll  assortment  of 
TILDEN  A  OO'S  ALCOHOLIC  AND  FLUID  EX- 
TRACTS.   ALKALOIDS   AND   RE8IN0ID8. 
PHARMACEUTIC   SUGAR    COATED 
PILLS  AND  GRANULES. 
Sole  Agents  for  the  use  PICKENS*  COPPER 
DISTILLED  OLD  BOURBON  WHISKT. 

Samuel  Kidder  A  Co.'s  Tartaric  Add,  Sal  Ro- 
ehelle  and  Seidlita  Mixture  constantly  on  hand. 

Q.    B.  JONES    Sl    OO^ 

WH0U8AU  OBUGGtSTS 

Petersburg!!,   Ta. 
PURE   DRPCS,   CHEMICALS, 

MEDICINES,  *c 

A  ftill  assortment  of  TQden  A  Co's  fluid  and  solid 
Extracts,  Concentrated  Preparations,  sugar^ated 
pharmaceutic  Pills  and  Granules,  constantly  on 

Orders  from  apothecaries,  merchants  and  phy- 
sicians promptly  attended  to. 


This  valuable  and  popular  medidne,  prepared 
In  conformUy  with  the  analysis  of  the  water  of  the 
celebrated  seltser  spring  In  Germany,  in  a  most 
oonvenlent  and  portable  form,  has  anivensHy 
received  the  most  favorable  recommendaUoMof 
the  modlcal  proftedou  and  a  discerning  public,  ss 
the  most  effldent  and  aoeeable  Saline  Aperient 
In  use.  and  as  being  enUtled  to  spedal  pref^enoo 
over  the  many  mineral  spring  watera,  sddllte 
powders,  and  other  stmUar  arUcles,  both  fh>m  Its 
?S^/^}^V^  1°^  «^**^  efficacy.  It  may  be 
used  with  the4>est  effect  In  all  Bilious  and  Febrile 
dtaeases,  dck  Headache,  Loss  of  AppcUte,  In«a. 
g«Uon,  and  all  similar  complaints.  pecuOariy  In- 
ddent  to  the  spring  and  summer  seasons. 

It  Is  particularly  adapted  to  the  wants  of  travd- 
ers,  by  sea  and  land,  residents  In  hot  cihnates. 
persons  of  sedentary  habits,  InvaUds andconva- 
lescenta,  <^pt«ins  of  vessels  and  planters  wfll  find 
it  a  valuable  addition  to  thdr  medidne  chests. 
With  those  who  have  used  It,  It  has  high  favor. 
and  Is  deemed  indispensable  * 

^^^  ^'^  ^y  *^  ^•^  1*  '^«»d«"  P«* 
•enice  in  restoring  healthy  action.  In  govt  and 
rh»um4iU9m  it  glres  the  best  satlsCaction,  aUay. 
tog  all  toflammatory  symptoms,  and  In  mm 
cases  effectually  cnrinff  those  aflUcted.  lUtM^ 
0M8inca9e%  of  gravel,  indiffMtion,  hsartinirtL 
oftcf  ooe^^eSfiMs  proves  it  to  be  a  medidne  of  the 
^teainimtv^oidUyo/tKe  stomach,  and  tlU 

yields  speedily  and  with  marked  succals  under  ita 
healthfttl  Influence.  HiJ^^brdstheffreatetireM 
1oVu>S6  affiicUd  tern,  or  •u^ecttoSs^, 
actf ng  geiitly  on  the  bowels,  neatraUsIng  aU  irri- 
tating secretions,  and  thereby  removing  all  In- 
flammatory tendendes.  In  fact.  It  Is  tovalnaUe 
Is       uf*^  ''**^'*  *  '*°'*®  •perient  or  purgative 

I  ^K  ^.  J°  *^*  f**"°  ?'  *  powder,  careftilly  put  up 
In  botUes,  to  keep  In  any  cUmate,  and  merely  re- 
qiUres  water  poured  upon  it  to  produce  a  d^ght- 
lul  effervescent  beverage.  ^^ 

Taken  to  the  morning,  it  never  interferes  wHh 
the  avocations  of  the  day,  acttog  gently  on  the 
prstem,  restoring  the  «gestlve  powers,  exdting  a 
healthy  and  vigorous  tone  of  the  stomach,  uid 
creaUng  an  dastidty  of  mtod  and  floiTofspIrits 
'S^^Pf  **^  f®  *^"y  enjoyment.  It  abo  en- 
ables  the  InvaBd  to  ci\joy  many  luxuries  with  im- 
punity, li-om  which  he  must  otherwise  be  debar- 
red,  and  without  which  Ufe  Is  irksome  and  dis- 
tresdng. 

Numerous  testhnonials  flrom  professioDal  and 
other  gentlemen  of  the  highest  standng  throuxhout 
^e  country,  and  Its  steadily  tocreastog  popularity 
Ibr  a  8eri(»  of  years,  strongly  guarantee  its  efllca- 
cy  Mid  valuable  charactor.  and  commend  It  to 
w«f^orable  noUce  of  an  Intelligent  public 
Prepared  and  sold  wholesale  and  retaU. 

TarraDl's  Componiid  Extract  tf 
Cttftebs  and  Copaika, 

Sanctioned  by  popular  opinion  and  high  author!^ 
of  the  most  dlsttoruished  of  the  me<ucal  fkcuRy. 
It  offers  to  the  affUctod  a  remedy,  whose  succeis 
has  to  every  Instance  supportod  its  deserved 
reputation.  Being  convenient  and  agreeable  In 
Its  use,  experience  has  proved  that  It  retains  to 
every  climato  Its  dedrable  and  truly  valuable 
**y!5^'-  Ji*"*o.*«'o™o'»P«»teristastdess, 
and  docs  not  Impair  the  dIgesUon.  It  U  prepsxed 
with  the  greatest  possible  care,  upon  well-tested 


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THE 

JOURNAL  OF  MATERIA  MEDICA 

AND 
PHARMAOETJTIO   FORMULARY. 

lew]  JULY,  1859.  IBwJM. 

Bemaxks   on   Bhns  Glabra,   Oeraniuxn   Maculattun,  and 
Hamamelis  Yirginlca. 

BY    CHARLES    A.    LEE,    M.    D. 

NUMBER  VIL 

In  investigating  our  indigenous  botany  we  must  guard  against 
the  danger  of  encumbering  the  materia  medica  with  articles  which 
posess  no  marked  properties,  or  which  have  less  efficacy  than 
some  already  known,  and  whose  efficacy  has  been  already  satis- 
£Eu^rily  settled.  But  while  guarding  against  this  error,  we  are 
not  to  fall  into  the  opposite  one,  of  resting  satisfied  with  wihat  is 
already  known  and  recorded  in  our  standard  authorities.  While 
rejecting  the  doctrine  of  specifics,  as  generally  understood,  as  both 
unphilosophical  and  opposed  to  all  correct  notions  of  sound  pa- 
thology, and  the  modus  operandi  of  remedies,  we  must,  neverthe- 
less, admit,  that  every  remedy  has  specific  properties;  that  is, 
properties  which  cause  it  to  difier  fix)m  all  others,  and  to  exert  an 
influence  peculiar  to  itself  alone.  It  is  true  that  many  possess  in 
conmion,  very  similar  properties,  and  one  may  often,  apparently, 
be  substituted  for  another  with  equal  advantage ;  yet  their  effects 
are  not  identically  the  same,  though,  perhaps,  equally  curative. 
A  very  superficial  sxirvey  of  the  articles  belonging  to  the  class  of 
emetics,  cathartics,  &c.,  will  satisfy  any  one  of  the  truth  of  this 
statement,  yet,  in  regard  to  astringent  substances  it  is  not  so  ob- 
vious.    Chemical  analysis  demonstrates  that  the  proximate  active 


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290  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

extractive  constitutes  the  largest  proportion,  and  is  supposed  to  be 
the  principal  active  ingredient.  Dr.  Barton,  however,  concluded 
that  as  the  fresh  leaves,  when  bruised  and  applied  to  the  skin, 
caused  redness,  and  even  vesication,  it  must  contain  some  volatile, 
acrid  constituent  The  researches  of  the  late  Dr.  Mitchill,  of  New 
York,  confirmed  this  opinion. 

Your  own  recent  analysis  gives,  in  seven  thousand  parts : — 

Organic  matter,        -        -        -        -        .  6488 

Inorganic    " 512 

7000 

PER  OKHT. 

Gum  and  albumen,        -        -        -        .  280.08  3.286 

Sugar, 181.28  2.589 

Starch, 83-92  0.484 

Extractive 849.92  4.998 

Tannin, 347.28  4.961 

Particular  principles,        ...        -  1002.68  14-295 

Clorophyle 444.00  6.342 

Soluble  salts, 82.88  1.184 

Insoluble   " 429.12  6.180 

Ligneous,  &c. 38.998  55.731 


7000.00        100.000 

There  is  a  peculiar  bitter  principle  contained  in  this  plant  as 
well  as  the  other  species,  C.  macuhta,  {spotted  winter-green)  to  which 
the  name  chimaphillin  may  be  given.  It  is  included  among  the 
"particular  principles"  or  "  extractive,"  in  the  above  analysis. 

Therapeutical  properties  cmd  vses. — ^From  the  large  amount  of 
.  tannic  acid  and  bittei*  principle  contained  in  the  plant,  we  might 
infer  that  it  was  an  efficient  tonico-astringent  But,  although  it 
possesses  these  properties  in  no  slight  degree,  it  also  has  a  decided 
^action  on  the  renal  organs,  increasing  the  urinary  secretion  and 
the  depurating  function.  It  has  been  suggested  that  this  effect  is 
in  consequence  of  the  peculiar  active  principle  passing  ofl^  either 
changed  or  unchanged  with  the  urine ;  but  as  this  is  the  case  with 
nearly  all  medicines  which  are  administered,  we  must  suppose 
that  there  is  some  specific  power  in  the  remedy  by  which  it  com- 
bines such  apparently  opposite  virtues.  It,  however,  possesses 
these  properties  in  common  with  buchuj  uva  ursi  and  pareira  brava  ; 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Ph/nis,  291 

all  efficient  tonics,  and  all  exerting  a  specific  influence  over  the 
genito-urinary  organs. 

This  plant  seems  to  have  been  extensively  employed  by  the 
Indians  in  a  variety  of  diseases  before  it  was  adopted  by  the 
medical  profession.  They  employed  it  chiefly  in  the  very  cases 
in  which  it  is  used  at  the  present  day,  viz;,  scrofola,  dropsy,  rheuma- 
tism, and  affections  of  the  kidneys  and  urinary  passages.  We  have 
employed  it  to  a  considerable  extent  for  many  years,  especially  in 
the  treatment  of  dropsical  affections,  in  broken  down  constitutions 
and  intemperate  subjects,  and  generally  with  manifest  advantage. 
It  has  tended  to  carry  off  the  dropsical  accumulations,  while,  at 
the  same  time,  it  imparted  tone  and  vigor  to  the  digestive  system. 
Its  alterative  powers  entitle  it  to  a  high  place  among  our  indige- 
nous remedies,  independent  of  its  other  therapeutical  properties. 
In  albuminuria^  also,  its  effects  have  proved  decidedly  beneficial, 
and  in  some  cases  curative.  In  scrofula  and  cachectic  affections 
generally,  it  will  rarely  disappoint  the  practitioner,  especially  when 
aided  by  chalybeates  and  a  suitable  regimen.  Dr.  Wood  also 
states  that  in  such  affections  he  has  found  few  remedies  more 
efficacious.  "Its  mildly  astringent  and  tonic  properties,"  he  re- 
marks, "  adapt  it  admirably  to  the  treatment  of  the  scrofulous 
cachexia,  in  which  a  general  laxity  of  the  tissues  and  debility  of 
the  functions  call  for  these  two  remedial  influences;  while  the 
chronic  character  of  the  affection  requires  that  the  medication 
should  be  gentie,  in  order  that  it  may  be  long  sustained  without 
injury  to  the  organs.  In  the  earlier  stages  of  the  disease,  1  have 
been  in  the  habit  of  directing,  in  connection  with  its  use  a  saline 
laxative  twice  or  three  times  a  week,  and  in  anemic  cases,  have  had 
recourse  also  to  the  chalybeates,  but  in  many  instances  the  pip- 
sissewa  has  been  the  remedy  mainly  relied  on.  It  has  seemed  to 
me  to  exercise  a  favorable  alterative  influence  in  scrofula,  inde- 
pendently of  its  astringency  and  tonic  power ;  but  it  is  extremely 
difficult  to  discriminate,  in  affections  of  this  kind,  between  the 
course  of  nature  and  the  effect  of  remedies,  so  that  it  is  proper  to 
speak  of  the  latter  with  some  reserve.  Fully  aware  of  the  neces- 
sity of  this  caution,  I  am  still  of  opinion,  as  the  result  of  consider- 
able experience,  that  pipsissewa  deserves  to  rank  next  to  cod-liver 
oil,  and  the  preparations  of  iodine  in  the  treatment  of  scrofula, 
and  may  often  be  usefully  combined  with  one  or  both  of  these 


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292  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants, 

remedies.  In  order  that  its  full  effects  may  be  obtained,  it  should 
be  long  continued,  with  interruptions  now  and  then,  should  any 
considerable  degree  of  fever  supervene.  In  cases  attended  with 
ulcers  of  an  indolent  or  flabby  character,  it  may  be  used  with  ad- 
vantage in  decoction  as  a  wash,  at  the  same  time  that  it  is  adminis- 
tered internally."  I  have  made  this  quotation  in  order  to  express 
my  entire  confidence  in  the  opinions  so  strongly  set  forth.  I  have 
advised  this  remedy  for  a  long  time  in  the  same  class  of  cases,  both 
in  city  and  country  practice,  and  with  marked  success.  It  is  a  tonic 
astringent  of  peculiar  efficacy  in  the  whole  class  of  cachexia,  but  its 
effects  are  rendered  more  decided  by  an  occasional  dose  of  grey  pow- 
der {Hyd.  cum.  cret)  and  rhubarb,  as  an  alterative.  The  compound 
decoction  of  aloes,  with  phosphate  of  iron,  should  be  given  in 
connection  with  it  in  chlorotic  and  anemic  cases.  During  the 
revolutionary  war,  the  pipsissewa  was  used  extensively  by  the 
army  surgeons  as  a  tonic  and  diaphoretic  in  typhus  fever.  As  a 
popular  remedy  in  rheumatism  it  has  also  been  in  great  repute. 
In  Germany  it  has  long  been  deemed  one  of  the  best  remedies  in 
abdominal  and  renal  dropsies.  The  late  Prof.  Mitchill,  of  New 
York,  made  it  the  subject  of  his  inaugural  thesis,  {Phil  1808)  in 
which  he  relates  many  cases  of  intermittent  fever  effectually  cured 
by  it.  Dr.  Barton  extols  it  highly  for  its  anti-lithic  properties^ 
and  ranks  it  with  uva  uisi.  It  may,  however,  well  be  doubted, 
whether  it  has  any  specific  powers  of  this  kind,  which  entitle  it  to 
particular  consideration. 

On  the  whole  it  may  be  safely  recommended  as  a  diuretic  tonic, 
in  cases  attended  with  loss  of  appetite  and  general  debility,  as  it 
proves  acceptable  to  the  stomach,  while  it  imparts  tone  to  the 
whole  digestive  apparatus. 

We  have  already  referred  to  the  influence  of  the  fresh  leaves 
when  bruised  and  applied  to  the  skin,  causing  redness  and  vesica- 
tion, in  consequence  of  some  acrid  volatile  constituent  in  it 

Preparations, — Decoction,  fluid  extract,  solid  extract,  pills,  in- 
fusion, syrup,  beer,  &c. 

The  decoction  is  made  by  boiling  one  ounce  of  the  dried  plant 
in  a  pint  and  a  half  of  water  to  a  pint ;  the  whole  of  which  may 
be  taken  in  the  course  of  twenty-four  .hours.  The  fluid  extract^ 
prepared  in  vacuo,  as  kept  in  the  shops,  is  perfectly  reliable,  and 
in  all  respects  the  most  valuable  form  for  administering.    Dose — 


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Lee  071  Medicinal  Plants.  293 

One  dram.  The  solid  extract  prepared  in  a  similar  manner,  is  also 
used  in  doses  of  ten  to  twenty  grains,  in  form  of  pill  of  three 
grains  each.  The  infusion  may  be  extemporaneously  prepared  by 
adding  one  ounce  fluid  extract  to  one  pint  of  water ;  the  dose  of 
which  is  two  ounces.  The  syrup  may  be  made  by  adding  ^  iv.» 
of  the  fluid  extract  to  ^  xij.  of  syrup.  Dose —  5  ss. ;  or  if  the  fluid 
extract  is  not  at  hand,  take  5  iv.  of  the  plant,  5  xij.  of  sugar,  and 
a  sufficient  quantity  of  water ;  macerate  (finely  bruised)  in  5  viij. 
of  water,  for  thirty-six  hours ;  then  subject  it  to  displacement,  till 
one  pint  of  fluid  is  obtained;  reduce  by  evaporation  lo  §viij.; 
add  the  sugar,  and  form  the  syrup  in  the  usual  manner.  The 
coriaceous  character  of  the  leaves  renders  long  maceration  neces- 
sary. One  fluid  ounce  of  this  syrup  represents  two  drams  of  the 
leaves.  Dose — ^A  tablespoonful.  Pipsissewa  beer  is  a  very  agree- 
able form  for  administering  this  remedy.  5^.  Ghimaphila  ^vi. 
water  one  gallon.  Boil,  strain  and  add  brown  sugar  one  pound; 
powdered  ginger  5  ss. ;  yeast  a  sufficient  quantity.  Set  it  aside 
till  fermentation  has  commenced ;  then  bottle  it  for  use.  Dose — 
A  small  tumbler  full  three  or  four  times  a  day.  In  the  same  way 
comus  and  other  indigenous  articles  may  be  made  into  beers. 

GoRNUS  Florida  {Dogwood  ;  Boxivood). — This  important  genus 
includes  about  twenty  species,  one  half  of  which  are  natives  of 
North  America;  all  but  two,  which  are  herbaceous,  are  either 
trees  or  large  shrubs.  The  above  species,  too  well-known  to  need 
description,  are  found  in  nearly  every  part  of  the  Union,  especially 
in  moist,  swampy  woods,  flowering  from  February  to  June,  in- 
dicating the  time  for  the  planting  of  Indian  corn.  The  wood  is 
hard,  compact,  susceptible  of  a  high  polish,  and  employed  for  a 
variety  of  purposes  in  the  arts,  where  hardness  and  strength  are 
required.  The  bark  is  officinal,  though  that  of  the  root  contains 
a  greater  amount  of  the  active  principle.  The  C.  Jiorida  occupies 
a  place  in  the  primary,  and  the  C,  cincinata  and  sericea  in  the 
secondary  list  of  the  U.  S.  Pharmacopoeia. 

Physical  properties  and  chemical  composition. — The  powdered 
bark  of  the  root  is  of  a  reddish  gray  colour,  very  bitter  to  the 
taste,  slight  odour,  and  of  an  astringent  and  slightly  aromatic 
taste.  Its  virtues  are  exhausted  by  water  and  alcohol  combined. 
No  very  accurate  analysis  of  this  bark  has  been  made  previous 
to  your  own.    Dr.  Walher  investigated  it  some  years  ago,  but 


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294  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

very  imperfectly ;  subsequently  Mr.  Cockburn  found  it  to  contain 
tannin,  gallic  acid,  resin,  a  bitter  extractive,  and  a  crystalline 
substance.  About  the  year  1830,  Dr.  Carpenter,  a  druggist  of 
Philadelphia,  claimed  to  have  discovered  an  alkaline  base  in  the 
<7.  florida^  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  comine,  forming  salts 
with  acids.  This  substance  is  in  the  form  of  a  grayish  white  pow- 
der, extremely  bitter  and  deliquescent  when  exposed  to  the  air. 
It  was  employed  to  a  considerable  extent  by  the  late  Dr.  Morton, 
of  Philadelphia,  as  an  antiperiodic  tonic  in  intermittents,  and  with 
much  success. — (JPhU,  Jour^JIed.  and  Phys,  Sci.  xi.)  Owing,  how- 
ever, to  the  comparatively  small  amount  of  comine  contained 
in  th#  bark  of  the  C.  flonda^  it  has  not  been  much  employed; 
although,  in  the  same  dose  it  has  been  found  equal  to  quinine  in 
arresting  intermittents.  The  recent  analysis  of  the  inner  bark  in 
your  laboratory,  yielded,  in  seven  thousand  parts : — 

Inorganic  matter, 876 

Organic  " 6124 

7000 

Gum  and  albumen, 104 

A  crystalline  bitter  principle, 12 

Tannin             81 

Coloring  matter, 8 

Particular  principles  (bitter) 288 

Sugar, 4 

Extractive  matter, 282 

Starch,                 66 

Resin,               209 

Soluble  salts, 94^ 

Insoluble  " 781i 

Lignii^ 5180 

7000 

If  the  "  peculiar  crystalline  bitter  principle  "  represents  the  total 
amount  of  the  comine,  then  the  latter  only  exists  in  the  bark  in 
the  proportion  of  1.3  percent.  If  so,  even  if  its  extraction  were 
much  easier  than  it  is,  the][  quantity  being  so  minute,  its  cost 
would  be  far  greater  than  that  of  quinine. 

Therapeutical  properties  and  uses. — ^The  physiological  effects  of 
the  comus  bark  are  similar  to  those  of  the  vegetable  bitter  tonics 
generally,  viz.,  increased  frequency  of  pulse,  exalted  temperature, 


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Lee  0)1  Medicinal  Plants,  295 

diaphoresis,  sensation  of  fullness  or  pains  in  the  head,  and,  if  the 
quantity  be  sufficient,  gastric  derangement.  Of  these,  the  most 
strongly  marked,  are  the  increased  temperature  of  the  skin,  and 
the  general  perspiration.  Some  experimenters  have  observed  a 
constant  tendency  to  sleep,  which  has  continued  for  several  hours. 
This,  as  occurs  in  many  other  cases,  does  not  indicate  any  specific 
narcotic  properties,  but  is  the  result  of  the  cerebral  fullness^ 
Whether  the  remote  effects  are  owing  to  sympathy,  propagate(J 
fix>m  the  gastric  centre;  or,  are  the  direct  effects  of  the  intro- 
duction of  the  active  principles  into  the  blood,  is  not  certainly 
known;  although  the  latter  is  most  probable,  since  the  cold  in- 
fusion or  the  alcoholic  extract  produces  the  same  effects.  But 
whatever  doubt  there  may  be  in  regard  to  its  true  mode  of 
operation,  it  is  very  evident  that  the  comus  has  properties  calcu- 
lated to  invigorate  the  vital  forces,  and  the  organic  nervous  energy 
without  unduly  stimulating  the  circulatory  system.  A  person  in- 
good  health  may  take  the  comus,  as  well  as  any  of  the  other 
vegetable  tonics  in  moderate  doses,  and  for  a" long  time  without. 
any  marked  effect  on  any  of  the  functions ;  but,  taken  in  the  same 
manner  and  the  same  quantities,  in  certain  pathological  states,  as- 
a  general  lowering  of  the  vital  force  and  nervous  energy,  inde- 
pendent of  organic  disease,  or  where  miasmatic  poison  has  caused 
a  tendency  to  paroxysmal  attacks,  as  fever  and  ague,  the  thera- 
peutical influence  of  the  comus  will  be  promptly  manifested  in  a 
general  invigoration  of  the  vital  forces,  and  suspension  of  the 
paroxysms.  Here,  as  in  regard  to  cinchona,  we  must  rest  satisfied 
with  the  result,  for  the  manner  in  which  it  is  brought  about  must 
ever  remain  a  mystery.  In  certain  morbid  conditions,  as  hectic 
fever,  or  great  debility,  attended  with  frequency  of  the  pulse  and 
cold  colliquative  sweats,  the  comus  would  seem  to  possess  the 
powers  of  a  sedative,  as  manifested  in  decided  lowering  of  pulse 
and  abatement  of  perspiration.  This  effect  is  common  to  all  neu- 
rotic tonics,  in  certain  pathological  conditions  of  the  body.  It  de- 
pends on  their  irflparting  increased  tonicity  to  the  muscular  fibres 
of  the  heart  through  the  organic  nerves,  thus  enabling  the  central 
organ  of  circulation  to  throw  out  a  greater  quantity  of  blood  at 
each  contraction.  The  cardiac  irritability  also,  is  lessened  by  the 
temporary  increase  of  tonic  power,  and  vital  contractility.  We 
see  this  constantly  illustrated  in  cases  of  great  debility,  by  tho 


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296  I^e  on  Medicinal  Plants, 

diminislied  frequency  and  increased  force  of  the  pulse,  consequent 
on  tlie  administration  of  alcoholic  stimulants.  The  tonic  vege- 
table alkaloids  and  neutrals  possess  this  power  in  a  still  greater  de- 
gree. On  the  contrary ;  if  cornus  and  other  analogous  substances 
be  given  in  acute  or  sthenic  conditions,  marked  by  those  phenom- 
ena which  are  characteristic  of  inflammatory  action,  the  circulation 
will  be  correspondingly  increased  by  an  increase  of  inflammatory 
action;  in  both  conditions,  however,  acting  as  a  stimulant.  It 
has  been  stated  by  some  writers,  that  the  cornus  is  apt  to  cause 
derangement  of  the  digestive  organs,  and  hence  is,  in  many  cases, 
inadmissable  where  other  vegetable  tonics  would  be  unobjection- 
able. But  this  effect  depends  entirely  on  the  mode  of  adminis- 
tration and  the  quantity  given.  The  hydro-alcoholic  extract  is 
certainly  not  open  to  this  objection. 

The  cornus  florida  is  a  tonic-astringent,  occupying  the  first  rank 
among  our  indigenous  antiperiodics.  Its  effects  are  closely 
analogous  to  those  of  the  cinchona  bark,  for  which  it  may  often 
be  successfully  sub^ituted.  Eberle  states  that  thirty-five  grains 
of  the  dogwood  bark  are  equal  to  thirty  of  cinchona.— (TViero.  vol. 
1st,  p.  304.)  Our  own  experience  with  this  article  has  satisfied 
us  that  most  cases  of  our  periodic  or  miasmatic  fevers  will  yield 
to  its  judicious  use.  The  severer  forms  may  require  the  more 
energetic  action  of  quinine,  but  as  intermittents  generally  occur, 
no  other  antiperiodic  will  be  required.  Our  rule  is  to  administer 
from  half  a  dram  to  one  dram  of  the  hydro-alcoholic  extract  be- 
tween the  paroxysms,  preceding  its  use  by  a  cholagogue  cathartic. 
It  is  also  well  adapted  to  promote  the  appetite  and  digestion,  in 
atonic  and  enfeebled  conditions  of  the  stomach,  and  as  a  general 
tonic  in  feebleness  and  debility  of  the  whole  system,  especially  of 
the  muscles.  It,  also,  has  considerable  anthelmintic  power,  though 
this  may  be  dependent  on  its  influence  in  improving  the  functions 
of  the  alimentary  canal,  and  correcting  those  conditions  of  the  di- 
gestive organs  which  favor  the  production  of  worms. 

Preparations — These  are  the  powder,  fluid  extract,  solid  extract, 
cornin,  tincture,  infusion,  wine  and  syrup. 

The  powder  is  seldom  used,  it  being  apt  to  disturb  the  stomach. 
The  fluid  extract  is  wholly  reliable  and  efficient,  in  doses  of  from 
thirty  drops  to  two  drams.  It  contains  all  the  active  principles, 
and  is  adapted  to  all  cases  where  the  article  is  indicated.    As  a 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants,  297 

fitoniacliic,  half  a  dram  before  eating,  will  generally  be  sufficient. 
The  solid  extract  as  well  as  the  fluid,  is  now  prepared  at  our  large 
establishments,  in  vacuo,  and  are,  doubtless,  superior  to  those  pre- 
pared in  the  ordinary  manner.  Still,  the  country  practitioner 
who  has  not  these  preparations  on  hand,  can  prepare  them  for 
himself  so  that  they  will  prove  sufficiently  reliable.  The  follow- 
ing formula  will  serve  as  a  guide: — Take  of  dogwood  bark, 
■coarsely  powdered,  one  pound;  absolute  alcohol,  four  pints; 
water,  six  pints;  macerate  the  bark  with  the  alcohol  for  five 
-days;  pour  off  the  tincture  and  express;  boil  the  residuum  for 
half  an  hour  in  three  pints  of  the  water ;  strain  through  linen 
while  hot,  and  express ;  repeat  the  boiling  for  the  same  length 
•of  time  with  the  remaining  three  pints  of  water ;  strain  and  ex- 
press as  before ;  then  mix  the  decoctions,  and  evaporate  to  the  con- 
sistence of  a  thin  syrup ;  distil  the  alcohol  from  the  tincture  until 
it  acquires  the  same  thickness ;  then  mix  both  inspissated  liquors 
and  evaporate  to  the  consistence  proper  for  working  pills.  Ten 
pounds  of  bark  will,  in  this  way,  yield  fifteen  ounces  of  extract 
•Care  must  be  taken  to  avoid  burning  the  extract  by  evaporating 
towards  the  close,  over  a  very  slow  fire ;  or,  what  would  be  still 
better,  a  sand-bath.  Good  cornus  bark,  such  as*from  the  root  or 
the  inner  bark  of  the  trunk,  yields  about  nine  per  cent  of  extract, 
and  one  ounce  of  it  is  equal  in  antiperiodic  power,  it  is  believed, 
to  half  an  ounce  of  quinine.  At  fifty  cents  per  ounce,  therefore, 
the  extract  would  be  twice  as  cheap  as  quinine,  and  it  would  un- 
doubtedly be  manufactured  at  a  profit,  at  less  than  that  price.  In 
some  parts  of  the  southern  States  this  preparation  has  nearly  su- 
perseded the  cinchona.  The  above  extract  is  less  bitter  and  more 
astringent  than  a  similar  preparation  of  the  Peruvian  bark.  A 
more  simple  mode  of  making  the  extract,  is  to  evaporate  a  tincture 
of  the  bark  in  a  sand-bath ;  the  tincture  to  be  prepared  by  di- 
gesting it  with  proof  spirits,  in  the  proportion  of  two  ounces  of 
the  former  to  a  pint  of  the  latter,  allowing  it  to  stand  for  one 
week  before  digesting ;  occasionally,  during  this  time,  submitting 
it  for  a  few  hours  to  a  moderate  heat,  to  favor  the  solution  of  its 
active  constituents.  This  may  be  called  a  concentrated  prepara- 
tion of  the  cornus,  as  it  contains  the  active  principles,  separated 
from  the  lignin  and  other  insoluble  matters. 
This  extract  may  be  given  in  doses  of  from  five  to  ten  grains ; 


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298  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

simple,  or  combined  witli  other  remedies,  as  blue  mass,  caJorael^ 
ipecac,  &c.  The  cornin  is  a  true  alkaloid ;  first  discovered  by  Dr. 
Carpenter,  and  employed  by  Dr.  Morton ;  although  it  has  since 
been  questioned  whether  any  such  principle  has  ever  been  de- 
tected in  the  comus  bark.  But  it  may  readily  be  separated  by 
the  same  processes  which  are  employed  in  preparing  sulphate  of 
quinine,  from  the  various  species  of  cinchona  bark.  It  probably 
exists  in  combination  with  tannic  acid.  Cornin  is,  however,  not 
kept  in  the  shops,  and  that  which  now  goes  under  this  name  is 
nothing  but  a  solid  extract  mixed  with  the  crude  powdered  bark, 
chloride  of  soda  and  other  impurities.  The  dose  of  the  real  cor- 
nin is  from  one  to  five  grains. 

The  tincture  of  comus  is  made  extemporaneously  by  adding 
four  ounces  of  the  fluid  extract  to  twelve  ounces  of  proof  spirits,, 
the  dose  of  which  is  from  two  to  four  draip.  The  infusion  is 
readily  prepared  by  adding  two  ounces  of  the  fluid  extract  to  one 
pint  of  water. — ^Dose,  5  ij-  The  vnne,  add  5  v-  A^d  extract  to 
5  X.  sherry  wine. — Dose,  3  j. —  3  iij.  Syrup, — Fluid  extract  5  iv. 
syrup  one  pint. — ^Dose — 3ij. —  3  iij.  Decoction. —  5j-  powdered 
bark  to  one  pint.  Where  any  of  the  above  preparations  seem  to 
disagree  with  the  stomach,  it  is  probably  from  their  having  been 
made  from  the  recent  bark,  or  given  in  too  large  doses.  A  few 
drops  of  laudanum,  however,  will,  in  nearly  all  cases,  obviate  any 
such  tendency.  An  infusion  of  the  dried  flowers  is  a  very  usefiil  - 
stomachic  tonic,  and  well  adapted  to  cases  of  flatulent  colic.  The 
above  remarks  apply  also  to  the  comus  cirdnata  and  C.  sericea^  as 
well  as  some  other  species. 

The  extract  of  the  C.  cirdnata  is,  however,  more  astringent  than 
that  of  the  C.  florida.  It  is  highly  recommended  by  Prof.  Ives, 
of  New  Haren,  and  the  late  A.  W.  Ives,  M.  D.,  of  New  York,  in 
dysentery.  The  late  Dr.  Tully  also  extolled  it  in  the  same  disease.. 
One  ounce  of  the  bark  of  the  (7.  cirdnata  yields  one  hundred  and 
fifty  grains  of  solid  extract  by  boiling.  It  is  used  externally  in 
New  England  in  cases  of  diarrhea,  dyspepsia,  &c. 


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Jiepo7't  on  Home  Adtdterations,       ^  299 


A  valuable  Report  to  the  Pharmaceutical  Convention  on 
Home  Adulterations. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Pharmaceutical  AssodatioD,  Mr.  Camey»  from  the 
committee  upon  the  subject  of  home  adulterations,  appointed  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  association,  held  in  Washington  last  year,  made  the  following 
report,  which  is  of  so  general  public  interest  that  we  give  it  entire : — 

The  subject  placed  in  their  hands  has  received,  as  it  deserves,  careful  con- 
sideration. 

The  co-operation  of  our  pharmaceutical  brethren  from  all  parts  of  our  country 
has  been  solicited,  and  yoiur  committee  take  pleasure  in  stating  that  the  in- 
terest shown  by  our  members  in  this  subject  proves  that  it  is  a  matter  worthy 
of  all  the  time  and  care  bestowed  upon  it  from  year  to  year,  by  this  association. 

The  matter  of  adulteration  is  one  that  appeals  to  every  person  strongly. 
Viewed  in  the  best  light  we  can  place  it,  that  of  a  mere  matter  of  dollars  and 
cents,  it  even  then  meets  with  the  condemnation  of  those  who  are  only  con- 
sdoos  of  the  wickedness  of  the  practice  by  being  touched  in  their  most  senstive 
region — the  pocket 

*For,  although  some  do  say  that  mixing  rfce  flour  with  cream  of  tartar,  and 
chickory  with  coffee,  is  a  "AarmZew"  sophistication;  still,  when  they  are 
obliged  to  pay  the  price  of  *^Best  Old  Mo«ha,"  for  chickory,  and  forty  cents  a 
pound  for  rice  flour,  then  the  enormity  of  the  offence  is  at  once  apparent 

Before  presenting  to  the  association  such  specimens  of  adulterations  and  so- 
phistications as  your  committee  have  to  ofler,  it  will  be  well,  perhaps,  to  give 
an  explanation  as  to  what  constitutes  an  adulteration.  For  the  best  definition 
of  an  adulteration,  we  are  indebted  to  Dr.  Hassall,  of  London.  He  says: — 
**The  sale  of  one  article  in  place  of  another  is  not  an  adulteration,  but  a  sub- 
stitution. The  presence  of  substances  in  articles,  in  consequence  of  impurities 
contained  in  the  materials  out  of  which  they  were  prepared,,  as  for  example, 
arsenic  in  the  hydrochloric  acid  used  in  the  preparation  of  unfermented  bread, 
does  not  constitute  adulteration,  they  are  simply  impurities.  Lastly,  the  aC' 
eidental  presence  of  substances  in  any  commodity  does  not  constitute  an  adul- 
teration. Excluding,  then,  from  the  class  of  adulterations  all  cases  of  substi- 
tution, impurities  and  accidental  contaminations,  adulteration  may  thus  be 
defined : — It  consists  in  the  intentional  addition  to  an  article,  for  the  purpose 
of  gain  or  deception,  of  any  substance  or  substances  the  presence  of  which  is 
not  acknowledged  in  the  name  under  which  the  article  is  sold." 

Tour  committee  feel  that,  perhaps,  they  may  bring  forward  some  facts,  not 
in  aU  cases  agreeable,  and  that  they  may  be  met  with  the  oft  repeated  state- 
ment that  **  the  public  wish  the  adulterated  articles,"  that  **  pure  mustard  and 
cream  tartar  will  not  sell,"  coffee  with  burnt  peas  and  apples  in  it  is  "richer** 
and  more  "nutritious,"  but  we  feel  constrained  to  say  this  pretended  regard 
for  the  wishes  and  tastes  of  the  "  public"  is  most  generally  based  upon  a  slight 
interest  for  the  pecimiary  welfare  of  the  manufacturer  or  trader. 

The  public  do  not  wish  adulterated  articles ;  were  they  once  aware  of  the 


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300  Report  on  Home  Adulterations, 

real  difference  between  pure  and  impure  articles  they  would  not  hesitate  a 
moment  in  their  choice:  could  they  but  see  the  peas  and  beans  roasted  for 
best  **  old  Mocha,"  the  sulphate  of  soda  for  "  cream  tartar,"  the  turmeric  for 
"  mustard,"  the  alum  for  bread,  and  #he  sulphuric  acid  for  "vinegar,"  your 
committee  feel  tliat  very  soon  the  lucrative  portion  of  the  adulterator's  business 
would  pass  away,  leaving  him  with  a  reputation  far  from  enviable. 

It  is  not  only  in  articles  of  food,  but  in  medicines  also,  that  this  practice 
prevails,  and  your  committee  have  felt  that  upon  this  part  of  the  subject  they 
should  bestow  a  large  portion  of  their  investigations. 

Science  is  never  so  noble  as  when  engaged  in  advancing  those  arts  which 
promote  health  or  mitigate  the  sufferings  of  humanity,  but  when  it  is  prosti- 
tuted to  ignoble  purposes,  and  in  direct  opposition  to  the  relieving  of  suffering, 
is  engaged  in  sophisticating  with  a  cunning  and  well  concealed  hand  those 
yery  articles  which  the  physician  relies  upon  for  promoting  and  restoring 
health,  then  indeed  is  it  deserving  of  condemnation. 

Very  many  of  the  adulterations  of  the  present  day  exhibit  a  knowledge  of 
science  worthy  a  better  cause ;  many  of  them  are  decidedly  pernicious,  and 
serious  results  have  followed  their  use ;  of  such  we  may  instance  the  employ- 
ment of  poisonous  pigments  for  the  colored  confections,  lead  in  snuff,  and  in 
cayenne  pepper,  copper  in  pickles^  and  cocculus  indicus  and  nux  vomica  in 
beer  and  ale. 

Your  committee  would  refer  to  any  of  the  works  published  in  France  or 
England  devoted  to  the  exposure  of  the  frauds  in  food  and  medicine,  for  evidence, 
were  it  needed,  of  th«  great  interest  felt  in  this  subject  by  scientific  men ;  and 
they  cannot  better  illustrate  the  necessity  of  these  investigations  than  by 
^ving  a  short  list  of  those  articles  of  food  which  have  been  proved  to  be  adul- 
terated, and  the  substances  used  for  the  purpose.  Many  of  these  have  been 
met  with  by  your  committee,  and  some  of  them  are  described  by  Dr.  Hassall, 
in  his  work  on  "  The  Adulterations  of  Food  and  Medicine." 

The  articles  we  specially  refer  to  are  as  follows : — 

Colored  confectioneiy — Adulterated  with  emerald  or  scheles  green,  arsenite 
of  copper. 

Beer — with  cocculus  indica  and  nux  vomica. 

Pickles  and  bottled  fruits — with  verdigris  and  sulphate  copper. 

Custard  Powders — with  chromate  of  lead. 

Tea  and  snuff—with  the  same, 

Cayenne  and  curry  powder — with  red  oxide  of  lead. 

Sugar  confectionery — with  gamboge,  orpiment,  or  sulphurct  of  arsenic,  and 
•chloride  of  copper.  » 

Flour  and  bread — with  hydrated  sulphate  of  lime,  plaster  of  Paris  and  alum. 

Vinegar — with  sulphuric  acid. 

Sugar — with  sand  and  plaster  of  Paris. 

Milk— with  chalk,  sheep's  brains  and  ground  turmeric. 

Arrow  root — with  ground  rice. 

•Chocolate — with  rice,  flour,  potato  starch,  gum  tragaganth,  cinnabar,  bals. 


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Report  on  Home  Adah-rations,  301 

Peni,  red  oxide  mercuiy,  red  lead,  carbonate  of  lime,  and  the  red  ochres  to- 
bring  up  the  color. 

Mustard — with  ground  turmeric,  to  give  it  a  brilliant  color. 

Butter — with  potato  starch,  mutton  tallow,  carbonate  of  lead,  and  sugar  of 
lead. 

That  it  would  be  right  to  make  public  the  persons  who  are  directly  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  adulteration,  we  feel  that  few  would  deny ;  but  your  com- 
mittee refrain  from  pursuing  this  course  at  present,  suggesting,  however,  to- 
the  association  the  propriety  of  taking  some  measures  for  exposing  those  who 
make  it  a  regular  matter  of  business. 

It  is,  perhaps,  our  duty  to  be  more  explicit  in  this  matter  as  to  what  parties 
are  guilty  of  the  adulteration,  but  your  committee  know  that  all  classes  of 
trade,  manufacturer,  jobber  and  retailer,  are  sometimes  implicated  in  these 
frauds. 

Certain  kinds  of  adulterations  and  sophistications  are  practised  upon  so  large- 
a  scale  as  to  be  beyond  the  small  dealer ;  they  involve  the  use  of  extensive- 
machinery,  which  the  ordinary  tradesman  does  not  possess. 

It  was  once  the  practice  for  druggists  to  systematically  add  to  all  drugs  cer- 
tain amounts  of  saw-dust,  oat-meal,  and  other  substances  of  less  value  than  the 
article  in  its  purity,  to  make  good  the  loss  by  drying  and  powdering.  The 
average  loss  was  considered  to  be  about  four  per  cent.,  and  as  this  amount 
was  added  to  compensate,  it  was  known  as  the  "  four  per  cent  system."  The 
practice,  under  this  name,  was  principally  confined  to  England,  but  from  speci- 
mens with  which  your  committee  have,  from  time  to  time,  met,  it  is  apparent 
that  a  practice  somewhat  similar  exists  occasionally  on  this  side  of  the  water. 

Tour  committee  feel  also  that  the  tradesman  is  sometimes  a  party  to  the 
fraud,  although  he  may  not  be  the  actual  mixer.  He  often  purchases  of  the 
wholesale  dealer  an  article  which  he  knows  cannot  be  pure,  from  the  price 
asked ;  he  is  willing,  however,  to  stretch  his  elastic  conscience  round  the  ap- 
parent discrepancy,  and,  as  one  of  the  members  of  your  committee  has  been, 
told  by  a  retail  apothecary,  if  the  jobber  told  him  an  article  was  pure,  although 
lie  knew  it  was  not,  he  should  consider  the  jobber  as  having  taken  the  responsi- 
bility, and  should  buy  and  sell  the  article  with  a  clear  conscience. 

Your  committee  do  not  appreciate  this  kind  of  a  conscience,  and  trust  that 
our  profession  is  not  graced  with  many  such.  It  is  our  duty  as  pharmaceu- 
tists to  do  all  in  our  power  to  put  an  end  to  this  pernicious  system  of  adul- 
teration, using  our  influence  against  a  practice  which,  in  the  language  ot 
another  "is  undermining  the  very  foundation  of  trade,  namely, /a i77*  in  com- 
mercial ip^tegrityy 

In  England  the  matter  of  pecuniary  loss  to  the  government  has  been  taken 
into  consideration,  and  from  careful  estimates  the  revenue  suffers  by  adul- 
teration to  the  extent  of  two  millions  annually  I  The  author  of  "Food  of 
London^'  states  that  half  the  national  revenue  is  derived  from  articles  of  con- 
sumption. "If  the  government  loses  so  much,  the  public  suffers  a  much 
greater  loss." 


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802  Bepori  on  Home  AduUeraiions. 

This  subject  of  home  adulterations  then  is  one  worthy  of  attention  by  State 
and  public  ofiBcers,  even  as  a  question  of  pecuniary  moment  only. 

As  a  matter  relating  to  public  health  this  subject  is  worthy  careful  attention; 
very  many  of  the  adulterations  practised  upon  food  and  medicine  are  said  to  he 
**  harmless  in  themselves ; "  but  we  have  seen  that  in  a  pecuniary  point  of 
view  at  least,  they  are  not  so.  Very  many  instances  are  on  record,  however, 
where  not  only  serious,  but  fatal  results  to  health  have  followed  the  use  of 
adulterated  articles. 

During  the  past  year  your  committee  have  met  with  very  many  instances 
of  fraud  and  deception  in  drugs ;  some  of  these  are  very  curious,  and  are  worthy 
of  a  place  in  a  Report  of  this  kind. 

During  the  past  year,  in  a  wood  turner's  shop  in  Boston,  was  seen  more 
than  a  barrel  of  East  India  rhubarb,  which  was  being  turned  down  into  ^*true 
Turkey." 

This  rhubarb  was  sold  for  genuine  and  real  Turkey  rhubarb. 

A  druggist  was  applied  to  by  a  man  for  a  situation  as  porter  in  his  store : — 

"  What  can  you  do  ?  What  have  you  been  doing  at  your  last  place  ?  '*  were 
the  questions  asked. 

*^  Oh !  "  replied  the  man,  **  I  have  done  everything  about  the  store  that  was 
needed ;  until  the  past  year,  I  have  worked  up  stairs  in  the  room  making  Tur- 
key rhubarb." 

"  Making  Turkey  rhubarb  I  what  do  you  mean  by  that  ?" 

"Why,"  replied  the  man,  "  we  used  to  take  the  East  India  nudjile  it  and 
bore  it  into  true  Turkey." 

The  man  was  not  engaged. 

Both  of  these,  it  may  be  remarked,  are  merely  instances  grateful  to  those 
who  urge  that  ^^most  of  the  adulterations  are  harmless^^^  but  they  must  appeal 
with  considerable  force  to  those  who  are  sensitive  as  to  the  mere  value  of  an 
article  in  dollars  and  cents,  for  East  India  rhubarb  at  90c.  per  lb.  transformed 
into  *'true  Turkey"  at  $4.50  per  lb.,  is  certainly  a  touching  instance  of  the 
mutability  of  earthly  things,  especially  drugs. 

There  is  one  more  aspect  in  which  this  subject  of  adulterations  is  to  be  con- 
sidered, and  that  is  the  moral  bearings  of  the  practice.  It  is  not  possible  for 
an  adulterator  to  bo  a  strictly  honest  man.  The  practice  not  only  makes  those 
guilty  of  it  dishonest,  but  it  also  causes  distrust  on  the  part  of  those  who  buy ; 
confidence  in  the  integrity  of  the  seller  is  lost  by  those  who  purchase,  and  not 
only  do  the  guilty,  but  the  honest  traders  suffer ;  in  fact  the  standard  of  mo- 
rality and  business  integrity  is  lowered,  and  the  innocent  suflTer  with  the  guilty. 

The  truly  upright  man  who  cannot  conscientiously  adopt  the  practices  of  his 
competitors,  how  fares  it  with  him  ? 

He  struggles  along,  selling  pure  articles  at  a  smaller  profit  than  those  who 
are  less  scrupulous  ;  he  is  discouraged,  and  well  he  may  be  oftentimes ;  and 
were  it  not  for  the  proud  consciousness  of  right  doing,  he  would  become  dis- 
heartened, less  honest,  and  finally  adopt  the  practices  he  formerly  condemned. 

The  practice  of  adulteration  then  is  one  deserving  condemnation,  because 
prejudicial  to  public  health,  honesty  and  morality,  and  in  a  pecuniary  view, 


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Bepori  on  Home  AdiUteraiions,  803 

as  occasioning  a  loss  to  the  public  and  the  goTemment. 

If  we  admit  the  truth  of  the  statement  of  Dr.  Nonnandy,  and  Tery  few  will 
question  it,  we  can  see  to  how  great  an  extent  the  practice  has  adyanced.  He 
says: — *^ Adulteration  is  a  wide  spread  eyil,  which  has  invaded  every  branch 
of  commerce.  Every  thing  which  can  be  mixed  or  adulterated,  or  debased  in 
any  way  is  debased.*' 

Your  committee  submit  herewith  a  brief  list  of  drugs  found  to  be  adulterated, 
and  the  articles  used  for  the  purpose. 

Many  of  the  substances  referred  to  in  this  list  are  taken  from  "  Chevalier's 
Dictionary  of  Alterations  and  Falsifications.'' 

Acetate  of  morphia  is  adulterated  with  acetate  and  phosphate  of  lime. 

Benzoic  acid  with  asbestos,  carbonate  and  sulphate  of  lime,  hipponic  acid 
and  sugar. 

Citric  acid  with  oxalic  and  tartaric  acids,  and  sulphate  of  lime.  It  often 
contains  sulphuric  acid  and  salts  of  lead  or  copper.  In  1850,  M.  Pennes  dis- 
covered the  presence  of  lead  in  this  acid,  obtained  of  three  highly  respectable 
dealers.  The  acid  was  very  white,  and  was  intended  to  prepare  the  purgative 
lemonade. 

Tartaric  acid  with  cream  of  tartar,  acid  sulphate  of  potassa,  and  with  lime. 

Aloes  with  colophony,  ochre,  extract  of  liquorice,  gum  arable,  and  calcined 
bones. 

Starch  with  carbonate  and  sulphate  of  lime  or  alabaster ;  the  more  common 
fraud  is,  however,  to  saturate  it  with  moisture. 

Arrow  root  with  potato  starch  and  rice  flour. 

Assafcetida  with  gum  resins  of  poorer  quality,  sand,  and  other  inert 
substances. 

Balsam  copaiba  with  the  resinous  extract  by  decoction  of  the  bark  and 
branches  of  oopaifera,  turpentine,  colophony,  and  fat  oils. 

Balsam  Peru  with  colophony,  turpentine,  benzoin  resin,  alcohol  and  fixed  oils. 

Balsam  Tolu  with  turpentine,  colophony  and  other  resins. 

Chloroform  with  chlorohydric  ether,  hypochlorous  acid,  hydro  carbonated 
oils,  compounds  of  methyle  and  aldehyde,  and  fixed  substances. 

Beeswax  with  resin,  burgundy,  pitch,  earthy  matter,  flowers  of  sulphur, 
starch  and  amylaceous  substances,  tallow,  stearic  acid,  yellow  ochre,  calcined 
bones,  and  sawdust. 

Tart  emetic  with  cream  tartar,  oxide  antimony,  tartrate  of  iron,  chlor.  cal- 
cium and  potassium,  and  sometimes  is  contaminated  with  salts  of  copper 
and  tin. 

Essential  oils  with  alcohol  and  fixed  oils. 

Iodide  potassium  with  chloride  potassium  and  sodium,  and  calcium,  carbon- 
ate of  potassa  and  bromide  of  potassium.  The  latter  salt  being  sometimes  in 
so  large  a  proportion,  owing  to  its  lesser  price,  as  to  replace^  almost  entirely, 
the  iodide. 

Manna  with  glucose  or  starch  sugar,  and  starch.  The  large  flake  manna  is 
sometimes  made  from  a  mixture,  consisting  of  a  little  manna,  flour,  honey,  and 
a  purgative  powder ;  these  are  boiled  together  to  a  syrupy  consistence,  and 


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304  Report  mi  Home  Adulterations, 

then  moulded  in  form  of  "flakes;"  common  "sorts  manna"  has  been  con- 
verted into  "Hake"  by  being  boiled  in  water,  clarified  with  charcoal,  and 
moulded  into  proper  form. 

It  is  possible  to  extend  this  list,  but  your  committee  feel  that  enough  ha& 
been  already  brought  forward  to  establish  the  fact,  were  proof  necessary,  that 
very  many  articles  depended  upon  as  medicines  to  restore  health,  may  be,  le- 
cause  adulterated^  highly  pernicious  and  even  fatal  in  their  eflfects. 

Your  committee  propose  to  offer,  in  concluding  this  report,  already  perhaps 
extended  beyond  its  limits,  a  few  specimens  of  adulterations,  and  substitutions 
which  have  come  to  their  knowledge  the  past  year,  and  to  give  the  simpler 
tests  by  which  they  may  be  detected. 

First  we  ask  your  attention  to  the 

SUBSTFTUTIONS. 

Specimen  No.  1,  is  western  alcohol.  A  barrel  of  this  was  sold  for  "  Atwood's- 
alcohol."  A  very  simple  examination  proves  it  to  be  loaded  with  grain  oils, 
and  thus  exposes  the  fraud  at  once.  The  simplest  way  to  detect  the  grain 
oils  is  to  treat  the  suspected  sample  with  an  equal  volume  of  concentrated  sul- 
phuric acid ;  if  grain  oils  are  present,  the  mixture  becomes  darker  colored, 
owing  to  their  carbonization.  Also  they  may  be  detected  by  a  solution  of  nitrate 
silver ;  expose  the  alcohol,  to  which  this  solution  has  been  added,  to  the  action 
of  sunlight,  or  diffuse  daylight,  if  grain  oils  are  present,  a  black  precipitate 
subsides  after  some  little  time.  This  change  does  not  occur  if  the  alcohol 
is  pure. 

Specimen  No.  2,  is  an  oil,  principally  linseed,  which  was  sold  for  Uue  Eng- 
glish  oil  of  sweet  almonds."  The  physical  characteristics  and  the  temperature 
required  for  congelation  serve  to  detect  this  fraud.  Linseed  oil  remains  fluid 
at  zero,  while  true  oil  almonds  congeals  above  that  temperature. 

Specimen  No.  3,  is  false  oil,  of  bitter  almonds.  This  was  purchased  with 
the  label  of  a  well  known  English  house  upon  it,  and  was  sold  as  "true  es- 
sential oil  of  bitter  almonds."  It  is  the  article  known  as  "  essence  de  Mirban,"^ 
or  nitro-benzole,  and  may  be  detected  very  easily- 

When  a  mixture  of  one  volume,  true  essential  oil  almonds,  two  volumes  of 
alcohol,  and  one  volume  of  very  weak  solution  of  potassa,  mixed  well  together, 
is  allowed  to  stand,  it  is  converted  into  benzoic  acid  in  from  twenty-four  ta 
forty-eight  hours. 

The  fictitious  oil  (nitro  benzole)  is  not  capable  of  undergoing  this  change. 

Specimen  No.  4,  is  fictitious  tapioca.  This  article  purports  to  be  the  fecula 
of  iatropha  manihot,  or  cassiva.  It  is  not,  however,  what  it  appears,  and  is 
proved  to  be,  by  microscopical  examination,  entirely  a  fictitious  article ;  made 
from  potato  starch,  and  does  not  contain  one  particle  of  real  tapioca. 

This  article  is  made  in  Liverpool,  England,  and  imported  into  New  York. 

Your  committee  cannot  refrain  from  recommending  the  use  of  the^microscope 
as  being  a  very  valuable  aid  to  the  pharmaceutist  By  this  instrument  he  is 
enabled  to  detect  at  once,  frauds  which  perhaps  might  be  previously  unsuspec- 
ted, particularly  articles  of  food,  as  in  the  instance  jast  brought  to  your  notice. 


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Sfjlam'ne  and  Dalcamava, — Iodide  of  Potassium.  805 

Specimen  No.  6,  is  Melambo  or  Matias  bark. — ^This  bark  is  largely  used  for 
grinding  with  all  kinds  of  spices.  For  further  description  we  refer  to  Prof. 
Procter's  Journal  of  Pharmacy,  vol.  29th,  pp.  103  and  215,  where  the  nature 
and  characteristics  of  this  bark  are  very  fully  set  forth  by  Messrs.  Edward 
Parrish  and  Frank  B.  Daucy.  Your  committee  are  not  aware  of  other  uses, 
to  any  extent,  to  which  this  bark  is  put,  except  for  adulterating  spices.  Spe- 
cific adtilterat'iom^  whicli  concludes  the  report,  will  be  given  in  the  next  No. 


Therapeutical  Action  of  Solanine  and  Dulcamara. 

Prof  Caylus,  of  Leipzig,  has  undertaken  a  series  of  experiments  to  ascer- 
tain the  exact  etfect  of  dulcamara,  and  its  active  principle,  solanine.  These 
substances  belong  to  the  class  of  narcotico-acids,  as  they  produce  a  paralyzing 
action  on  the  medulla  oblongata,  and  an  exciting  action  on  the  nerves.  They 
cause  death  by  producing  paralysis  of  the  respiratory  muscular  apparatus,  by 
an  action  analogous  to  that  of  coneine  and  nicotine.  They  possess  a  thera- 
peutical action  in  spasms  and  irritable  conditions  of  the  respiratory  organs,  in 
simple  spasmodic  cough,  hooping  cough,  and  spasmodic  asthma.  Their  thera- 
peutical action  in  certain  morbid  conditions  of  the  blood — as  gout,  rheuma- 
tism, constitutional  syphilis,  and  perhaps  in  certain  chronic  diseases  of  the 
skin — may  be  due  to  their  augmenting  the  excretion  by  the  kidneys,  of  the 
constituent  parts  of  the  blood  which  have  undergone  combustion,  and  not  to 
the  excitement  of  cutaneous  activity.  Solanine  and  dulcamara  may  be  gjiven 
without  danger  in  inflammatory  conditions  of  the  stomach  and  the  intestinal 
tube,  as  they  exercise  no  action  on  those  organs.  Inflammation  of  tho  respi- 
ratory organs  presents  no  contraindication  to  the  employment  of  solanine  and 
dulcamara,  but  they  are  contra-indicated  in  inflammation  of  the  kidneys.  The 
medium  dose  of  solanine  for  an  adult  is  from  one  to  five  centigrammes  of  ace- 
tate of  solanine,  a  substance  which  M.  Caylus  prefers  to  the  pure  alkaloid,  in 
consequence  of  its  solubility.  The  most  suitable  form  of  administration  is  in 
pills,  tho  solutions  of  the  salts  of  solanine  having  a  very  disagreeable  taste. 
The  extract  obtained  from  alcohol,  and  then  washed  with  water  to  remove  the 
alcohol,  is  preferable  to  the  watery  extract  generally  employed. — PrcMC  MSdi- 
eah  Beige,  Sept  ,\ms. 


Diuretic  Action  of  Iodide  of  Potassium. 

By   a  Handfidd  Jones,  M.  2>.,  F.  R.  S. 

It  appears  reasonable  to  expect  that  the  healing  influence  of  a  drug  in  cer- 
tain morbid  states  may  be  shown  to  be  explicable  by  its  general  mode  of  ac- 
tion, yet  there  are  certain  remedies  which  exert  a  very  positive  curative  power, 
and  yet  aflFord  no  clue  in  their  general  mode  of  action  to  explain  their  special 
eflR^cts.  Such  a  remedy,  according  to  Dr.  H.  Jones,  is  iodide  of  potassium, 
which  has  certainly  a  strong  controlling  power  over  periosteal  inflammations. 


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/306  Iodide  of  Potassium, — Acid  Nitrate  oj  Silver, 

whether  syphilitic  or  rheumatic,  as  well  as  over  rupial  ulcers,  which  geuerallj 
heal  under  its  use.  It  is  also  more  or  less  useful  in  inflammations  affecting 
fibrous  tissues  in  various  parts.  Dr.  Jones  has  made  a  series  of  experiments 
upon  the  effects  of  iodide  of  potassium  administered  to  patients,  and  has  ex- 
amined the  urine  in  each  case ;  and  the  general  results  are  thus  summed  up: — 
1.  That  the  quantity  of  water  was  greatly  increased  in  three  out  of  six  cases; 
a  little  (one-sixth)  increased  in  one ;  diminished  in  two.  2.  Out  of  five  cases^ 
the  acidity  was  increased  in  three,  diminished  in  two.  8.  Urea  was  increased 
in  three,  diminished  in  three.  4.  Phosphoric  acid  was  increased  in  four,  dimin- 
ished in  two.  5.  Sulphuric  acid  was  increased  in  four,  diminished  in  two. 
6.  Chlorine  was  increased  in  three,  diminished  in  two  out  of  five  cases ;  in  two 
the  increase  was  very  considerable.  7.  Uric  add  was  diminished  in  four  out 
of  six  cases,  greatly  increased  in  the  remaining  two.  The  most  marked  effects 
seem  to  be  the  increase  of  the  water,  of  the  phosporic  and  sulphuric  acids, 
and  of  the  chlorine.  But  Dr.  Jones  adds,  that  as  far  as  these  confessedly  em- 
pirical results  go,  there  seems  to  be  no  help  or  clue  afforded  to  trace  out  any 
connection  between  the  empirical  facts  just  noticed.  A  varying  diuretic  effect 
does  not  give  any  explanation  of  the  modus  operandi  of  the  drug  in  curing 
a  node  or  an  ulcer.  For  the  present  Dr.  Jones  concludes  that  we  cannot  at- 
tain to  more  than  an  empirical  acquaintance  with  the  operation  of  iodide  of 
potassium. — Beale^s  Archives  of  Medicine^  No.  3. 


Alum  and  Savin  in  Condylomata. 

In  tliose  raised  patches  of  skin,  known  as  mucas  tubercles,  or  condylomata^ 
existing  about  the  verge  of  the  anus  and  around  the  genitals,  but  especially 
those  which  are  wide-spread  and  flat,  more  extensive  than  prominent,  Mr. 
Coulson,  at  St  Mary's  hospital,  has  been  remarkably  successful  in  producing 
the  diminution  of  the  swelling  and  causing  them  to  dry  up,  by  the  application 
to  a  powder  consisting  of  equal  parts  of  alum  and  savin.  This  is  quite  painless, 
and  a  cure  is  generally  completed  in  a  few  days. — London  Lancet 


Therapeutical  Action  of  the  Acid  Nitrate  of  Silver. 

By  Br,  Crocq. 
Under  the  name  of  acid  nitrate  of  silver.  Dr.  Crocq  designates  a  solution  of 
nitrate  of  silver  in  nitric  acid.  He  thinks  this  preparation  cspeciaUy  useful 
when  it  is  desirable  to  modify  certain  surfaces  more  or  less  deeply  without 
producing  a  deep  destruction  of  the  tissues ;  in  such  cases,  in  fact,  as  are 
usually  treated  by  the  solid  nitrate  of  silver  or  by  the  add  nitrate  of  mercury. 
The  acid  nitrate  of  silver  is  preferable  to  the  former,  because  it  penetrates 
much  better  into  all  the  sinuosities  and  anfractuosities  of  surfaces,  and  be- 
cause its  action  can  be  rendered  either  superficial  or  deep.  It  is  preferable  to 
the  second,  because  it  does  not  act  as  a  poison  by  absorption,  however  large 
may  be  the  surface  cauterized,  while  the  acid  nitrate  of  mercury  may  and  does 


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American  Phannaceutical  Convention.  307 

produce  symptoms  of  mercurial  poisoning.  Moreover  the  action  of  the  acid 
nitrate  of  silyer  may  be  immediately  arrested,  when  it  is  applied  to  organs 
where  its  extension  might  become  prejudicial,  as  on  the  eye,  the  yagina,  and 
in  the  throat,  for  in  these  cases  the  injection  of  a  solution  of  chloride  of  sodi- 
mn  renders  it  instantly  inert  The  acid  nitrate  of  silver  may  be  employed  ad- 
vantageously in  cases  of  chancre,  in  simple  and  gangrenous  ulcers,  in  some 
wounds,  in  lupus,  in  epithelial  tumors,  and  cancroid  ulcers ;  in  ulcerations  of 
the  neck  of  the  uretus,  and  granular  aflfections  of  the  cervix  uteri  and  of  the 
conjunctiva. — Bulletin  Genial  Therapeutique^  Feb.  15th,  1859. 


American  Pharmaceutical  Convention. 

EIGHTH  ANNUAL  MEETINO. 

The  American  Pharmaceutical  Association  commenced  its  eighth  annual  ses* 
sion,  at  the  rooms  of  the  Massachusetts  college  of  pharmacy,  in  Temple  Place, 
on  September  13th.  This  association  embraces  the  Massachusetts,  New  Yori^:, 
Philadelphia,  Maryland  and  Cincinnati  colleges  of  pharmacy,  and  the  pharma- 
ceutical associations  of  St  Louis  and  Washington.  The  meeting  last  year  waa 
held  at  the  Smithsonian  Institute,  Washington. 

The  association  has  nearly  three  hundred  members,  embracing  many  of  tho 
leading  apothecaries  in  the  principal  cities  and  towns  of  the  Union.  The  ob- 
ject of  the  association  is  to  improve  and  regulate  the  drug  market — prevent 
the  adulteration  of  drugs— establish  friendly  relations  between  druggists,  etc. 
Any  respectable  druggist  may  become  a  member,  by  election,  and  the  pay- 
ment of  a  yearly  contribution  of  $2. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  Robert  Battey,  of  Rome,  Ga.,  one  of  the^ 
vice  presidents,  in  the  absence  of  the  president. 

On  motion,  Alfred  B.  Taylor,  of  Philadelphia,  was  appointed  temporary 
secretary. 

The  Chair  appointed  Messrs.  John  Meakim,  of  New  York,  James  S.  Mel- 
vin,  of  Boston,  and  Israel  J.  Ghrahame,  of  Baltimore,  a  committee  on  credentials. 

S.  S.  Garrigues,  of  Philadelphia,  presented  the  following  names  of  members 
elected  by  the  executive  committee  during  the  recess : — 

M.  S.  McConville,  Worcester,  Mass. ;  Raymond  Graverend,  New  York  dtyj 
L.  Terry,  New  York  city;  Henry  Steele,  New  York  city ;  Wm.  Wright,  Jr., 
New  York  city ;  James  H.  Anderson,  New  York  city ;  H.  Wandoner  Bedford^ 
New  York  ciiy ;  Alfred  J.  Shipley,  New  York  city;  James  T.  King,  Middle- 
town,  N.  Y. ;  J.  Hartley  Bunn,  Lynchburg,  Va. ;  R  H.  Lane,  Newberry,  C» 
H.,  S.  C;  J.  F.  Gross  Klaus,  Navarree,  Ohio;  C.  F.  Gove  Collins,  Beloit, 
Wis. ;  Louis  D.  Lanozweert,  San  Francisco,  Cal. ;  Charles  Hodge,  San  Fran- 
cisco, Cal. ;  George  S.  Dickey,  San  Francisco,  CaL  ;  G^rge  E.  Hinckley,  San 
Francisco,  CaL ;  Albert  J.  Calder,  Providence,  R.  L 

Mr.  Samuel  M.  Colcord,  of  Boston,  moved  that  a  reporter  be  employed  to 
assist  the  recording  secretary,  and  the  motion  was  adopted.  The  committee 
of  arrangements  were  authorized  to  secure  the  services  of  a  reporter  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  above  vote. 


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308  Ameiican  Phainnaceulical  Convmiiion. 

Mr.  Oolcord  also  announced  that  Mr.  Kimball,  of  the  Boston  Museum^  had 
furnished  a  package  of  tickets  to  that  place  of  amusement,  for  the  use  of  mem- 
bers of  the  convention.  The  invitation  of  Mr.  Kimball  was  accepted,  and  a 
vote  of  thanks  adopted. 

The  committee  on  credentials  reported  the  names  of  gentlemen  duly  ac- 
credited to  the  convention : — 

From  the  Massachusetts  College  of  Pharmacy. — Thos.  Restieaux,  William 
Brown,  George  W.  Parmenter,  Charles  H.  Price,  Eben  Blatchford. 

Xew  York  College  of  Pharmacy. — H.  T.  Kiersted,  Isaac  Coddington,  Wm. 
liegeman,  George  W.  Berrian,  Geo.  Thurber. 

Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy. — Dr.  W.  H.  Pile,  D.  S.  Jones,  Chas. 
Ellis,  Samuel  S.  Bunting,  Charles  Bullock. 

Maryland  College  of  Ph<irmaey. — James  Balmer,  Joseph  Roberts,  N.  H. 
Jennings,  A.  P.  Sharpe,  I.  J.  Grahame. 

Cincinnati  College  of  PJiarmacy, — Wm.  S.  Merrill,  E.  S.  Wayne,  W.  J.  M. 
Gordon,  John  C.  Parr,  William  B.  Homer. 

Washington  Pharmaceutical  Convention.— Joseph  W.  Nairn,  Jas.  N.  CallaD, 
Samuel  B.  Waite,  Joseph  B.  Moore,  John  Schwartz. 

St.  Louis  Pharmaceutical  Convention. — Eno  Sander,  William.  H.  Domin, 
James  O'Gallagher,  S.  D.  Handel,  William  B.  Parker. 

None  of  the  delegates  from  Cincinnati  or  St  Louis  were  present 

The  committee  read  a  letter  stating  the  reasons  why  the  delegates  elected 
for  St  Louis  were  not  present 

A  letter  was  also  read  from  Mr.  John  L.  Kidwell,  of  Georgetown,  D.  C,  the 
president  of  the  association,  regretting  his  inability  to  be  present 

It  was  moved  that  the  names  of  delegates  elected  by  the  St  Louis  pharma- 
ceutical society  be  included  in  the  list  of  delegates  of  this  convention,  and  the 
motion  was  adopted,  and  their  names  appear  in  the  list  above. 

A  letter  was  read  by  Mr.  Colcord,  of  Boston,  from  Eugene  L.  Massot,  presi- 
dent of  the  St  Louis  association,  tendering  a  cordial  invitation  to  the  American 
jftfifiociation  to  hold  their  next  annual  meeting  in  that  dty. 

A  letter  was  read  from  Wm.  J.  M.  Gordon,  of  Cincinnati,  a  delegate,  giving 
.ithe  reasons  for  his  absence  from  the  convention. 

Wm.  A.  Brewer,  of  Boston,  read  communications  from  the  Massachusetts 
Historical  Society,  from  John  P.  Bigelow,  in  behalf  of  the  trustees  of  the  city 
library,  and  from  N.  B.  Shurtleflf;  for  the  trustees  of  the  State  library,  inviting 
the  members  of  the  association  to  visit  tiieir  respective  rooms.  The  invitations 
were  accepted,  and  a  vote  of  thanks  unanimously  adq>ted. 

The  executive  committee  reported  the  following  names  of  persons  suitable 
to  be  elected  members  of  the  association : — 

A.  IL  Wilson,  PhlMMl.   !  M.  M.  DeLevis,  Chlcpfo.  i  J.  B.  W.  Nowlin  M.  D.,      F.  J.  Green,  MUlidgeTV, 

T  A  Lancaster,      "         C.  Pefferman,  Peru,  Ind.  l      Rome,  Ga.  ,      Ga. 

a1  F.  Neynaber,  /I  ^\  W.  £.  If»ck,  Vino«ine«.    |  W.  lI.JW^arncr,   -      ^    |  C, ^^^^J^'^^^^^^ 

J. 


U  T  SUlyman,  Col.  8.  C.   W.  F.  Clency,  Cincinnati.   B.  M.  Smith,  AtUnU,  Ga ,  O.  Tompking,  Boston. 
J  H  XdtenTMacon,  Ga.   J.  J.  Cook,  Lewiaton,  Me.  ]  R.  J.  Masaey,  M.D.,  "       Wanren  Tapley,  Lynn. 
W.  S.  Potts,  St.  Paut     1  B.  T.  Miller,  York,  Pa.     i  J.  A.  Taylor,  "       A.a  RamMy.  Cambrid'« 

Henry  C.  Morrte,   "  J.  T.Bamett,DanTiUe  Ky   W.  A.  Lan»dell,         "       I.  T.  Campbell,  a  Boston 

W  N«6rffaanL  M.  York.  (  J.  Stratton,  B'den^n.  KJ  \  P.  V.  WMte,  Charkstown '  Thonaa  Dott»er,  Boston. 
John  W.  ShcUdsn,    •»      I  H.  Q.  Mack,  N,  Y.  city.        Mass,  ,  Charles  CUrke,        " 


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American  Pharmaceutical  Convention.  Z09 

J.  T.  Brown^  Boston.        -  E.  A.  Morse,  Rutland,  Vt.  renccL  Mass.                       port,  Ma^M. 

O.  M.  Waebbom,  III.         Y.  O.  Blgelow,  Medford,  C.  L.  c£m,  Brandon,  Vt.  T.  H.  Harris,  BosioD. 

(with  E.  6.  L.  Faxon.)       Maw.  N.  R.  Scott,  Worcester,  G.  If.  Chapman,  Bofiton. 

T.  A.  Swectiier,  8.  Daa'u.   J.  L.  Burbank,  Worcest'r       Mass.  B.  K.  BUm,  Springfield, 

J.  F.  RoUiufi,  Concord,          Mass.  !  N.  S.  Harlov,  Bangor  !^Ie       Mass. 

N.  H.                               J.  H.  Thacher,  Ports-  U  G.  Dodge,  Boston,  Ms.  N.  Dlckerman,  Jr.,  W.v 

Julias  Cene,          '*          i     mouth,  N.  H.  F.  K.  PhBlipi*,  K.  Boston.       terbury,  Conn. 

F.  Dutcber,  St.  Albans, Vt  L.  Babo,  Boston,  Mass.  W.  D.  Miller,  Boston,  Ms. ,  J.  French,  Boston,  Mass. 
J.  B.  Arnold,  Fitchborg.   J.  G.  Steele,  San  Pranc'o.  A.  G.  Weeks,          "  J.  Morgan,  Concord  N.IF. 

0.  A-  KhnbaU,  llaverhUI.   C.  E.  Hinckley,     "  ;  Wm.  J.  CuUer,       "  L.  L.  Ducher,  St.  Alban's 
M.  H.  Glceson,  Boston.    ,  Wm.  If.  Keith,      *»            E,  WaWo  Cutler,    "  Vermont. 

G.  Moore,  Gt.  Falls,  N.H.  1  J.  C.  Howe,  Boston,  Ms. '  B.  F.  Brown,           "  J.  P.  Cook,  I^ewwton,  Me 
W.Baker,  Bnmuw'k,  Me.   Ed.  G.  Frothhigham,  Jr.,    W.  F.  Phillips,  PortUn«l,  T.  Wheeler,  Bosura,  Ms. 

1.  II.  Rollins,  Concord.    !     HaverlilU,  Mass.  Me.  Edmund  Dana,  Jr.  Port- 
C.  E.  Field,  Chelsea,  Ms.   H.  M.  Whitney,  Law-   ;  A.  R.  Bailey,  Cambridge-       land,  Me 

The  convention  balloted,  and  the  gentlemen  on  the  lists  were  elected  by  a 
vote  of  thirty-seven  in  the  affirmative,  and  none  in  the  negative. 

The  matter  of  names  of  other  parties,  who  had  been  proposed  as  members^, 
was  next  taken  up.  It  was  explained  that  these  parties  were  not  eligible  under* 
the  constitation,  although  they  were  worthy  men,  some  of  them  chemists,  and 
dealers  in  eclectic  medicines. 

Mr.  Krewer,  of  Boston,  moved  to  refer  the.«e  names  again  to  the  executive 
committee. 

Mr.  Edward  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  thought  dealers  in  eclectic  medicines 
were,  or  should  be  eligible  as  pharmaceutists. 

The  chairman  remarked  that  this  was  a  matter  of  much  importance,  and  de- 
manded careful  attention. 

Mr.  Parrish  said  he  was  opposed  to  letting  in  quack.s,  but  chemists  and 
many  other  useful  men  of  practical  knowledge  we"e  kept  out  by  the  con- 
stitution. 

Henry  T.  Cummings,  of  Portland,  Maine,  was  in  fav,)r  of  admittinj^;  all  per- 
sons properly  advanced  in  pharmacy,  but  the  selectii-n  from  chemists,  etc., 
should  be  as  careful  as  possible. 

Mr.  Charles  Ellis,  of  Philadelphia,  thought  the  rules  should  be  altered,  be- 
fore admitting  a  new  class  of  men  to  the  society. 

Mr.  Thomas  llollis,  of  Boston,  thought  the  society  would  le  strengthened 
by  the  addition  of  scientific  men. 

Mr.  Wm.  Procter,  Jr.,  of  Philadelphia,  thought  something  should  be  done 
to  relieve  the  committee  of  unpleasant  responsibility. 

The  motion  to  refer  these  names  back  to  the  executive  committee  then  pre- 
vailed. 

Mr.  Colcord,  of  Boston,  wished  to  know  whether  the  convention  had  a  right 
to  inquire  if  delegates  to  the  convention  from  the  subordinate  societies  were 
not  chemists,  or  men  of  that  character. 

Mr.  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  thought  the  convention  had  no  right  to  inquire 
the  standing  or  occupation  of  delegates. 

The  calling  of  the  roll  of  members  being  in  order,  Mr.  Colcord,  of  15oston, 
suggested  that  it  be  oalled  from  the  book  of  signatures  present. 

That  list  was  accordingly  read,  and  seventy-nine  gentlemen  answered  to 
their  names. 


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810 


American  Pharmaceutical  Convention: 


KKW  TORR. 

Fred.  Hale,  N.  Y.  clt^'. 
B.  K.  Squibb,        " 
P.  W.  Bedford,     " 
A,  Cushman,       " 
J.  Coddington,     " 
John  D.  DIx,        " 
H.  T.  Kiersted,    " 
John  Meakim,      " 
H.  HavUand,        " 
O.W.Berrlan,Jr" 
Geo.  Thurber,      " 
Wm.  HcgemAn,    ** 
G.  H-DeLaVergnc,  " 
J.  T.  King,  Middletown. 
A.  S.  Lane,  Rochester. 

'"•^  MASSACHUSETTS. 

T.  S.  Harris,  Bofton. 
G.  H.  Chapman  " 
H.  W.Lincoln    " 
H,  D.  Foule,       •* 
J.  Gordon,  ** 

J.  P.  Melvln,       " 
C.H.Lyon,  Jr.   " 

.KORTn  CAROLINA.— R. 


A.  Boyden,  ^too. 
M.  H.  Gleason,  " 
G.  D.  Tonne,  " 
M.  D.  Colby,  " 
ThoB.  Doleber,  " 
G.  W.  Woodbridge,  " 
J.  T.  Campbell,  ^» 

D.  Henchman,  *' 
T.  Hollis,  '» 
W.  A.  Brewer,  " 
S.  M.  Colcord,    " 

C.  T.  Carney,  " 
A.  P.  Welaar,  •• 
J.  Emerton,  Salem. 
J.  Buck,  Chelsea. 

H.  Thayer,  Cambridge. 

E.  Blatchford.  Rockport. 
M.  8.  HcCunrille,  Wor'r. 

D.  Scott,  Worcester. 

E.  G.  Frothingham,  Jr., 
HaverhilL 

A.  8.  Jones,  Newburyp't. 

PENKSTLVAICIA. 

Chas.  Ellis,  Philadelphia. 
B.Saunder8,  C.  HUl. 


I  W.  Procter,  Jr.,  Philad. 
E.  Parrlsh, 

I  F.  L.  John,  " 

i  F.  0.  Hill,  *• 

Ambrose  Smith,   ** 
W.  IL  Pile,  '* 

D.  a  Jones,  " 

a  a  Bunting,        " 

I  Chas.  BuUock,      " 
a  8.  Garrignes,     " 

I  A.  B.  Taylor,       " 
L.  Neal,  Lancaster. 

'  UARTLAXn. 

1 1.  J.  Grahame,  Baltimore 
I  N.  R  Jennings,      " 
1  H.  A-  Elliott,  " 

Jas.  Bahner,  ** 

J.  Roberts,  " 

)  A.  P.  Sharp,  •* 

MAUTB. 

1  H.  T.Cummlngs,Portl'nd 
j  T.  R.  Philbrick,      " 
!  J.  G.  Cook,  Lewiston. 


KEW  BAJfPSHnUC 

0.  A.  TolRs,'  DoTcr, 
0.  G.  Dort,  Keene. 
J.  Morgan,  Concord. 

Yermoht. 
E.  A.  Moore,  Rutland. 

CONKBCnCUT. 

H.  F.  Fish,  Waterbury. 

RHODE  ISLAKD. 

R.  J.  Taylor,  Newport. 

TBVNESSKS. 

J.  Jackson,  Knoxville. 

XICHIGAK. 

Fred.  Steams,  Detroit. 

ILLIKOIS. 

E.  O.  Gale,  Ofaioago. 

NEW  /ERSET. 

J.  Stratton,  Bordentowa 

OBOBGLL 

R.  Battey,  Rome. 

F.  G.Greive,Mimdgev*e 


MiNiOEaoTA  ter.— J.  W.  CaUan,  Fairfoault. 


Reports  from  standing  committees  were  called  for,  but  few  of  the  committees 
reported.  It  was  decided  to  take  up  these  reports  this  (Wednesday)  forenoon 
for  discussion. 

Mr.  Brewer,  of  Boston,  presented  papers  received  through  the  president, 
Mr.  Kidwell,  of  Georgetown,  D.  C,  from  the  agricultural  bureau  of  the  Patent 
Office,  and  the  Department  of  the  Interior.  Among  them  was  the  following  let- 
ter from  ^*  Kit  Carson,*'  an  agent  who  had  been  requested  to  obtain  information 
respecting  medicinal  plants  in  use  by  the  Indians : — 

Utah  Agency,  Taos,  N.  M.,  June  15,  1859. 
'SiK. — Circular  from  your  office,  dated  April  80,  1869,  I  have  the  honor  to  ac- 
knowledge. The  only  reply  I  can  make  is  to  send  you  roots  and  herbs,  stating 
for  what  used  by  the  Indians.  The  names  are  only  known  to  themselves. 
They  are  gathered  in  the  mountains.  The  samples  I  send  are  used  by  the 
•Jicharilla  Apaches.  I  will  send,  from  time  to  time,  such  as  are  brought  to  me 
by  the  Indians.  They  are  found  in  latitudes  87**,  38°,  and  39°.  Obtained  in 
small  quantities,  seven  hundred  miles  from  navigable  streams,  the  only  facility 
*of  sending  them  to  market  is  on  pack  mules. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  very  respectfully, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

C.  Cabson,  Ind.  Agt 
Hon.  Com.  Indian  Affairs,  Washington,  D.  C. 

A  letter  was  received,  accompanying  the  Swiss  Journal  of  Pharmacy,  and 
asking  for  an  exchange  of  plants,  from  E.  Ringk,  vice-president  of  the  Swiss 
Apothecaries*  Association. 

The  executive  committee  then  made  their  annual  report,  through  their  chair- 
man, S.  S.  Oarrigues,  of  Philadelphia,  and  the  report  was  accepted.  The  re- 
port states  that  the  Journal  of  Proceedings  of  last  year  contains  four  hundred 
4ind  eighty-eight  pages,  and  cost  nine  hundred  dollars.  Many  copies  had  been 
distributed  and  sold,  and  others  remain  on  hand.     The  association  had  £uled 


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American  Pharmaceutical  Oonveniian.  811 

to  obtain  a  charter  from  Congress,  and  this  subject  the  convention  referred 
back  to  the  committee. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  appointed  a  committee  to  nominate  officers 
for  the  ensuing  year : — H.  W.  Lincoln,  Boston ;  W.  Hegeman,  New  York ; 
Charles  Bullock,  Philadelphia;  Israel  J.  Grahame,  Baltimore;  J.  M.  Cullan, 
Washington ;  C.  A.  Tuflfts,  New  Hampshire ;  Ed.  Parrish,  Philadelphia ;  A. 
P.  Sharpe,  Maryland.    They  will  report  this  forenoon. 

The  convention  then  adjourned  till  nine  o^ clock  the  following  morning. 

SECOND   DAT. 

The  convention  was  called  to  order  at  half-past  nine  o'clock,  and  the  minutes 
of  the  preceding  day  were  read  and  approved. 

Several  members  of  the  association  not  present  yesterday  came  in  and  regis- 
tered their  names. 

EL  0.  Gale  appeared  as  a  delegate  from  the  Chicago  college  of  pharmacy. 

The  executive  committee  nominated  the  following  gentlemen,  and  they  were 
elected  members  of  the  association : — 

J.  Lindley  Pyle,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  Cyrus  Pyle,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  Uriah  B. 
Wilson,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. ;  Samuel  P.  Duffield,  Detroit,  Mich. ;  F.  F.  Mayer, 
New  York ;  Joseph  T.  Brown,  Boston ;  Benjamin  Proctor,  Lynn ;  Samuel  A. 
Smith,  Newburyport;  M.  D.  Colby,  Boston;  George  Woodbridge,  Boston; 
R.  J.  Taylor,  Newport,  R  L  ;  Joel  S.  Ome,  Cambridge ;  Francis  D.  Hardy, 
Jr.,  Cambridge ;  Wm.  T.  S.  Cardy,  Chelsea ;  W.  Atwood,  Portand,  Me.;  Luther 
Atwood,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  Corydon  E.  Tyler,  New  York;  Samuel  Noyes, 
New  Haven,  Conn. ;  James  M.  B.  McNary,  Hartford,  Conn. ;  H.  II.  Burring- 
ton.  Providence,  R.  L 

Dr.  Henry  T.  Cummings,  of  Portland,  presented  the  following: — 

Vot^y  That  the  name  or  title  of  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Association 
shall  not  be  employed  by  any  of  the  members  thereof,  upon  signs  or  labels, 
or  in  advertisements,  in  a  manner  to  compromise  the  association  in  respect  to 
its  approbation  or  endorsement  of  any  species  of  nostrums  or  proprietary  pre- 
parations. 

This  was  withdrawn,  to  give  place  to  other  business. 

The  committee  on  nominations  reported  the  following  list  of  officers  for  the 
ensuing  year : — 

President — Samuel  M.  Colcord,  Boston  Mass.  l8t  Vice  President, — ^Wm. 
Procter,  Jr.,  Philadelphia.  2d.— Joseph  Roberts,  Baltimore,  dd — ^Edwin  0. 
Gale^  Chicago.  Recording  Secretary, — Charles  Bullock,  Philadelphia.  Cor* 
responding  Secretary, — ^Wm.  Hegeman,  New  York.  Treasurer. — Ashael  Boy- 
den,  Boston,  Mass.  Executive  Committee, — Chas.  F.  Carney,  Boston;  Chas. 
A*  Tuffts,  Dover,  N.  H. ;  S.  S.  Garrigues,  Philadelphia;  George  W.  Berrian, 
Jr.,  New  York ;  Charles  Bullock,  Philadelphia,  Committee  on  Progress  cf 
Pharmacy, — ^Edward  Parrish,  Philadelphia;  Alpheus  P.  Sharp,  Baltimore; 
Eugene  S.  Massot,  St  Louis ;  James  N.  Callan,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  William 
Hegeman,  New  York. 

The  persons  above  named  were  unanimously  elected. 


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812  American  Pharmaceatical  Convention. 

Samuel  M.  Colcord,  of  Boston,  the  president  elect,  was  conducted  to  the  chair 
by  a  committee  appointed  for  that  purpose,  afler  a  brief  and  able  address  from 
the  retiring  chairman,  Robert  Battey,  of  Rome,  Ga.  He  could  not  speak  au- 
thoritatively of  the  progress  of  the  association,  but  the  large  number  of  the  num- 
bers who  answered  to  their  names,  yesterday,  and  the  addition  of  new  members^ 
showed  an  increasing  interest  in  its  success. 

He  spoke  of  the  necessity  of  securing  a  charter,  and  of  having  the  Associa- 
tion represented  in  the  next  convention  for  the  revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia. 
The  difficulty  in  deciding  who  shall,  and  who  shall  not  be  admitted  as  mem- 
bers, was  alluded  to,  and  the  careful  consideration  of  the  subject  recommended. 
He  suggested  that  the  constitution  might  be  altered,  so  as  to  allow  o^  the 
election  of  associate  members  from  among  the  chemists  and  similar  professiofia. 

Upon  taking  the  chair,  Mr.  Colcord  spoko  of  the  manner  of  electing  prefii- 
dents  from  the  place  where  conventions  are  held,  as  having  the  effect  to  debar 
from  that  office  valuable  members  living  in  small  places,  and  then  proceeded 
to  give  a  brief  history  of  the  organization. 

The  committee  took  a  brief  recess,  and  upon  coming  to  order  again,  the 
other  officers  of  the  convention  took  the  places  Assigned. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Meakim,  of  New  York,  the  thanks  of  the  convention  weie 
tendered  to  Dr.  Robert  Battey,  for  his  address,  and  to  the  secretary  pro  Uin,y 
Mr.  Taylor,  for  his  services. 

It  was  decided  to  make  the  report  of  the  committee  on  home  adulterations 
the  first  business  of  the  afternoon  session., 

A  committee  was  appointed  to  take  into  consideration  the  order  of  business, 
acceptance  of  invititions,  «S:c,,  as  follows : — Thomas  Ilollis,  of  Boston  ;  Stratton^ 
of  Philadelphia,  and  Bunting",  of  New  Jersey. 

Wm.  Procter,  Jr.,  of  Philadelphia,  from  the  committee  on  the  jjrogress  of 
pharmacy,  presented  a  long  report,  which  gives  a  briefstatemcnt  of  disco veries^ 
Ac,  and  states  what  authorities  can  be  referred  to  for  full  particulars.  The 
report  also  contains  brief  accounts  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Philadelphia,  New 
York,  and  Massachusetts  colleges  of  pharmacy,  and  complains  of  the  lack  of 
interest  in  the  association  in  New  England,  The  Cincinnati  college  has  done 
but  little,  and  the  Richmond  college  has  abandoned  the  field.  The  Washing- 
ton college  has  made  little  or  no  efforts  at  teaching,  and  no  reports  have  been 
made  from  St.  Louis  and  San  Francisco. 

A  new  college  has  been  established  at  Chicago.  Several  new  phannaceuti- 
eal  journals  have  been  established  during  the  year,  and  some  valuable  wcfAs 
upon  pharmacy  published.  Insufficient  information  in  reference  to  the  im- 
portation of  drugs  has  been  received.  The  demand  for  isinglass  is  growing 
less;  twenty-four  thousand  cases  of  cod  liver  oil  are  obtained  annually,  be- 
tween Boston  and  Eastport.  Over  five  thousand  cases  of  castor  oil,  of  twenty 
gallons  each,  are  received  in  Boston  yearly,  and  movements  are  in  progress  to 
have  castor  beans  imported  direct  from  Calcutta. 

The  business  of  manufacturing  chemicals  is  increasing  in  Baltimore,  Phila- 
delphia, New  York  and  Boston.     The  report  closes  with  noticing  the  decease 


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American  Pharmaceutical  Convention.  313 

of  several  eminent  pharmaceutists  during  the  past  year. 

The  report  was  accepted  and  referred  to  the  executive  committee  with  lull 
powers. 

Mr.  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  remarked  that  it  would  be  useful  to  have  re- 
ports of  importations  published,  and  it  was  suggested  by  Mr.  J.  D.  Dlx,  of  New 
York,  that  upon  a  proper  representation  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  they 
could  obtain  authority  to  get  the  necessary  information. 

After  some  further  remarks  by  Messrs.  Parrish,  Jones  and  Procter,  of  Phila- 
delphia, the  chairman,  and  Mr.  Stearns,  of  Detroit,  on  motion  of  Mr.  Procter, 
it  was  voted  to  refer  this  subject  to  a  special  committee,  to  report  to  morrow. 
The  committee  consists  of  Messrs.  Dix,  of  New  York,  Brewer,  of  Boston,  and 
Procter,  of  Philadelphia.  • 

Mr.  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  moved  that  a  special  committee  be  appointed 
to  act  upon  the  subject  of  obtaining  an  act  of  incorporation  from  Congress. 

The  chairman  believed  it  was  proper  to  have  an  act  of  incorporation,  so  that 
the  association  can  sue  and  be  sued — so  that  the  committee  on  adulterationB 
can  publish  names  without  being  personally  responsible. 

Mr.  Stratton,  of  New  Jersey,  thought  if  they  had  an  act  of  incorporation 
they  would  bo  more  likely  to  receive  donations"  from  individuals,  or  from 
Congress. 

The  motion  of  Mr.  Parrish  prevailed,  and  the  committee  will  be  appointed 
at  the  afternoon  session. 

Prof.  Procter,  of  Philadelphia,  submitted  a  motion  for  the  appoiiitment  of  a 
committee  to  examine  specimens  of  drugs,  kc,  sent  to  the  convention.  Carried. 

It  was  voted  to  hold  an  evening  session,  at  half  past  seven  o'clock. 

At  one  o'clock  the  convention  adjoumed  till  three  o'clock. 

SECOND    DAY. AITERNOON    SESSION. 

The  convention  wa.^  called  to  order  at  half-past  three  o'clock,  by  the  presi- 
dent, Mr.  Colcord,  of  Boston. 

Mr.  Colcord,  who  was  the  treasurer  the  past  year,  submitted  a  report,  show- 
ing that  the  cash  on  hand  at  this  time  is  $231.  The  association  will  have 
about  $700  towards  publishing  the  proceedings  of  the  present  convention. 
Messrs.  Charles  Ellis,  of  Philadelphia,  John  Meakim,  of  New  York,  and  Henry 
Haviland,  were  appointed  a  committee  to  audit  the  treasurer's  acconut. 

The  Chair  appointed  the  following  committees : — 

To  Examine  Specimens. — ^Messrs.  Smith,  of  Philadelphia,  Thurber,  of  New 
York,  Procter,  of  Philadelphia,  and  Sharp,  of  Baltimore. 

To  petition  Congress  for  an  Act  of  Incorporation. — James  N.  Callan,  Wash- 
ington; E.  II.  Rollins,  Concord,  N.  H. ;  W.  A.  Brewer,  Boston;  R.  il.  Stabler 
Vid  J.  L.  Kid  well,  of  the  District  of  Columbia. 

The  following  persons  were  elected  members  of  the  association : — Chas.  T. 
Pollard,  Maysville,  Cal. ;  Samuel  Kidder,  Jr.,  Lowell ;  and  George  C.  Hunt, 
Jr.,  Frederick  ton,  N.  B.  The  president  remarked  that  the  last  named  is  the 
first  member  out  of  the  limits  of  the  United  States. 

A  communication  was  received  from  1).  J.  Brown,  of  the  U.  S.  Patent  Office, 


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814  American  Pharmaceutical  Convention. 

suggesting  that  a  committee  be  appointed  to  memorialize  Congress  for  an  ap- 
propriation to  defray  the  expenses  of  attempting  to  raise  medicinal  plants  not 
natives  of  this  country.     The  communication  was  laid  upon  the  table. 

The  committee  on  the  president's  address  rep(H*ted  an  amendment  to  the 
constitution,  so  as  to  allow  chemists  to  become  members  of  the  association. 
The  amendment  lies  over  imder  the  rules. 

Mr.  Chas.  T.  Carney,  of  Boston,  from  the  committee  on  home  adulterations, 
then  submitted  a  report,  which  we  publish  in  another  place. 

At  the  close  of  the  reading  of  the  report,  the  convention  manifested  its  ap- 
proval by  continued  applause.  The  report  was  referred  to  the  executive  com- 
mittee. 

Aii  invitation  was  recived  to  hold  the  next  conventton  in  New  York,  and 
another  to  hold  it  in  Columbia,  S.  C. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  Dr.  Charles  T.  Jackson  was  in- 
vited to  take  a  seat  in  the  convention.  He,  with  several  members,  made  re- 
marks upon  the  subject  of  adulteration,  a  brief  abstract  of  which  we  give  at 
the  close  of  the  report  of  the  committee  on  that  subject 

An  invitation  was  received  from  Mr.  Cutting,  of  the  Aquarial  Garden,  to 
visit  that  exhibition,  and  the  thanks  of  the  association  were  tendered  therefor. 

At  six  o'clock  the  convention  adjourned  till  half-past  seven. 

EVENING  SESSION. 

Upon  the  table,  in  the  evening,  were  several  specimens  of  plants,  received 
from  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  at  Washington,  including  camphor  and 
cork  oak  trees,  shrubs  of  green  and  black  tea,  wild  chamomile,  and  wax  and 
soap  plants.  They  were  objects  of  much  interest  to  the  members  of  the  as- 
sociation. 

Upon  coming  to  order,  at  seven  and  a  quarter  o'clock,  a  committee  was 
appointed  to  select  a  list  of  subjects  for  next  year's  convention.  Wm.  Procter, 
Jr.,  Frederick  Steams,  Charles  T.  Carney,  and  Israel  J.  Grahame. 

Dissertations  from  members  were  next  read,  as  follows: — 

Edwin  0.  Gale,  of  Chicago. — "  What  is  the  character  of  the  rosin  weed  of  the 
Western  prairies  ?"  He  thinks  it  qan  be  substituted  for  mastic  for  chewing; 
it  makes  a  fine  varnish,  is  a  sure  cure  for  heaves  in  horses,  allays  irritation  of 
the  lungs ;  the  prairies  abound  with  it,  but  it  is  tedious  to  collect ;  it  is  not 
known  whether  it  can  be  cultivated,  and  for  the  present,  at  least,  it  must  be 
an  expensive  article. 

Joseph  Roberts,  of  Baltimore. — "The  sediment  deposited  by  wine  of  ipecac- 
uanha." He  thinks  the  sediment  not  peculiar  to  wine  of  ipecacuanha,  but  is 
found  in  other  extracts,  and  that  it  is  deposited  by  the  breaking  up  of  the 
chemical  composition.  The  deposit  is  so  slight  as  to  have  but  little  effect  upon 
the  quality  of  the  medicine. 

Edward  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia. — "The  deteriorating  of  pharmaceutical 
preparations  by  keeping.  The  causes  of  injury,  and  the  means  of  preventing 
it" 


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American  Pharmaceutical  Cbnvention.  315 

Edward  Parrish. — ^A  paper  from  James  O^Qallagher,  of  St  Louis,  giving  a 
synopsis  of  the  history  of  pharmacy. 

Dr.  E.  R.  Squibb,  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. — "  Mechanical  preparation  of  mercury, 
with  a  new  mercurial  machine." 

At  nine  and  three-quarters  o*clock,  the  association  adjourned  to  nine  o'clock 
Thursday  morning. 

The  following  were  the  remarks  of  Mr.  Coloord  upon  taking  the  chair  as 
president  of  the  association : — 

Gentlemen- Associates. — ^The  honor  you  have  conferred  by  electing  me  to 
preside  over  your  deliberations,  I  accept  with  reluctance,  on  the  score  of  my  own 
personal  disqualifications,  though  as  a  compliment  in  giving  the  office  to  Bos- 
ton, and  as  the  highest  compliment  from  the  association  to  me,  I  value  it  highly, 
as  reposing  confidence  in  one  of  your  oldest  members,  who  has  always  been 
ready  to  offer  his  views  for  what  they  are  worth  at  a  period  in  your  history 
when  there  was  no  precedent  to  follow,  and  no  landmarks  to  guide — at  a  period 
when  a  mistake  in  our  organization  might  have  proved  fatal  to  the  realization 
of  our  hopes. 

Happily,  those  questions  of  a  perplexing  character  that  must  necessarily 
arise  and  be  settled,  in  the  first  efferts  of  our  organization,  in  the  general  plan 
of  our  operations,  have  been  met  and  settled ;  and  it  must  be  gratifying  to  you 
as  to  me,  that  it  has  been  done  without  jar  or  discord — that  all  have  been  united 
in  one  common  object — to  promote  the  advancement  of  pharmaceutic  skill  and 
science  throughout  the  land.  To  attain  this  end,  we  have  thrown  our  doors 
wide  open  to  welcome  all  well-wishers  to  our  profession  to  unite  with  us  to  re- 
ceive whatever  of  good  we  have  to  impart,  and  to  do  what  they  may  for  the 
benefit  of  our  common  cause. 

How  different  are  the  circumstances  under  which  we  meet  to  day,  our  eighth 
anniversary,  to  what  was  our  first  meeting,  with  but  nine  members,  strangers. 
An  imperative  necessity  existed  for  associated  effort  to  regulate  and  improve 
our  profession.  "We  then  met  without  confidence  in  ourselves,  and  under  a 
still  greater  embarrassment  of  having  no  leaders  in  our  labors  ;  strangers  by 
reputation  even  to  our  distant  brethren,  how  could  we  look  with  confidence  to 
their  support  in  the  general  apathy  which  all  knew  hung  like  an  incubus  over 
all  ranks  in  our  line  of  business. 

I  have  said  that  an  imperative  necessity  existed  for  such  an  organization,  and 
that  I  can  give  as  the  only  reason  why  we  exist  All  other  trades  and  pro- 
fessions have  their  organizations  for  associated  efforts,  and  as  it  is  the  general 
average  of  varied  talent  and  ideas  that  make  the  unit  nearest  perfection,  so  we 
shall  find  it ;  every  one  has  a  mission  to  perform  as  well  to  his  fellow  as  to 
himself.  There  is  no  one  so  humble  in  our  ranks  but  can  add  something  of 
value  to  our  common  stock.  Then  let  us  each  lay  aside  excess  of  modesty  as 
well  as  ostentation,  and  join  head  and  heart  in  the  work  before  us. 

It  is  with  these  views  and  with  these  feelings  that  I  accept  the  office  with 
which  you  have  honored  me — not  because  I  feel  that  you  have  made  the  wisest 
selection,  and  grave  doubts  that  you  have  made  a  judicious  one — ^but  as  no  one 
can  tell  his  capabilities  until  they  have  made  the  trial,  and  relying  upon  your 


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816  American  Pharmaceutical  Gonveniion. 

generous  support  and  kind  forbearance,  I  can  only  promise  my  beet  efforts  for 
facilitating  business,  as  well  as  for  your  general  comfort  and  happiness  while 
you  r%main  in  Boston. 

And  I  feel  sure  that  while  I  eicpress  myself  personally  at  your  disposal,  I  do 
but  express  the  sentiments  of  the  Massachusetts  college  of  pharmacy,  as  well 
as  the  drug  trade  of  Boston. 

And  I  can  but  hope  that  you  will  consider  us,  individually  and  collectively, 
as  a  committee  of  the  whole  raised  for  your  especial  convenience  during  your 
sojourn  with  us — and  make  use  of  us  accordingly. 

THIRD   DAY. 

The  convention  came  to  order  at  a  quarter  before  ten  o'clock,  at  the  call  of 
the  president,  Mr.  Colcord,  of  Boston. 

The  journal  of  yesterday  was  read  and  approved. 

Mr.  Charles  A.  Tuffts,  of  Dover,  of  N.  H.,  offered  resolutions  of  respect  for 
the  memory  of  Mr.  S.  P.  Peck,  of  Bennington,  Vt,  formerly  a  vice-president 
of  the  association. 

The  re5?olutions  were  adopted. 

The  subject  of  "resignations"  coming  up,  a  resolution  was  adopted,  author* 
izing  the  treasurer  to  accept  the  resignation  of  any  member,  upon  pa}-ment  of 
dues,  and  return  of  certificate,  after  remarks  by  the  president^  and  by  Dr. 
Squibl>,  of  Brooklyn,  Jones,  of  Philadelphia,  and  others. 

The  committee  on  weights  and  measures,  through  the  chainiian,  Mr.  A.  B. 
Taylor,  of  Philadelphifi,  made  a  lengthy  and  verj*  able  report  The  report 
says  that  all  persons  agree  upon  the  necessity  of  a  reform,  but  there  is  a  di- 
versity of  opinion  upon  the  best  method  of  affecting  it.  The  committee  speak 
of  the  adoption  of  a  decimal  system,  retaining  the  old  iianies.  They  explain 
the  French  system,  but  object  to  its  nomenclature,  with  its  scientific  jargon. 
There  are  objections  to  both  of  these  systems  which  it  is  difficult  to  overcome, 
unless  there  be  grafted  upon  them  a  system  of  halves  and  quarters.  The  new 
English  system  is  described  and  objected  to,  as  were  other  systems  in  use  in 
other  countries.  Tlie  report  explains  at  great  length  various  systems  and 
scales  of  nations,  and  recommended  a  new  .system.  The  report  was  referred 
to  the  executive  connnittee,  to  be  published  with  the  proceedings,  and  also  in 
a  separate  form. 

Mr.  Dix,  of  New  York,  said  the  people  of  France  were  becoming  familiar  to 
their  new  system  of  weights  and  measures,  and  he  believed  that  there  would 
soon  be  no  objection  to  it, 

Mr.  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  chairman  of  the  committee  on  the  revision  of 
the  Pharmacopoeia,  read  a  lengthy  report  recommending  the  transfer  of  arti- 
cles from  the  secondary  to  the  primary  list,  and  the  addition  of  new  articles — 
mostly  herbs — to  each  list.  Many  changes  are  reconmiended  in  the  formula 
of  medicinal  preparations. 

During  the  reading  of  this  report,  suggestions  and  observations  were  made 
by  several  members. 

Dr.  Squibb,  Mr.  Colcord,  Mr.  Parrish,  Prof.  Grahame,  Mr.  Dix,  Mr.  Meakim, 


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American  Pharynaceuiical  Convention,  317 

Mr.  Tufils,  Mr.  Ellis  and  others,  spoke  of  the  proper  specific  gravity  of  am- 
monia, the  difficulty  of  keeping  it,  and  the  cause  of  its  explosion. 

Some  inquiry  being  made  as  to  what  should  be  done  with  this  report,  the 
chair  suggested  that  delegates  be  appointed  to  the  National  Convention  for 
the  revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia,  to  present  it  there. 

llr.  Parrish  thought  it  should  be  sent  to  that  convention  without  being 
printed. 

Dr.  Squibb  believed  it  should  be  printed,  and  believed  the  committee  of  re- 
vision would  be  glad  to  avail  themselves  of  it.  He  was  not  afraid  of  the  pro- 
jceedings  making  too  large  a  volume. 

The  chair  entertained  similar  views,  and  thought  by  having  the  report 
printed,  the  value  of  its  suggestions  would  be  shown  by  experience. 

Mr.  Carney  alluded  to  the  benefit  that  had  been  derived  from  printing  of 
simikir  reports. 

Mr.  Meakim  thought  the  report  should  be  published  at  once  in  a  pamphlet 
form,  and  distributed  through  the  country. 

After  further  remarks  by  Messrs.  Procter,  Garrigucs,  and  Battey,  the 
report  was  referred  to  the  executive  committee,  to  publish  at  their  dis- 
cretion. 

The  convention  then  took  up  the  subject  of  the  place  for  holdijig  the  next 
convention;  invitations  having  been  received  from  Columbia,  8.  C;  Atlanta, 
Geo.;  New  York,  and  St.  Louis.  Dr.  Battey,  of  Rome,  Ga.,  spOke  in  favor  of 
Atlanta,  Gra. ;  Mr.  Callan  for  St.  Lodis ;  Messrs.  Coddington,  Procter,  Kiersted, 
Sqoibb  and  Meakim,  for  New  York  ;  and  the  chairman  in  favor  of  migrating 
from  place  to  place.     An  adjournment  was  had  without  coming  to  a  decision. 

AFTERNOON   SESSION. 

The  convention  came  to  order,  after  the  recess  at  four  o*dock. 

The  executive  committee  presented  the  names  of  the  following  pei-sous,  as 
candidates  for  membership,  and  they  were  elected : — James  Emerton,  Salem ; 
Wm.  H.  Ware,  Gloucester ;  James  A.  Gleason,  Samuel  H.  Woods,  and  Henry 
Warren,  Boston;  Rufiis  W.  Stevens,  Great  Falls,  N.  H. ;  A.  A.  Dana,  Provi- 
dence, R.  I. ;  B.  F.  Johnson,  Philadelphia ;  Lewis  Doane,  Baltimore. 

Mr.  Brewer,  from  the  committee  appointed  to  co-operate  with  the  agricultu- 
ral department  of  the  Patent  Office,  in  introducing  foreign  medicinal  plants, 
made  a  report,  covering  a  voluminous  correspondence  between  the  committee 
and  officers  connected  with  the  Patent  Office.  Several  plants  were  also  pre- 
sented, which  had  been  received  from  the  Patent  Office,  with  a  statement  of  the 
manner  of  germinating  and  cultivating  them.  The  correspondence  states  that 
efforts  are  being  made  to  introduce  the  tree  bearing  Peruvian  bark,  now  be- 
coming scarce  in  South  America.  It  also  gives  an  interesting  account  of  the 
eariy  use  of  the  Peruvian  bark.  The  correspondence  also  describes  several 
plants  used  for  medicinal  purposes  by  the  Cherokees,  many  of  them  unknown 
to  the  profession.     This  report  was  referred  to  the  executive  committee. 

The  Chair  appointed  the  following  committee  on  adulterations  for  the  en- 
suing year: — 


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318  Ainerican  Pharmaceutical  Convention. 

Charles  T.  Carney,  Boston;  I.  J.  Grahame,  Baltimore;  Charles  Bullock, 
Philadelphia;  A.  P.  Sharp,  Baltimore;  E.  R.  Squibb,  New  York;  E.  S. 
Wayne,  Cincinnati. 

Frederick  Hale,  of  New  York,  read  an  essay  on  fitting  up  and  ornamenting 
cb'ug  stores,  with  reference  to  convenience  and  good  taste. 

Ambrose  Smith,  of  Philadelphia,  read  a  paper  upon  the  decomposition  of 
oxide  of  silver  in  pill  matter. 

Prof.  Procter,  of  Philadelphia,  presented  a  paper  upon  the  obtaining  of 
polygalic  acid  from  senega,  describing  the  process  with  minuteness,  as  well  as 
the  manner  in  which  it  may  be  administered  as  a  medicine. 

It  was  reported,  in  answer  to  inquiries  made,  that  the  production  of  Spanish 
saffron,  (crocus  sativus)  in  this  country,  had  ceased  as  unprofitable. 

Prof.  Grahame,  of  Baltimore,  read  a  paper  on  the  best  means  of  keeping 
vegetable  extracts,  especially  those  from  narcotic  plants,  in  the  dispensing 
shop. 

S.  S.  Garrigues  read  a  paper  from  J.  M.  Maisch,  of  Philadelphia,  upon  ^e 
bark  of  the  cornus  florida. 

A  paper  from  Henry  A.  Tilden,  of  New  Lebanon,  N.  Y.,  upon  the  relative 
value  of  imported  and  indigenous  medicinal  plants,  was  presented. 

The  committee  appointed  for  that  purpose  reported  the  draft  of  a  communi- 
cation to  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  asking  for  permission  to  publish  lists 
of  importations  of  drugs,  &c  The  report  was  accepted,  and  it  was  ordered 
that  the  communication  be  forwarded  as  proposed. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Brewer,  of  Boston,  the  plants  received  from  the  Depart- 
ment of  the  Interior  were  put  in  care  of  Prof.  Gray,  of  the  Cambridge  bo- 
tanical garden,  for  the  benefit  of  the  public. 

The  feasibility  of  raising  arnica  plants  in  this  country,  was  discussed.  Mr. 
Dix,  of  New  York,  said  they  could  be  obtained  from  Germany  cheaper  than 
the  flowers  could  bo  picked  here,  if  the  fields  were  covered  with  them.  He 
could  obtain  the  seeds  for  any  person  who  was  desirous  to  see  the  plants 
growing. 

Alexander  Cushman,  of  New  York,  read  a  paper  upon  **  pepsin."  That  ob- 
tained from  the  stomach  of  pigs  he  prefers ;  the  French  prefer  that  from  the 
stomachs  of  sheep,  and  the  English  that  from  sheep  and  calves. 

At  about  seven  o'olock,  adjourned  till  nine  o'clock  Friday  morning. 

FOrKTH     DAY. 

The  convention  was  called  to  order  at  half-past  nine  o'clock,  by  Prof.  Proc- 
tor, of  Philadelphia,  one  of  the  vice-presidents,  in  the  absence  of  the  presi- 
dent, Mr.  Colcord,  of  Boston. 

Mr.  Henry  H.  Fish,  of  Waterbury,  Conn.,  offered  a  resolution  that  a  com- 
mittee be  appointed  to  consider  the  propriety  of  holding  alternate  sessions  in 
the  cities  of  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Boston,  Baltimore,  and  Washington, 
and  also  the  appointment  of  a  permanent  secretary  at  Washington. 

The  consideration  of  the  resolution  was  deferred. 


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Prof.  Procter  read  a  paper  upon  "  Improved  Formula  for  the  Fluid  Ex- 
tracts." 

The  following  resolution,  offered  by  Mr.  Parrish,  waa  adopted : — 

JKesohed^  That  the  subject  of  offering  prizes  for  scientific  and  other  essays 
of  merit,  to  be  read  at  the  next  annual  meeting,  be  referred  to  the  executive 
committee,  with  power  to  offer  such  prizes,  through  the  Pharmaceutical  Jour- 
nal, as  they  determine  upon. 

Dr.  Battey,  of  Georgia,  read  an  interesting  paper  on  the  production  of  sugar 
from  the  sorghum  mccharatum^  and  gave  a  history  of  its  culture  in  the 
United  States.  He  believes  that  under  favorable  circiunstances  the  proportion 
of  sugar  may  be  as  high  as  eighteen  per  cent.  The  soil,  season,  and  manner 
of  culture  have  great  effect  upon  the  quantity  and  quality  of  the  product 
The  cane  should  be  cut  when  green  and  succulent,  and  he  believes  the  syrup 
should  be  boiled  rapidly  and  without  stirring. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Charles  Ellis,  of  New  York,  it  was  resolved  to  give  an 
elegantly  bound  presentation  copy  of  Pareira^s  Materia  Medica  to  Prof  Wm. 
Procter,  Jr.,  for  his  valuable  researches  and  essay  upon  fluid  extracts. 

Mr.  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  read  a  paper  upon  mustards,  and  the  best  for- 
mula for  a  permanent  liquid  preparation  of  white  or  black  mustard,  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  mustard  plasters. 

S.  S.  Garrigues  made  some  remarks  upon  the  source  of  the  odor  of  vanilla, 
as  a  substitute  for  a  report  upon  that  subject. 

Mr.  Steams,  of  Detroit,  presented  volunteer  papers  upon  the  use  of  Cataw- 
ba brandy  and  wine,  in  pharmacy,  written  by  a  Mr.  Zimmerman,  of  Cincin- 
nati.    They  were  referred  to  the  executive  committee. 

The  subject  of  place  for  holding  the  next  session  came  up,  and  Dr.  Battey, 
of  Georgia,  said  it  was  apparent  that  the  majority  were  in  favor  of  New  York. 
He  was  willing  to  go  to  St  Louis  the  succeeding  year,  if  the  brethren  from 
that  place  would  meet  him  at  New  York  next  year. 

Mr.  Taylor,  of  Philadelphia,  offered  a  resolution,  deprecating  the  acceptance 
of  hospitalities  of  their  brethren  at  places  where  future  conventions  may  be 
held. 

Mr.  Parrish  seconded  the  resolve,  and,  after  speaking  of  the  generous  hos- 
pitality extended  to  them  in  Boston,  said  he  wanted  the  thing  to  stop  here,  so 
that  they  could  go  to.  small  places  without  encumbering  the  few  brethren 
there  with  the  burden  of  entertaining  them,  when  they  were  better  able  to 
entertidn  themselves. 

Mr.  Cushman,  of  New  York,  was  opposed  to  the  resolve,  and  thought  these 
entertainments  were  very  useful  in  making  members  acquainted  with  each 
other. 

Mr.  Grarrigues  expressed  similar  views,  and  the  resolve  was  supported  by 
Messrs.  Meakim  and  Squibb,  of  New  York ;  Battey,  of  Georgia,  and  Procter, 
of  Philadelphia. 

The  resolution,  having  been  amended,  was  laid  over  till  next  meeting. 

Mr.  Garrigues  presented  a  paper  from  J.  M.  Maisch,  of  Philadelphia,  upon 


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the  behavior  of  essential  oils  to  iodine  and  bromine,  which  was  referred  to 
the  executive  committee. 

The  executive  committee  presented  the  following  names  for  membership, 
and  they  were  elected: — John  J.  Tower,  of  Wilmington,  Del.,  and  E.  A.  Pond, 
of  Rutland,  Vt. 

Mr.  Cushman,  of  New  York,  presented  a  new  apparatus  for  applying  modi> 
cated  vapors  to  the  throat  and  lungs,  which,  from  its  form,  is  called  "  medi- 
cated cigar,"  accompanied  by  an  explanation  of  the  manner  of  its  use. 

It  was  voted  not  to  publish  the  paper,  as  the  "medicated  cigar"  is  pa- 
tented. 

Mr.  Coddington,  of  New  York,  read  a  paper  on.  the  probable  influence  of 
isomerism  on  the  therapeutic  power  of  substances. 

Dr.  Pyle,  of  Philadelphia,  presented  a  table  upon  the  specific  gravity  of 
water  at  various  temperatures. 

Prof.  Procter  presented  a  paper  from  F.  F.  Mayer,  of  New  York  (the  presi- 
dent in  the  chair),  upon  liquor  ferri  iodide,  and  the  tests  of  iodine. 

Prof.  Thachor  presented  specimens  of  a  plant  used  as  a  substitute  for  the 
true  arrow-root,  accompanied  by  a  statement  of  its  characteristic. 

Specimens  were  received  from  F.  C.  Hill,  of  Waltham,  of  cantharis,  col- 
lected this  morning.  After  some  conversation,  Mr.  Hill  promised  to  prepare  a 
paper  on  canthares,  for  the  next  convention,  with  a  view  of  ascertaining 
whether  they  can  be  substituted  for  Spanish  flies  for  commerce. 

A  list  of  subjects  to  be  investigated  next  year  was  presented  by  Prof  Proc- 
ter, by  a  committee  appointctl  for  that  purpose. 

Mr.  Ellis,  from  the  auditing  committee,  made  a  report  that  the  account  of 
the  treasurer  of  last  year  is  correct.  After  some  remarks  from  Mr.  Colcord, 
a  vote  of  thanks  was  pa.ssed  to  him  for  his  services  as  treasurer. 

The  subject  of  dropping  members  who  are  three  years  in  arrears  with  their 
dues  caused  some  discussion,  but  it  was  decided  to  let  the  matter  pass  as  it  is, 
— the  suspension  list  to  be  published  in  the  annual  list  of  the  treasurer. 

The  president  remarked  that  the  Patent  OlBBce  at  Washington  had  paid  the 
association  a  high  compliment  by  sending  Dr.  Chas.  T.  Jackson  to  this  con- 
vention as  the  bearer  of  papers  from  that  department. 

Mr.  Smith,  of  Baltimore,  from  the  committee  apointed  to  examine  specimens 
received  by  the  association,  made  a  report,  which  was  referred  to  the  execu- 
tive committee. 

The  subject  of  altering  the  constitution,  so  as  to  allow  chemists  to  become 
members  of  the  association  was  postponed  till  next  year. 

Mr.  Carney,  for  the  executive  committee  asked  for  instructions  in  reference 
to  publishing  reports  of  proceedings.  For  himself;  he  was  in  favor  of  publish- 
ing very  full  reports. 

Dr.  Squibb,  Mr.  Parrish,  Prof.  Procter,  Mr.  Hegeman,  and  othei*s  were  also 
in  favor  of  full  reports. 

The  president  suggested  that  there  was  insufficient  funds  to  publish  the 
proceedings  in  full,  and  the  executive  committee  would  find  themselves  In 
difficulty  when  they  began  to  look  about  for  a  publisher. 


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A  motion  of  Dr.  Squibb  to  assess  the  members  for  funds  to  publish  the 
proceedings,  was  voted  down,  and  a  resolution  presented  by  Mr.  Hegeman,  to 
nsk  for  contributions  for  that  purpose  was  adopted. 

Dr.  Battey,  of  Rome,  Ga.,  offered  a  resolution  which  was  adopted,  thanking 
the  Massachusetts  college  of  pharmacy  for  the  hospitalities  received  at  their 
hands. 

Mr.  Parrish,  of  Philadelphia,  offered  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  proprietors  of 
^pers  that  had  published  reports  of  proceedings,  for  their  courtesy,  and  to 
reporters  for  their  careful  reports.     Adopted. 

Mr.  Kiersted,  of  New  York,  offered  resolutions  of  thanks  to  the  president, 
secretary  and  treasurer,  which  were  adopted. 

It  was  voted  to  request  of  Dr.  Robert  Battey  a  copy  of  his  remarks  to  the 
-convention,  while  acting  as  chairman  ^r(>  tem.^  for  publication. 

The  president  was  authorized  to  appoint,  remodel,  or  fill  committees  in  the 
recess. 

The  Chair  expressed  his  thanks  for  the  courtesy  received  at  the  hands  of  the 
-convention ;  the  minutes  wore  approved,  and  at  three  o*clock  the  convention 
■adjourned  to  meet  in  New  York  in  September  next. 


Editorial. 

We  have  given  a  large  amount  of  space  to  the  proceedings  of  the  American 
Pharmaceutical  Association,  and  if  any  excuse  is  wanting  it  must  be  found 
in  the  value  of  this  Associatibn  to  every  Pharmaceutist,  and  indirectly  to  the 
Medical  Profession,  as  well  m  in  the  generally  interesting  character  of  its 
transactions.  *  -^ 

The  Association  has  now  reached  its  eighth  year,  and  some  estimate  can  be 
formed  of  the  growing  interest  in  its  aims  and  objects  from  the  fact  that  its 
Proceedings,  in  full,  will  now  occupy  about  1,000  pages  (having  grown  from  a 
mere  pamphlet),  containing  much  matter  of  great  practical  value  to  the  Phar- 
maceutical Profession.  The  Convention  was  largely  attended  by  practical 
men,  from  all  parts  of  the  country ;  and  the  reports  will  be  found  to  be  made 
up  mostly  from  careful  observation  and  experience. 

We  publish  all  that  wc  are  able  to  do  of  the  valuable  report  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Homo  Adulterations:  the  conclusion  will  be  given  in  our  next 
issue,  and  as  soon  as  possible  we  shall  give  a  digest  of  all  the  most  valuable 
reports  and  papei-s. 

It  is  important  that  every  apothecary  should  become  a  member  of  this 
Association,  and  thus  avail  himself  of  every  advantage  that  may  be  derived 
frx)m  concerted  effort  in  advancing  the  science  of  Pharmacy  in  our  country. 
The  expense  of  publishing  the  requisite  edition  of  the  Proceedings  may  ex- 
ceed the  immediate  ftmds  of  the  Society.  To  meet  this  want  voluntary  con- 
tributions would  be  acceptable,  as  well  as  the  immediate  payment  of  yearly 
■dues  and  remittances  to  the  Treasurer  for  copies  of  the  Proceedings  of  the 
last  Convention  and  those  of  previous  years.     No  pharmaceutist  can  make 


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322  EdUorml 

a  better  investment  than  by  supplying  himself  with  the  volumes,  as  complete 
as  may  be,  from  the  organization  of  the  Society. 

On  Thursday  evening,  Sept  15th,  the  Massachusetts  College  of  Pharmacy 
gave  a  complimentary  dinner  to  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Association, 
and  invited  guests,  at  the  American  House,  Thos.  Hollis,  President  of  the 
Massachusetts  College  of  Pharmacy,  presided. 

The  table  was  appropriately  ornamented,  and  the  bill  of  fare  embraced  all 
the  delicacies  of  the  season.  When  at  length  the  cloth  was  removed,  the 
President  welcomed  the  guests  to  the  banquet,  and  to  the  city  of  Boston,  and 
introduced  Mr.  W.  A.  Brewer,  of  Boston,  as  toast-master,  who  read  the  first 
regular  sentiment: — 

**  The  American  Pharmaceutical  AMsociation — ^Though  but  a  chlW  of  eight  simimers,  its  rapid  growth 
has  ^ren  it  the  proportions  of  a  giant.  May  its  benevolent  aims  and  professional  achievements  be  felt 
and  appreciated  tliroughout  tlie  vast  area  of  country  from  wtiich  its  members  converge  to  tliis  pleasant 
festival." 

Mr.  Colcord,  of  Boston,  the  President  of  the  American  Pharmaceutical  As- 
sociation, responded. 

2d  Sentiment  *'  Tlie  honored  Dead  of  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Association — Andrew  Q«yer, 
Benjamin  Oanavan,  Wm.  Thomas,  Henry  Steiner,  Silas  Whitehead,  Lewis  LehfUss,  C.  L.  Bache,  and  S. 
P.  Peck— .May  their  memories  be  ever  green,  and  their  professional  attainments  and  personal  virtues 
always  find  a  ready  mention  by  their  surviving  brethren."    [Drank  standing,  in  silence.] 

8d.  "  The  piuit  Presidents  of  the  American  Pharmaoeutlcal  AssoclaUon— Though  their  official  rela- 
tions have  ceased,  their  interest  in  our  affabs,  we  are  assured,  will  never  cease  while  time  with  them 
shall  last" 

Mr.  Meakim,  of  New  York,  responded. 

4th.  "  Pharmaceutical  Knowledge  and  Pharmaceutical  Ethics — May  their  combined  force  elevate 
the  profession  and  benefit  mankind." 

Mr.  Henry  D.  Fowle,  of  Boston  made  a  response  to  the  above. 

5th.  "  The  Great  West—Rich  in  natural  resources  and  the  products  of  her  soil,  but  richer  in  the  en- 
terprise and  talents  of  her  sons." 

Mr.  Stearns,  of  Detroit,  made  a  happy  response.  He  closed  with  the  fol- 
lowing sentiment : — 

*'  The  Mortal^— Not  that  siilcious  compound  of  lime  and  wal^r-^ot  the  mortar  of  wajr,  but  the  mor- 
tar of  peace — ^the  mortar  and  pestle." 
6th.  "  The  City  of  Boston." 

In  absence  of  Mayor  Lincoln,  ex-Alderman  Carter  spoke  briefly. 

Tth.  «'  The  Medical  Profession— Twhi  brother  with  ttie  profession  of  Pharmacy— May  the  mutual  in- 
terests which  bind  the  two  together,  never  be  separated." 

Dr.  Minot,  of  the  Boston  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,  responded. 

Sth.  "  The  Pharmaceutical  Convention  of  1860 :  Medical  and  Pharmaceutical— May  theh"  labors  re- 
sult in  an  authoritative  standard  worthy  of  our  country  and  the  age." 

Dr.  Charles  E.  Buckingham,  responded. 

9th.  "  The  Allies  of  Pharmacy — Chemistry,  Mineralogy  and  Botany,  different  members  of  the  same 
body  of  useful  science."  . 

In  response  to  this  sentiment,  Mr.  Charles  T.  Carney  read  "The  Chemist's 
Dream,"  a  most  amusing  paper,  describing  the  wonders  of  the  chemist's  art 

Dr.  Charles  T.  Jackson  and  Prof.  Thurber  also  responded  for  mineralogy 
and  botany. 

lOth.  "  The  Keth-ed  Pharmaceutists— Whether  they  may  have  been  induced  by  the  infirmities  of  age, 
by  the  allurements  of  a  shorter  road  to  fortune,  or  for  the  enjoyment  of  acquired  wealth,  the  presence 
of  their  representatives  asstires  us  they  did  not  leave  the  profession  flrom  disgust." 

11th.  '*  The  Pharmaceutical  Associations  of  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Baltimore,  Cindnnati,  Wash- 
ington, St.  I^ouis— Like  the  heart  of  the  human  body,  each  is  the  vitalizing  centre  of  Pharmacy  In  the 
great  localities  in  which  they  exist." 

Messrs.  Jones,  of  Philadelphia,  and  Hegeman,  of  New  York,  responded. 

12tli.  "  Union— Pharmaceutical  as  weU  as  Political— North,  South,  East,  West,  one  and  inseparable^ 
now  and  forever." 

This  sentiment  was  received  with  three  cheers,  and  at  12  o'clock  the  company 
retired  from  the  table,  well  satisfied  with  the  evening's  entertainment 


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T  UK 

JOURNAL  OF  MATERIA  MEDICA 

AND  * 

PHARMAOEUTIO   FORMUI^RY. 


Hew]  NOVEMBER,  1869.  [Seriet. 


Remarks  on  Lycopus  Virginicus,  Prinos  Verticillatus,  and 
EpiphegtLs  Virglnianus. 

BT    CHARLSS    A.    LEE,    U.    D. 

NUMBBB  ZI. 

Lycopus  VipGiNicus,  {Bugle  Weed:  Water  Hoarhound.) — ^The 
natural  order,  Labiatoe^  to  which  this  plant  belongs,  includes  a 
large  number  of  plants,  which  have  been  employed,  for  a  very 
remote  period,  as  aromatic  cordials  and  stimulants.  Some  of 
them  are  still  retained,  though  many  have  been  abandoned  in 
modern  practice.  They  all  owe  their  activity  to  volatile  oil, 
bitter^  extractive,  and  astringent  matter.  The  volatile  oil  is  foimd 
in  small  receptacles,  or  globular  glands,  contained  in  the  leaves, 
in  the  form  of  an  oleo-resin.  The  bitter  extractive  is  found  in  all 
the  Labiatoe,  and  to  this  principle  they  owe  their  bitterness.  If 
we  add  a  ferruginous  salt  to  an  infusion  of  some  of  the  Labiatae, 
a  green  color  is  struck,  which  indicates  the  presence  of  astringent 
matter.  Their  aromatic,  carminative  and  stimulant  properties  are 
owing  to  volatile  oil;  their  tonic  and  stomachic,  to  M^ter cx/racftivc, 
or  a  peculiar  bitter  principle.  The  small  quantity  of  tannic  or 
gallic  acid  which  they  contain  only  serves  to  increase  their  tonic 
properties.  Some  of  them  are  employed  in  perfumery,  some  in 
cookery ;  while  others  are  used  in  medicine,  to  relieve  nausea  and 
colicky  pains,  expel  wind,  prevent  or  relieve  griping,  and  cover 
the  taste  of  unpleasant  remedies.    Although  volatile  oil  is  the 


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326  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants, 

predominant  proximate  principle  in  plants  of  this  order,  yet  some 
of  them  contain  so  large  a  quantity  of  bitter  extractive  as  to  ren- 
der them  highly  valuable  as  stomachics  and  tonics ;  others  pos- 
sess peculiar,  specific  properties,  adapting  them  to  fulfil  certain 
special  indications.  Among  this  latter  class  may  be  ranked  the 
Lycopus  Virginicus. » 

The  European  species  has  long  been  celebrated  as  a  powerful 
febriftige  and  astringent,  well  adapted  to  the  treatment  of  fevers 
and  hemoirhages,  while  the  American  species  has  but  recently 
been  introduced  into  practice.  The  bugle  weed  is  a  common, 
well-knoym  plant,  growing  in  shady  and  wet  places,  in  most  parts 
of  tiie  United  States — ^flowering  in  August — and  is  often  con- 
founded with  the  Lyoopus  JSintuUusy  or  water  hoarhound,  whose 
medicinal  properties,  though  similar,  are  far  inferior  to  thc^e  of 
the  Lycopus  Virginicus.  The  whole  plant  is  officinal,  and  has  a 
peculiar,  aromatic  odor,  and  a  disagreeable  bitter  taste. 

Chemical  Oomjposition, — ^Although  the  bugle  weed  is  officinal, 
occupying  a  place  in  the  secondary  list  of  the  United  States  Phar- 
macopoeia, its  chemical  composition  had  not  been  accurately  ascer- 
tained until  the  recent  analysis  in  your  own  laboratory.  This 
shows  that,  in  seven  thousand  parts,  it  contains — 

Of  inorganic  matter, 128 

Of  organic  matter,  ------      6872 

Total, 7000 

Gum  and  albumen, 248 

Tannin, 40» 

Bitter  principle,  soluble  in  ether, 24 

Particular  bitter  principle,  insoluble  in  ether,       -        -       .696 

Sugar, 120 

Extractive, 232 

Starch, 172 

Clorophylle, 220 

Soluble  salts, 26 

Insoluble  salts, 102 

Lignin, 5120 

Total, 7000 

The  large  amount  of  bitter  principle  contained  in  the  plant  is 
worthy  of  particular  note,  viz.:  seven  hundred  and  twenty  parts 
in  seven  thousand,  or  more  than  ten  per  cent. ;  whUe  the  amount 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants,  327 

of  tannin  is  inconsiderable.    It  contains  no  gallic  acid. 

Therapeutical  Properties  and  Uses. — From  the  large*  propottion 
of  bitter  and  astringent  matter  we  might  safely  infer  its  tonic  pro- 
perties ;  but,  in  addition  to  its  tonico- astringent  power,  it  possesses 
a  narcotic  virtue,  though  not  of  an  active  kind.  The  peculiar 
alkaloid,  or  oleo-resinoid  principle,  to  which  it  probably  uses  its 
tonic  qualities,  has  not  as  yet  been  separated  in  an  isolated  form : 
the  lycopin  of  some  manu&cturers  being  a  powdered  extract 
mixed  with  salt  and  other  impurities.  The  lycopus,  in  certain 
pathological  conditions,  is  a  very  valuable  sedative  astringent,  es- 
pecially adapted  to  cases  of  hemorrhage  attended  with  frequent 
pulse  ana  great  nervous  irritability.  In  such  cases  it  often  seems 
to  prove  specific,  acting  promptly  and  with  great  certainty  in 
allaying  irritability,  while  it  controls  the  hemorrhage.  It  evi- 
dently strikes  at  tiiie  pathological  cause,  removing  or  correcting 
that  morbid  condition  of  the  vascular  and  nervous  system  on 
which  the  hemorrhage  depends;  while  it  increases  the  tonicity 
and  contractility  of  the  minute  capillaries,  j^  diminishes  the  vis-a- 
tergoj  by  which  the  blood  is  propelled  into  them.  The  wild  cher- 
ry bark  possesses  similar  properties,  though  less  strongly  marked. 
We  have  used  the  lycopus  succewfully,  for  many  years,  in  haemo- 
ptysis, hematemesis,  mennorhagia,  &c.,  sometimes  alone,  at  others 
in  conjunction  with  other  remedies ;  and  we  have  come  to  regard 
it,  in  certain  cases,  almost  in  the  light  of  a  specific.  We  are  in- 
clined to  consider  it  best  adapted  to  cases  of  bleeding  from  the 
lungs,  though  some  practitioners  regard  it  as  most  efficacious  in 
hemorrhage  from  the  stomach.  It  has  been  known  to  arrest  epis- 
taxis,  when  all  other  remedies  have  failed.  Certainly,  as  a  popu- 
lar remedy  in  spitting  of  blood,  there  is  no  indigenous  pro4uction 
that  ranks  so  highly  as  this.  Its  great  power,  as  already  stated, 
.is  doubtless  owing  to  its  sedative  influence  over  the  circulatory 
and  nervous  system,  while,  at  the  same  time,  it  constringes  the 
smaller  vessels.  The  late  Prof.  Eafinesque,  whose  knowledge  of 
our  indigenous  botany  was  very  accurate  and  extensive,  remarks 
as  follows : — "  I  consider  the  bugle  weed  a  very  good  substitute 
for  aU  narcotics,  prussic  acid,  and  even  bleeding,  since  it  produces 
the  same  state  of  the  pulse  and  arterial  system,  without  inducing 
any  debility,  or  acting  on  the  heart  and  brain  in  any  injurious 
manner."    Wiiile  we  do  not  admit  that  any  vegetable  remedy  is 


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328  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

a  perfect  substitute  for  blood-letting,  in  all  cases,  it  must  never- 
theless be  conceded  that  the  bugle  weed  will  moderate  the  force 
and  frequency  of  the  pulse,  and  thus  accomplish  one  of  the  im- 
portant indications  of  bleeding,  unattended  with  the  danger  of  re- 
laxing the  minute  vessels — the  source  of  the  hemorrhage.  We 
have  called  the  lycopus  a  Umic^  though  its  tonic  properties  are  not 
strongly  marked.  In  this  respect  it  yields  to  the  cerasus ;  it  checks 
the  secretions  like  most  astringents,  while  it  quiets  the  circulation 
and  allays  inordinate  irritability.  These  properties  jrender  it  use- 
ful in  most  cases  of  excessive  flux,  associated  with  such  a  condi- 
tion. Besides  the  various  forms  of  hemorrhage  above  mentioned, 
it  will  be  found  well  adapted  to  many  cases  lOf  diabetes,  senile 
cough,  humoral  asthma,  chronic  diarrhoea,  &c.  In  the  latter, 
when  caused  by  irritation,  it  proves  particularly  serviceable,  after 
thorough  evacuation  by  castor  oiL  The  European  species  has 
been  found  very  efficacious  as  a  remedy  for  intermittents,  given  in 
powder  previous  to  the  access,  and  it  is  very  probable  that  our 
own  species  possesses  sipailar  properties.  It  seems  to  have  been 
used  from  time  immemorial,  as  it  is  mentioned  in  the  most  ancient 
records.  It  forms  a  very  good  black  dye,  and  Withering  says 
that  gipsies  stain  their  skin  with  it. 

The  physiological  effects  of  the  bugle  weed  are  such  as  might 
be  inferred  from  what  has  been  already  stated  in  regard  to  its  the- 
rapeutical effects.  Taken  in  health,  in  the  form  of  a  strong  infu- 
sion, in  doses  of  a  wine-glass  full  every  two  hours,  it  abates  the 
force  and  frequency  of  the  pulse,  without  nausea  or  cerebral  dis- 
turbance, while  at  the  same  time  it  causes  slight  constipation. 

Preparations. — ^Infusion,  decoction,  fluid  extract^  syrup,  tincture. 
The  inftision,  made  by  pouring  a  pint  of  boiling  water  to  an 
ounce  of  the  dried  plant,  is  the  mo&i  frequent  form  of  administra- 
tion. Of  this,  in  haemoptysis,  a  wine-glass  full  should  be  given 
as  often,  at  first,  as  every  half  hour  or  hour,  according  to  the  ur- 
gency of  the  symptoms.  The  fluid  extras  from  your  establish- 
ment has  proved  a  reliable  preparation,  in  doses  of  from  one  to 
two  drams  every  two  hours.  A  good  extemporaneous  effiision  is 
made  with  one  ounce  of  the  fluid  extract  to  one  pint  of  water ; 
dose,  two  to  four  ounces.  The  syrup  may  be  prepared  from  the 
infusion,  or  by  mixing  three  ounces  of  the  fluid  extract  with 
twelve  ounces  of  simple  syrup ;  dose,  one  to  two  ounces. 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants.  329 

Prinos  Verticillatus,  {Black  Alder:  Winter  Berry:) — Three 
species  of  Prinos  are  indigenous  to  the  United  States,  viz. :  the 
ksvigata  {smooth  iointer-herry\  glabra  {inkberry)^  and  verticillatus 
{black  alder,  the.)  The  black  alder  is  a  well-known  bnsh,  growing 
in  almost  all  parts  of  North  America,  in  low,  wet  places,  as 
swamps,  the  borders  of  streams,  ponds  and  ditches,  and  is  charac- 
terized in  winter  by  its  glossy,  scarlet,  round  berries,  about  the 
size  of  a  pea,  containing  six  cells  and  six  seeds.  The  bark  is 
officinal.  The  berries  have  a  sweetish-bitter  and  somewhat  acrid 
taste,  and  possess  similar  properties  to  the  bark. 

Physical  Properties  and  Chemical  Composition. — The  dried  bark 
of  the  black  alder  has  a  smooth  epidermis,  and  a  whitish,  ash- 
grey,  mixed  with  a  brownish  color.  The  bark  is  in  rolled  pieces^ 
has  a  bitter  and  slightly  astringent  taste,  and  is  easily  pulverized. 
Internally  it  is  of  a  greenish-white  color.  It  yields  its  principal 
properties  to  boiling  water :  to  be  collected  in  the  spring  or  fall 
of  the  year.*  Good  descriptions  of  the  plant  may  be  found  in  the 
Medical  Botanies  of  Bigelow  and  Barton.  •  The  only  analysis  of 
this  plant  is  that  recently  rilade  in  your  laboratory,  which  gives> 
in  seven  thousand  parts,  of — 

Organic  matters, 6360 

Inorganic  matters, 640 

Total, "5000 

Albumen  and  gum, 218.08 

Sugar, 10.88 

Extractive  matter, 100.88 

Tannin, 332.00 

Particular  principles, 404.80 

Resin,  soluble  in  etber, '24.00 

Resin,  insoluble  in  alcohol, 141.00 

Soluble  salts, 139.20 

Insoluble  salts, 500.80 

Inorganic,  &c., 5128.86 

Total, 7000.00 

Comparing  this  analysis  with  that  of  preceding  plants,  already 
given,  the  results,  as  regards  astringent  matter,  are  as  fol- 
lows : — 

I        (iKL'M.         I  HXMAMKLIS.    I  RHUS.  I    QUERCUS.     I      PRINOS. 

Tannin, |   584       400       375    |   330      332 


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880  Leje  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

This  shows  that,  as  to  the  quantity  of  tannm,  the  black  alder 
ranks  among  the  first  class  of  indigenous  plants,  and,  so  far  as 
medicinal  properties  can  be  inferred  from  chemical  composition,  it 
will  scarcely  prove  inferior  to  any.  Clinical  experience  also  abun- 
dantly confirms  this  conclusion.  The  amoimt  of  resin  also  con- 
tained in  it  is  worthy  of  note  (one  hundred  and  sixty-one  parts  in 
seven  thousand),  and  among  the  "particular  principles"  will 
doubtless  yet  be  discovered  a  peculiar  bitter  resinoid  principle,  to 
which  its  tonic  properties  are  chiefly  due.  Its  soluble  and  insolu- 
ble salts  are  also  abundant.,  while  the  albumen  and  gum  are  less 
predominant. 

Therapeutical  Properties. — The  bark  of  the  black  alder  has  long 
been  used  and  esteem^  in  domestic  practice  as  a  valuable  tonic 
and  astringent  A  knowledge  of  its  medicinal  virtues,  as  in 
many  other  cases,  seems  to  have  been  derived  from  the  Indians, 
who  used  a  strong  decoction  of  it,  both  internally  and  as  a  wash, 
in  chronic  cutaneous  eruptions  and  ill-conditioned  ulcers,  for 
which  purpose  it  is  stiil  very  often  employed.  Schoeph,  who  was 
the  earliest  writer  who  noticed  it,  speaks  of  it  as  a  useful  remedy 
in  gangrene  and  jaundice.  In  popular  practice  it  is  in  common 
use  in  the  treatment  of  diarrhoeas  and  intermittents,  and  also  as  a 
tonic  in  dropsical  conditions.  Both  the  berries  and  bark  have 
tonico-astringent  and  alterative  properties,  and  have  been  used 
successfully  in  arresting  the  paroxysms  in  fever  and  ague,  also  in 
many  aflTections  connected  with  a  debilitated  state  of  the  system, 
especially  gangrene  and  mortification.  We  have  known  a  strong 
decoction  of  it  used  with  advantage  in  chronic  bowel  affections, 
connected  with  relaxation.  In  Act,  it  can  ftdfiU  with  great  cer- 
tainty the  various  indications  met  with  by  this  class  of  remedies. 
It  is  praised  highly  by  Dr.  W.  P.  C.  Barton,  while  Dr.  Darlington 
thinks  its  virtues  overrated.  {Flora  Cestrica^  p.  214.)  Prof.  Bige- 
low  states  that  "  the  black  alder  has  had  a  considerable  reputa- 
tion as  a  tonic  medicine,  perhaps  more  than  it  deserved;"  while 
the  late  Prof.  B.  S.  Barton  considered  it  superior  to  Peruvian 
bark  in  many  cases,  and  as  possessing  great  efficiency  in  cases  of 
incipient  sphacelus  or  gangrene,  used  locally  and  internally.  Dr. 
Thacher  strongly  recommends  it,  used  in  the  same  manner,  in  her- 
petic eruptions.  Dr.  Bigelow  seems  to  have  judged  of  its  medi- 
cinal properties  simply  from  its  physical  and  sensible  effects.    Be- 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants.  881 

cause  not  very  bitter  to  the  taste,  he  concluded  that  its  tonic  pro- 
perties were  very  inconsiderable,  and'  so  also  in  regard  to  its 
astringency.  As  the  chemical  tests  show  a  larger  per  centage  of 
tannin  tiian  we  should  have  inferred  from  the  taste,  so  also  clinical 
experience  demonstrates  more  tonic  power  than  would  be  predi- 
cated from  its  bitterness.  The  fact  is,  however,  that  in  no  case 
can  we  safely  predict  the  therapeutical  from  the  sensible  proper- 
ties of  a  drug.  Bitterness  and  stipticity  are  only  two  qualities 
from  which  medicinal  virtues  may  be  inferred :  all  tests  of  tonic 
agents,  as  well  as  most  others,  are  amUguous,  except  those  made 
at  the  bedside  of  the  sick.  The  small,  tasteless  doses  of  Fowler's 
solution  have  often  as  great  antiperiodic  power  as  the  bitter  qui- 
nine. The  tasteless  pulv.  ferri.  has  wonderful  efficacy,  and  the 
sapidless  bismuth  is  not  destitute  of  important  medicinal  powers. 

Preparations, — Decoction,  fluid  extract,  tincture,  syrup,  lotion, 
compound  infusion,  &c. — The  decocivMy  which  is  generally  regard- 
ed as  the  preferable  form,  is  usually  made  with  two  ounces  of  the 
bark  to  three  pints  of  water,  boiled  to  a  quart,  of  which  a  gill 
may  be  taken  three  times  a  day,  or  oftener.  This  may  answer 
well  for  external  use,  but,  as  water  alone  does  not  take  up  all  the 
active  principles,  the  fluid  extract  is  preferable  for  internal  use,  as 
it  combines  all  the  valuable  properties  of  the  plant.  It  may  be 
given  in  sweetened  water,  in  doses  of  one  or  two  drams.  A  satu- 
rated tincture  may  be  made  from  the  bark  or  berries,  and  used  in 
the  same  doses ;  or,  what  is  equivalent,  two  ounces  of  the  fluid 
extract  may  be  added  to  one  pint  of  diluted  alcohol,  of  which 
the  same  quantity  may  be  given.  The  alcohol,  however,  in 
many  cases,  would  be  objectionable.  A  syrwp  of  alder  is  best 
prepared  by  mixing  four  ounces  of  the  fluid  extract  with  twelve 
ounces  of  syrup ;  dose,  one  or  two  ounces.  For  a  hiion  a  strong 
decoction  will  suffice,  or  three  ounces  of  the  fluid  extract  may  be 
added  to  eight  ounces  of  water. 

Epiphegus  Virginianus,  {Beeck  Drops:  Cancer  Root.) — The 
order  Ordbanchucece  yields  two  North  American  genera,  viz. :  the 
Orobanche  and  the  Epiphegus — ^the  latter  so  called  from  its  sup- 
posed parasitic  connection  with  the  roots  of  the  beech  tree.  The 
latter  is  sometimes  erroneously  described  under  the  name  oro- 
"banche,  as  in  the  United  States  Dispensatory  of  Wood  &  Bache ; 
but  although  th^r  general  aspect  and  medicinal  properties  are 


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382  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

very  similar,  yet  they  are  known  to  be  entirely  distinct  genera. 

The  epiphegus  is  a  branched,  leafless  plant,  about  one  foot 
high,  with  remote,  alternate  flowers  scattered  on  each  branch, 
with  recurved  corollas,  brownish  white,  with  darker  stripes  above. 
It  is  a  fleshy  plant,  with  a  tuberous,  scaly  root,  and  a  smooth 
stem,  furnished  with  small,  ovate  scales  of  a  yellowish  or  purplish 
color,  and  wholly  destitute  of  verdure.  The  plant  i§  of  a  dull 
reddish  color ;  the  root  is  a  scaly  ball  or  tuber  of  a  clay  color, 
and  covered  with  stiff,  short  and  brittle  radicals.  The  plant  is 
abundant  in  almost  all  parts  of  the  United  States,  and  is  chiefly 
found  growing  on  the  roots  of  the  beech,  or  its  immediate  vicinity. 

Physical  and  Chemical  Characters, — The  beech  drop  has  a  very 
bitter,  nauseous,  astringent  taste,  which  is  considerably  dimin- 
ished by  drying.  Your  recent  analysis  gives,  in  seven  thousand 
parts — 

Organic  matter, 6680 

InorgaDic  matter, 820 

Total,  -       *- 7000 

Albumen  and  gum,        - 280.96 

Starch, 263.20 

Bitter  principle, 898.  Y2 

Extractive  matter, 888.40 

Tannin, 474.08 

Soluble  salts, 175.04 

Insoluble  salts, 144.96 

Lignin,  Ac, 4414.64 

Total, 7000.00 

Therapeutical  Effects. — The  very  large  amount  of  tanin  (474) 
contained  in  this  plant  (larger  than  in  any  other  yet  noticed  ex- 
cept the  geum),  as  well  as  bitter  principle  (898),  commend  it  to 
the  profession  as  worthy  of  greater  attention  than  it  has  yet  re- 
ceived. That  the  root  is  one  of  our  most  powerful  astringents 
has  long  been  known,  and  for  this  purpose  it  has  been  success- 
fully employed  by  many  physicians,  as  well  as  in  domestic  practice. 
Combined  with  arsenious  acid,  sulphur,  and  the  root  of  the  ranun- 
culus acris,  it  formed  the  celebrated  "cancer  powder"*  of  Dr.  Mar- 


*NoTE. — The  cancer  plasters  now  employed  by  empirics,  and  which  are 
claimed  to  be  of  vegetable  origin,  owe  their  activity  t<^8ome  mineral  agent, 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants.  38$ 

tin,  a  preparation  still  extensively  used  by  empirics.  It  evident- 
ly, however,  serves  no  other  purpose  than  that  of  a  diluent.  We 
know  it  to  be  a  very  painful  application,  and  in  a  large  majority 
of  cases  to  prove  highly  injurious,  aggravating  all  the  symptom* 
and  hastening  the  progress  of  the  ulceration.  Dr.  Barton,  how- 
ever, states  that  it  has  proved  of  great  service,  externally  applied 
to  obstinate  ulcers,  some  of  which  had  resisted  the  applications 
that  are  commonly  made  use  of  in  such  cases.  Prof.  Eberle  recom- 
mends a  strong  infusion  t)f  the  root  in  apthous  ulcerations  of  the 
mouth,  and  as  a  wash  in  obstinate  herpetic  eruptiona  As  a 
remedy  for  dysentery,  its  reputation  among  the  common  people 

the  Tcgetable  powder  or  extract  merely  serving  to  obviate  or  lessen  their  ac> 
tivity.  Thus  "  Plunkett*s  cancer  plaster"  consists  of  arsenic,  sulphur,  and 
the  powdered  leaves  of  crowfoot  (ranunculus)  and  cdtula  foetida,  levigated^ 
and  made  into  a  pntste  with  the  white  of  egg.  ^^Davidson^s  remedy  for  the 
cancer'*  consists  of  arsenious  acid  and  conium.  *'  Clason's  cancer  salve''  con- 
sists of  sulphate  of  zinc  (exsiccated)  and  extract  of  blood-root,  incorporated 
together.  This  acts  slowly,  and  is  kept  applied  for  several  weeks,  producing 
but  slight  pain,  and  in  obstinate  sores  and  ulcers  of  the  lips,  face,  &c.,  not 
cancerous,  has  been  known  to  eflfect  cures.  In  true  scirrus,  however,  or  open 
cancer,  we  have  never  known  the  slightest  benefit  to  result  from  its  use.  In 
all  cases  of  cancer  of  the  breast  it  aggravates  and  hastens  the  progress  of  the 
disease.  The  plaster  of  Dr.  G.  T.  Blake,  of  New  York,  consists  of  chloride  of 
zinc  and  blood-root  It  is  applied  from  fifteen  to  sixty  minutes,  de.stroying 
the  vitality  of  all  the  parts  with  which  it  comes  in  contact.  Obstinate  sores 
and  ulcers  are  thus  often  cured.  Tt  is  to  be  noted  that  most  sores  on  the  lips, 
especially  in  persons  of  scrofulous  and  imhealthy  constitutions,  are  ulcers — 
sometimes  malignant,  but  rarely  cancerous — and  are  kept  from  healing  by  the 
constant  movement  of  the  lips,  the  flow  of  saliva,  &c. ;  and  they  are  not  un- 
frequently  cured  by  instituting  a  new  action  by  cscharotics,  with  internal  al- 
terative treatment.  Dr.  Beach's  "  vegetable  cancer  plaster"  is  made  of  caus- 
tic potash,  by  leaching  hickory  ashes,  and  boiling  to  an  extract,  which  is  ap- 
plied as  a  plaster.  His  "discutient  ointment"  is  made  by  evaporating  a 
spirituous  infusion  of  the  root  of  solanum  dulcamara,  the  leaves  of  stramo- 
nium, conium  and  belladonna,  and  the  roots  of  yellow  dock  and  poke  (Phyto- 
lacca), to  which  fresh  butter  is  added.  The  inspissated  juice  of  the  poke-root 
is  used  by  some  of  the  eclectics  as  a  mild  escharotic.  fn  some  sections  of  the 
country  the  narrow-leaved  dock-root,  used  locally  and  internally,  is  believed  to 
cure  all  cancerous  complaints.  Cosme's  **  cancer  powder"  is  composed  of 
white  arsenic,  9ij. ;  charcoal,  grs.  xii. ;  cinnabar,  3  ij. — well  powdered  and 
mixed.  Dr.  Fells*  celebrated  application,  used  in  St  Bartholomew's  Hospi- 
tal, and  borrowed  from  a  New  York  quack,  is  chloride  of  zinc  and  blood-root ! 
These  may  serve  as  samples  for  the  whole. 


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834  Remarks  on  GoncerUrcUed  Preparations^  <tc, 

seems  too  well  established  not  to  have  some  foundation  to  rest 
upon.  We  have  seen  and  known  enough  of  its  use  to  satisfy  ns 
that  it  is  well  calculated  to  ftdfil  all  the  indications  usually  met 
by  medicines  of  the  tonico-astringent  class.  In  certain  diarrhoeas, 
dysenteries,  and  other  fluxes,  especially  in  the  bronchorrhea  of  old 
people,  and  that  which  occurs  after  measles  in  patients  much  de- 
bilitated, and  in  the  various  hemorrhages,  for  which  other  astrin- 
gents are  prescribed,  this  article  will  be  found  well  adapted. 

The  Oribanche  Americana  {broom  rape)4ias  astringent  and  tonic 
powers  similar  to  those  of  the  epiphegus,  though-  less  strongly 
marked.  In  the  Western  States  it  is  very  generally  regarded  as 
a  specific  for  gonorrhoea  and  syphilis:  it  is  also  used  in  obstinate 
ulcers,  apthae,  and  herpetic  affections. 

Preparations, — The  preparations  of  these  plants  are  the  same  as 
the  other  astringent  substances  already  described^  viz.:  decoction, 
infusion,  fluid  extract,  syrup  and  tincture.  No  fluid  extract  of  it 
is  yet  prepared.  The  decoction  and  infusion  would  only  take  up 
a  portion  of  the  active  principles. 

A  few  other  indigenous  astringents  remain  to  be  considered, 
which  will  be  treated  of  in  the  ensuing  number  of  the  Journal. 


Remarks  on  Concentrated  Preparations,  Simple  Tests,  and 
Easy  Method  of  Analysis. 

In  our  last  we  indicated  a  general  process  for  ascertaining  the 
substances  with  which  Goncentrated  Preparations  are  often  adulter- 
ated, and  which  are  likely  to  be  employed  for  that  purpose. 

We  now  purpose,  before  treating  upon  each  article  separately, 
giving  the  general  process  of  analysis,  quantitatively : — 

Class  I. 

1.  Mixture  of  Besinoid  with  Alcoholic  Extracts, — Take  ten  grains 
of  the  substance  to  be  analyzed,  dissolve  it  in  concentrated 
alcohol,  evaporate  to  a  syrupy  consistence,  add  water  (which 
will  give  a  precipitation  of  the  active  principle),  filter,  and 
dry.  The  water  holds,  in  solution,  a  portion  of  the  extract 
which  has  been  mixed  with  it  If  the  article  is  pure,  the 
loss  of  weight  by  analysis  will  be  comparatively  small. 

2.  Mixture  of  JResinoid  ivith  Ifydro-Alco/iolic  Extract, — Take  ten 


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grains  of  the  substance,  treat  with  alcohol  as  in  1 ;  the  part 
insoluble  in  alcohol  should  be  treated  by  diluted  alcohol,  or 
proof  spirit,  evaporated  and  weighed ;  or,  treat  the  article 
first  with  diluted  alcohol,  which  will  dissolve  the  hydro- 
alcoholic  extract 

-8.  Mixture  of  Besinoid  with  Aqueous  Extract — Treat  ten  grains 
of  the  substance  by  hot  water,  which  will  dissolve  the  aque- 
ous extract;  evaporate  to  dryness,  and  weigh.  The  resi- 
dium  insoluble  in  water,  dried  and  weighed,  gives  the  quan- 
tity of  active  principle  present. 

4.  Mixture  of  Besinoid  with  Sugar  of  Milk, — Treat  ten  grains  of 
the  concentrated  alcohol,  and  filter;  collect  the  insoluble 
residium  on  the  filter,  wash  it  with  alcohol,  dry,  and  weigh. 
This  gives  the  sugar  of  milk;  the  alcohol  solution  evaporated 
to  dryness  gives  the  amount  of  active  principle. 

•6.  Mixture  of  Besinoid  with  Salt. — ^Proceed  the  same  as  in  4. 

6.  Mixture  of  Besinoid  wWi  Magnesia^  or  Carbonate  of  Magnesia, — 
Proceed  same  as  in  4. 

7.  Mixture  of  Besinoid  with  Dried  Plants  {in  powder.) — Proceed 
same  as  in  4. 

Class  IJ. 

1.  Alcoholic  extract  alone. 

2.  Mixture  of  alcoholic  and  hydro-alcoholic  extracts. 

8.  Mixture  of  alcoholic  and  aqueous  extracts. 

4.  Mixture  of  alcoholic  extract  and  sugar  of  milk. 

5.  Mixture  of  alcoholic  extract  and  salt. 

6.  Mixture  of  alcoholic  extract  and  magnesia,  or  carbonate  of 
magnesia. 

7.  Mixture  of  alcoholic  extract  and  dried  plant. 

The  process  of  analysis  for  determining  the  abo  re  are  the 
same  as  described  in  class  I. — 1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7. 

Class  III. 

1.  Hydro-Alcoholic  Extract  alone, — Treat  ten  grains  of  the  mix- 
ture by  alcohol  (proof),  which  will  usually  dissolve  the 
whole.     Should  it  not,  employ  alcohol  of  56°. 

2.  Mixture  of  Hydro- Alcoholic  and  Aqueous  Extract, — ^Treat  ten 
grains  by  alcohol  at  56°,  which  will  dissolve  the  hydro - 


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336  Remarks  on  Concentrated  PreparaiismSy  Ac, 

alcoholic  extract;  evaporate  to  dryness,  and  weigh.     This- 
gives  the  hydro-alcoholic  extract     Treat  the  insoluble  resi- 
dium  by   water,  evaporate  to  dryness,  and  weigh.     This 
gives  the  aqueous  extract. 

3.  Mixture  of  Tlydro- Alcoholic  Extract  and  Sugar  of  Milk, — Treat 
ten  grains  by  alcohol  (proof),  which  will  dissolve  the  hydro- 
alcoholic  extract;  evaporate  to  dryness,  and  weigh.  We 
then  have  the  quantity  of  hydro-alcoholic  extract  The  insolu- 
ble residium,  dried  and  weighed,  gives  the  sugar  of  milk. 

The  diluted  alcohol,  or  proof  spirit,  may  contain  a  little 
sugar  of  milk,  dissolved  by  the  water  present  To  deter- 
mine the  quantity,  if  desired,  pass  the  solution  through  ani- 
mal charcoal,  evaporate  to  dryness,  and  the  weight  of  the 
residium  gives  the  quantity  of  sugar  of  milk. 

4.  Mixture  of  Hydro- Alcoholic  Extract  and  SalL — Treat^  ten  grains 
with  water.  To  the  solution  add  an  excess  of  nitrate  of  sil- 
ver; filter,  wash  the  precipitation,  dry,  and  weigh  it  Its 
weight  (x)  gives  the  quantity  of  salt  by  the  following  equa- 
tion : — 

X   +  56,5 

=-x  salt 

141,5 
If  the  conveniences  for  the  above  process  are  not  at  hand, 
treat  ten  grains  by  cold  water;  evaporate  the  solution  to 
dryness,  and  weigh.     Its  weight  gives  approximately  the 
quantity  of  salt  present 

0.  Mixture  of  Hydro- Alcoholic  Extract  and  Magnesia,  or  Carbon- 
ale  of  Magnesia. — Treat  ten  grains  by  alcohol  (proof),  and 
then  by  water;  evaporate  both  solutions  to  dryness,  and 
weigh.  This  gives  the  quantity  of  extract  present  The 
insoluble  residium,  dried  and  weighed,  indicates  the  magne- 
sia, or  carbonate  of  magnesia,  present 

6.  MLctare  of  Hydro- Alcoholic  Extract  and  Dried  Plant. — ^Pro- 
ceed same  as  described  in  5. 

Class  IV. 

1.  Aqueous  Extract  alone. — Treat  ten  grains  by  hot  water,  which 
should  dissolve  it  entirely,  or  treat  by  strong  alcohol,  which 
will  dissolve  the  coloring  matter  and  some  other  principles  • 
filter,  dissolve  the  residium  in  a  small  quantity  of  water. 


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evaporate  to  a  syrupy  consistence,  add  concentrated  alcohol, 
which  will  precipitate  the  gum,  albumen,  &c. 
2.  Mixture  of  Aqueous  Extract  and  Sugar  of  Milk, — Take  ten 
grains,  dissolve  it  in  a  small  quantity  of  water,  add  a  small 
quantity  of  alcohol  to  precipitate  the  gummy  and  albumen- 
ous  matter;  filter,  boil  the  filtered  liquor  for  fifteen  minutes 
with  animal  charcoal,  filter,  and  evaporate  the  filtered  solu- 
tion to  dryness.  The  weight  of  the  residium  gives  the  quan- 
tity of  sugar  of  milk  present 
-8.  Mixture  of  Aqueov^  Extract  and  Salt. — Process  same  as  in 

class  m. — 4. 
4.  Mixture  of  Aqueous  Extract  and  Magnesia,  or  Carbonate  of 
Magnesia. — Treat  the  mixture  by  water,  filter,  wash  the  resi- 
dium, dry  it,  and  its  weight  will  give  the  magnesia  or  car- 
bonate present 
6.  Mixture  of  Aqueous  Extract  and  Dried  Plant  {in  powder.) — 

Process  s.ame  as  in  class  TIT. — 6. 
Such  are  the  methods  to  be  employed  generally.  There  are 
Tinany  exceptions,  as  we  have  previously  mentioned,  and  shall 
fnore  fully  point  out  as  these  preparations  are  a  mixture  of  two 
or  three  different  principles,  we  will,  in  fiiture  numbers,  give  the 
principal  properties,  reactions,  &c.,  of  each  article,  and  the  parti- 
•cular  processes  to  test  their  purity. 


Jl  valuable  Report  to  the  Phaxmaceutical  Convention  on 
Home  Adulterations. 

By  0.  T.  Cameij. 

[Concluded.] 
ADULTKKA.TI0N8. 

Specimen  No.  1. — This  Ls  an  adulterated  article  of  cubebs,  with  the  false 
berry  used  for  the  purpose.  These  cubebs  wei^o  purchased  as  a  select  and  su- 
perior article ;  the  fraud  existing  in  them  was  not  discovered  for  some  time. 
The  false  berry  is  readily  distinguished,  however,  as  it  is  ^Mobed,  while  the 
-cubeb  is  a  single  lobed  berry.  There  exists  in  the  lot  of  cubebs  from  which 
these  were  taken  sixteen  per  cent  of  false  berries,  ly  weight;  they  are  heavier 
than  the  cubebs,  and  are,  on  that  account,  easily  added  in  sufficient  amount  to 
vitiate  the  drug  without  attracting  notice.  Your  committee  have  endeavored, 
•svithout  success,  to  ascertain  the  name  of  this  faLse  berry  ;  it  ap[>ears  to  be  in- 


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ert  and  worthless,  not  possessed  of  any  deleterious  property  other  than  that  of 
i*educing  the  strength  of  the  powdered  cubebs,  which,  in  the  amount  present 
in  sample  under  consideration,  it  does  quite  perceptibly. 

Specimen  No.  2  is  French  Lycopodium,  which  is  adulterated  with  the  starch 
of  some  species  of  lentil,  apparently.  The  microscope  reveals  this  adultera- 
tion at  onoo,  which  otherwise  might  not  be  suspected.  If  treated  with  water 
and  the  solution  of  iodine,  the  presence  of  starch  may  also  be  detected.  This 
drug  is  often  adulterated  with  starch,  pulverized  gypsum,  and  even  boxwood 
powder.  By  separating  with  yrKter  the  heavier  adulterations,  they  can  be 
examined  and  recognized ;  the  wood  powder  can  be  separated  by  means  of  s^ 
sieve. 

The  specimen  under  examination  is  part  of  a  lot  purchased  in  one-pound, 
bottles,  with  a  French  stamp  and  label  upon  it  A  portion  of  it  having  acci- 
dentally been  wet  the  starch  became  **  musty,*'  revealing  its  presence,  other- 
wise unsuspected.  Subsequent  examination,  as  above,  furnished  further  proo&i 
of  its  existence. 

Specimen  No.  3  is  Para  balsam  copaiva.  This  contains  from  six  to  eight 
per  cent  of  heavy  or  fat  oil. 

Balsam  copaiva  is  very  largely  adulterated.  It  often  contains  the  resinous, 
extract,  by  decoction,  of  the  branches  and  bark  of  the  copaifera,  turpentine,, 
colophony,  and  fat  oils,  particularly  castor  oil  The  balsam  adulterated  with 
turpentine  is  not  of  so  heavy  consistence  as  the  true  balsam ;  it  is  more  viscid, 
and  sticks  upon  the  sides  of  the  bottles  holding  it  It  may  be  very  easily 
proved  whetlier  turpentine  is  present  or  not,  by  simply  heating  a  drop  of  the 
suspected  balsam,  upon  a  sheet  of  glazed  paper,  over  a  spirit  lamp ;  the  oil  of 
copaiva  is  first  volatilized,  and  the  odor  of  the  turpentine  is  at  once  apparent 

Castor  oil  is  tlio  most  dangerous  adulterative,  owing  to  the  great  similarity 
between  that  and  true  balsam.  This  may  be  detected  by  mixing  three  parts 
of  the  suspected  balsam  with  one  part  sulphuric  acid,  and  shaking  with  fifteen 
or  twenty  parts  of  alcohol  of  36°.  If  the  mixture  separates,  it  indicates  that 
the  balsam  is  adulterated  with  castor;  when  pure  there  is  no  separation.  This 
test  will  detect  not  less  than  one-ninth  part  of  adulteration. 

The  presence  of  castor  oil  may  also  be  detected  by  adding  two  parts  of  am- 
monia (22°  Beainne)  to  five  parts  suspected  balsam,  and  shaking  them  together 
in  a  stoppered  bottle.  The  mixture  becomes  viscid  and  *'ropy,"  but  very  soon 
clears  itself  and  becomes  transparent,  if  pure. 

It  is  whitened  by  agitation,  on  the  contrary,  if  it  contains  castor  oil.  The 
only  precaution  to  be  taken,  however,  is  that  the  temperature  of  the  mixture 
should  be  from  50°  to  00°  Fah.*;  above  or  below  this  point  the  result  is  inac- 
curate, as,  from  68°  to  76°  Fah.  the  mixture  is  transparent,  whether  pure  or 
adulterated,  and  at  32°  to  40°  Fah.  the  pure  balsam  remains  clouded. 

The  fixed  oils  may  be  discovered  by  heating  a  drop  or  two  of  the  balsam 
upon  paper.  If  the  balsam  is  pure  the  volatile  oil  is  driven  off,  leaving  the 
resin  homogeneous,  transparent,  and  brittle ;  if  it  contains  heavy  or  fixed  oil 
the  resin  is  surrounded  by  a  greasy  aureole,  and  is  less  brittle. 


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Finally,  balsam  copaiva  is  ^^  made  up"  of  the  fat  oils,  as  poppy  and  rape 
seed  with  turpentme.  These  mixtures,  however,  would  deceive  only  the  inex- 
perienced. In  all  cases  etherial  alcohol  (four  parts  alcohol  and  one  part  ether) 
serves  to  recognize  this  fraud,  this  liquid  dissolving  only  the  true  balsam,  leav- 
ing the  foreign  matters. 

Specimen  No.  4  is  powdered  opium.  This  is  a  very  poor  specimen  t>f  pow- 
dered opium.  It  was  sold  at  a  high  price,  to  a  person  not  perfectly  fiuniliar 
with  drugs,  but  to  him  it  appeared  so  different  from  his  idea  of  the  article  that 
he  requested  an  examination  of  it  It  is  found  to  contain  less  than  three  per 
cent  of  impure  morphia,  which  is  but  one-third  or  one-fourth  the  amoimt  con- 
sidered to  be  the  standard  yield  by  United  States  Dispensatory.  It  is  evident 
that  this  powder  of  opium  could  scarcely  fiul  to  disappoint  the  expectations  of 
the  physician.  What  article  is  used  for  adullterating  this,  your  ccmimittee 
have  not  decided.  It  is  possible  that  the  opium  was  exhausted,  in  part,  before 
drying  and  powdering. 

Specimen  No.  5  is  balsam  tolu,  containing  sixteen  per  cent  common  resin. 
Balsam  tolu  is  often  adulterated  with  turpentine  and  various  resins.  It  is  easy 
to  detect  this  fraud,  by  the  peculiar  resinous  odor  which  the  adulteratedartide 
gives  off  when  burnt  It  may  also  be  distinguished  by  testing  with  sulphuric 
add.  The  concentrated  add,  added  to  the  pure  balsam,  gives  a  cherry  red 
liquor,  without  disengagement  of  sulphurous  add;  the  same  add,  added  to 
balsam  adulterated  with  resin,  gives  a  blackish  brown  liquor,  with  abundant 
disengagement  of  sulphurous  add. 

Spedmen  No.  6  is  powdered  tartar  emetic.  This  is  largely  contaminated 
with  foreign  bodies,  containmg  as  much  as  twenty-one  per  cent  of  impurity.  The 
impurity  in  it  is  doubtless  owing  to  careless  manufacturing,  and  as  this  artide 
in  powder  is  often  made  without  proper  and  sufficient  care  being  used  in  its 
manufacture,  it  is  best  for  the  pharmaceutist  to  buy  none  but  the  crystals, 
and,  being  assured  of  their  purity,  powder  them  himself 

The  impurities  mast  generally  present  in  tartar  emetic  are  uncombined 
cream  of  tartar,  chloride  of  calcium,  or  potassium  and  sulphate  of  potassa.  It 
also  sometimes  contains,  as  accidental  contaminations,  iron  and  tin.  The 
uncombined  cream  of  tartar  may  be  detected  by  an  acid  solution  of  acetate  of 
lead;  the  solution  is  made  of  thirty -two  parts  distilled  water,  eight  parts 
crystalized  acetate  of  lead,  and  fifteen  parts  acetic  acid  of  0"^.  The  presence 
of  cream  of  tartar  is  shown  by  the  white  precipitate  produced  in  a  solution  of 
tartar  emetic  on  adding  a  small  portion  of  the  lead  reagent 

Chlorides  of  potassium  or  sodium,  or  chlor-hydric  acid,  may  be  detected  by 
their  affording  a  white  "  curdy"  precipitate  upon  adding  to  a  solution  of  tartar 
emetic  a  few  drops  solution  nitrate  of  silver.  This  white  precipitate,  if  chlo- 
rids  of  Hirer,  should  be  entirely  soluble  in  ammonia. 

This  spedmen  under  examination  contains  eight  per  cent  of  chlorides.  Sul- 
phate of  potassa  may  bo  detected  by  the  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric 
add,  which  is  afforded  by  solution  chloride  of  barium  or  nitrate  of  baryta. 

The  specimen  under  examination  contains  thirteen  per  cent,  of  sulphates. 


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Specimen  No.  7  is  cream  of  tartar.  This  artide  is  one  used  largely,  both  as 
^  medicine  and  in  the  preparation  of  food ;  it  is  worthy  careful  consideration, 
And  your  committee  have  given  considerable  attention  to  it. 

Cream  of  tartar  is  very  largely  adulterated.  Some  of  the  articles  used  for 
that  purpose  are,  in  one  sense,  harmless — that  is,  not  injurious  to  health — ^but 
many  of  them  are  decidedly  pernicious,  and  all  of  them  are  to  be  condemned, 
because  sold  to  deceive  the  community  and  enrich  the  adulterator. 

Cream  of  tartar  is  adulterated  with  tartrate  of  lime,  chalk,  finely  powdered 
white  marble,  sulphate  of  lime,  sand,  nitrate  of  potassa,  alum,  sulphate  of 
«oda,  potassa,  and  chloride  of  potassium.  It  has  been  found  to  contain,  as 
impurities,  iron,  copper,  lead  and  arsenic 

The  addition  of  starch,  arrow  root  and  other  amylaceous  substances,  is  well 
known ;  and  the  specimen  under  examination  is  only  remarkable  from  the 
^M^t  that  it  contains  68.83  per  cent  of  farinaceoas  substances  as  adulteration. 

This  was  sold  as  pure  cream  tartar.  The  easiest  way  to  detect  the  adulter- 
4ition  with  starch  or  farinaceous  substances  is  by  testing  a  cold  solution  of  the 
<nream  of  tartar  with  solution  of  iodine.  The  characteristic  blue  ^*  iodide  of 
:8tarch''  will  at  onoe  be  apparent 

If  we  treat  the  cream  of  tartar  with  boiling  water  we  dissolve  all  soluble 
^substances,  leaving  behind  the  tartrate  of  lime,  quartz,  clay,  sand,  sulphate  of 
lime,  and  other  insoluble  impurities. 

Chalk  or  white  marble  may  be  discovered  by  the  effervescence  produced  by 
the  addition  of  a  weak  acid,  as  chlor-hydric  or  nitric. 

Alum  and  sulphates  of  potassa  or  soda  are  shown  to  be  present  by  the 
white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid,  produced  by  solution  of  chloride  of 
barium ;  if  a  precipitate  is  produced  in  same  solution  by  oxalate  of  ammonia, 
^'e  know  that  lime  is  also  present  Chloride  of  potassium  is  shown,  by  the 
white  ** curdy"  precipitate,  entirely  soluble  in  ammonia,  formed  by  adding 
solution  of  nitrate  of  silver  to  the  cream  of  tartar  solution. 

The  iron,  lead  and  copper  come  from  the  vessels  of  tnese  metals  in  which 
the  cream  of  tartar  is  purified. 

The  solution  of  cream  of  tartar,  tested  with  tincture  of  galls,  takes  a  hlach 
<x>lor  if  iron  is  present ;  with  ammonia,  a  blue  color  if  copper  be  present ;  with 
iodide  potassium,  a  yellow,  if  lead  is  present 

The  presence  of  arsenic  in  cream  of  tartar,  according  to  Dr.  Bley,  comes 
<h>m  the  ars^cal  sulphur  used  in  the  ^^  mudige,"  or  process  for  arresting  fer- 
mentation in  the  "must"  of  grapes,  which  consists*  of  burning  sulphur  in 
the  casks,  thereby  liberating  sulphurous  acid.  The  arsenic  may  be  detected 
by  Marsh's  apparatus. 

Specimen  No.  8  is  acid  sulphate  of  soda.  This  is  the  residue  from  nitric 
acid  manufacturing.  The  nitrate  of  soda,  or  Chili  saltpetre,  is  decomposed  by 
:sulphuric  acid,  and  this  article  remains.  It  is  largely  used  to  adulterate  cream 
of  tartar  and  this. 

Specimen  No.  9  is  one  which  contains  this  adulteration.  This  acid  sulphate 
ai>ay  be  considered  one  of  the  injurious  adulterations. 


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Report  on  Home  Adulteratiom,  841 

There  is  one  drawback  to  its  use,  however,  as  a  substitute  for  cream  of  tar- 
tar, and  that  is  its  deliquescence,  or  property  of  taking  moisture  from  the  at- 
mosphere. It  was  once  attempted  to  substitute  it  for  cream  of  tartar  in  a 
'^  yeast  powder,"  but,  after  having  been  put  up,  the  article  was  obliged  to  be 
withdrawn  from  the  market,  because  it  destroyed  the  cans.  Query  ? — ^Will 
the  human  stomach  bear  it  better  than  a  tin  can  ? 

Specimen  No.  10  is  the  "great  adulterator.'*  This  article,  known  by  the 
above  name,  is  selenite  or  sulphate  of  lime.  It  is  imported  into  New  York, 
and  there  powdered  for  use. 

Specimen  No.  11  is  the  "great  adulterator"  in  its  natural  state,  before 
being  powdered.  ^ 

Specimen  No.  12  is  cream  of  tartar,  which  is  adulterated  with  the  "great 
adulterator."  As  this  substance  is  almost  insoluble,  any  one  can  judge  of  the 
biiieiit  to  health  that  might  arise  from  a  long 'continued  use  of  the  article  in 
the  daily  food. 

The  specimen  of  cream  tartar  under  examination  contains  twenty-five  per 
cent,  of  the  "  great  adulterator." 

Specimen  No.  V)  is  a  fatty  residue  from  oil  of  lemon.  This  was  obtained 
i'l'om  a  sample  of  oil  of  lemon  of  suspected  purity,  the  last  winter,  and  amount- 
ed to  twenty-two  per  cent,  of  the  whole  weight  of  the  oil.  In  cold  weather  it 
has  a  butyraceous  consistence,  but  as  it  now  appears  is  more  fluid. 

It  i.s  soraewliat  unusual  to  find  an  article  of  oil  of  lemon  adulterated  in  this 
way ;  and  your  committee  would  call  the  attention  of  pharmaceutists  to  this 
fact,  as  being  evidence  of  a  new  practice  in  the  way  of  fraud  in  this  article. 

Specimen  No.  14  is  capsicum,  with  adulteration  of  conmion  salt  This  can 
be  detected  by  exhausting  the  pepper  with  water,  evaporating  to  dryness,  and 
testing  residue  by  nitrate  of  silver  for  chlorine ;  the  goda  imparts  its  character- 
istic color  of  yellow  to  flame  of  burning  alcohol. 

Corrosive  sublimate,  sent  from  Kentucky,  was  proved  to  be  adulterated 
with  chloride  of  sodium  (common  salt),  by  the  usual  tests.  The  sample  was 
too  small  to  estimate  the  amount  of  impurity  present,  and  we  cannot  show  a 
specimen  of  it  because  it  was  all  consumed  in  examination. 

Specimen  No.  15  is  lunar  caustic.  This  was  sent  from  Kentucky  also,  hav- 
ing been  purchased  in  New  York,  at  a  cost  of  $1.20  per  ounce,  as  impure 
article.  A  great  imposition  was  practised  either  by  the  seller  or  the  manu- 
facturer. Upon  a  careful  examination  it  yielded  only  fourteen  per  cent,  of 
chloride  of  silver,  equivalent  to  about  ten  per  cent,  of  metallic  silver. 

Had  it  been  pure  nitric  it  should  have  yielded  sixty-four  per  cent,  of  metallic 
silver. 

Specimen  No.  16  is  piperine,  adulterated  with  yellow  prussiatc  of  potassa. 
This  fraud  can  be  easily  detected  by  testing  a  solution  of  the  suspected  piper- 
ine with  a  per-salt  of  iron.  The  blue  reaction  is  instantly  produced,  caused 
by  formation  of  ferro  cyanide  of  iron. 

This  reaction  taking  place  while  combining  a  recipe  in  which  the  piperine 
and  a  salt  of  iron  was  ordered,  led  to  the  detection  of  this  fraud,  otherwise  un- 


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3-i2  Rep(/rt  on  llvnu'  Adulteratiout. 

suspectei]. 

Fl.Aveis  or  oxiJe  of  zinc:  ;;!!  spcriuitns  cxaiuiiunl,  e.\i\'j>^  soiuo  (i».ii..a.i, 
provo'i  to  })e  merely  the  carlionato. 

Spet-iiuen  No.  17  is  oil  of  bergamot.  A  lot  of  oil  of  bcr^aruot,  purcluL-od 
at  Uie  Diarkct  latos,  and  to  all  appearances  a  very  fine  artic le,  proved  to  e(»u- 
tain  thirty  per  cent,  of  alcohol,  by  the  usual  test  with  graduated  lube,  and 
treatment  with  water. 

8p.^^cimen  No.  —  is  oil  of  wormwood.  As  rei^Jirds  snrjll  iiud  ta^te  tliisoil  is 
unexceptionable.  Its  specific  gravity  is  so  low  as  to  excite  suspicioiL,  and  it 
proves  to  Ke  adulteratetl  with  ether,  upon  a  careful  examiiiation. 

This  fraud  can  be  easily  detected  by  the  low  boilinj;  point,  and  .specific 
gravity. 

Gamboge  (powdered) — Gamboge,  100  lbs. ;  tartrate  of  lime,  2o  lbs. 

Socotrine  aloes  are  pure  Bonaire,  without  adulteration. 

Cream  of  tartar  is  adulterated  with  from  ten  to  sixty-live  per  cent,  of  terra 
alba,  or  tartrate  of  lime,  with  about  three  per  cent  tartaric  acid. 

Tartaric  Acid  (powdered) — Tartaric  acid,  1000  lbs. ;  alum,  from  ten  to  thirty- 
five  per  cent. 

Scammony,  Aleppo  (powdered) — Virgin  .scammony,  30  lbs.  j  cocoa  beans, 
80  lbs. ;  biscuit,  GO  lbs. ;  lamp-black,  q.  s.  (sufficient  quantity)  to  color. 

Bird  Pepper  (powdered) — Chilics,  1000  lbs. ;  rice,  bO(»  to  12o0  1l»s. ;  curcu- 
ma and  Venetian  red  to  color. 

Powdered  Fenugreek — Fenugreek  se»xls,  1000  lbs. ;  biscuit,  luOO  lbs.  ;  cur- 
cuma, q.  s.  to  color. 

Ea.st  India  Rhubarb  (powdered) — Ea,st  India  Khubarb,  loO  lbs.  ;  English 
do.,  00  lbs. 

English  Rhubarb  (powdered) — English  rhubarb,  100  lbs.  ;  bi>oait,  -30  ll>s.  ; 
curcuma,  to  color. 

Turkey  Khubarb  (powdered) — East  India  rhubarb  and  Turkey  rhubaib, 
equal  parts. 

The  tartrate  of  lime  referred  to  is  more  properly  sulpiiate  of  liuie,  with  a 
small  portion  of  tartrate.  The  ship  biscuit  Is  the  hard  and  often  wonii-eaten 
cakes  brought  in  by  ships  after  a  long  voyage. 

One  of  the  members  of  your  committee,  who  is  acquainted  with  a  gentle- 
man formerly  in  the  drug  grinding  business,  in  New  York,  has  been  kindl}- 
furnished  by  him  with  some  formulas  by  which  "pure  and  genuine  di'ugs", 
were  prepared  when  he  was  at  the  mill  referred  to : — 

Powdered  Cape  Aloes — Cape  aloes,  dried,  100  lbs. ;  ship  biscuit,  100  lbs. ; 
curcuma,  q.  s.  to  color. 

Common  Ginger — African  ginger,  200  lbs. ;  ca})sicum  hulls,  25  lbs. ;  bis- 
cuit, 1000  lbs. ;  curcuma,  q.  s.  to  color. 

Ipecac,  (powdered) — Ipecac,  100  lbs. ;  ship  biscuit,  25  to  40  lbs. 

Opium  (powdered) — Turkey  opium,  50  lbs. ;  Egyptian  opium,  25  lbs. ;  bis- 
cuit, 40  lbs. 

Your  committee  have  noticed,  in  making  a  number  of  examinations  of  arti- 


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A*^yv>r/  on  Uijiue  Adulterations.  c4o 

cles  farnlsliocl  by  manufacturers,  as  ascetic,  nitric,  muriatic  ac' i.  arjua  aiiuiio- 
nia,  oxide  of  yanc,  ^ub-«';ivb<>af'tL*  of  ii'»n,  ami  orlicis.  that  but  little  aitc.uion 
is  paid  to  the  requirements  of  the  Phnnnacopd'ia,  as  every  i»!iarmaceuti>t  vi\n 
ascertain  with  but  litth^  trouble. 

We  think  it  important,  and  would  sugp^est  to  this  a<soci;ition  the  propriety 
of  calling  special  attention  to  this  point,  that  while  we  hace  a  standard  our 
manufacturers  should  furnish  articles  that  cm  be  depeuded  ujion  for  purity 
and  for  officinal  strength. 

In  ^  onclusion,  your  committee  express  the  hope  that  the  effort  made  by 
them  to  awaken  more  of  an  interest  in  the  subject  of  adulterations  may  meet 
with  favorable  support  from  the  association. 

We  feel  that  we  have  barely  touched  upon  the  subject — very  many  in- 
stances of  fraud  and  deception  are  not  alluded  to — ^but  what  we  have  said^and 
done  we  trust  may  be  for  the  benefit  of  the  public  and  of  our  profes-iion  at 
large.  We  cannot  take  leave  of  the  subject,  however,  without  expressing  the 
satisfaction  we  feel  as  we  refer  to  very  many  members  of  our  profession  who 
strive  to  raise  the  standard  of  their  business  by  discountenancing,  in  every 
way  in  their  power,  all  fraud  and  deception. 

The  stigma  of  adulteration  does  not  belong  to  the  drug  trade  alone ;  in 
fact,  very  many  articles  of  food  are  systematically  and  almost  always  adulter- 
ated, so  that  to  obtain  them  in  their  absolute  purit}'  is  almost  the  exception. 
Of  such  are  the  ground  sjjices,  coffee^,  &c. 

AVe  are  aware  tnis  is  a  strong  assertion,  f.»at  proof  can  be  produced,  were  it 
necessary. 

(.)nc  article  referred  to,  that  of  jj^iound  coffee,  we  can  give  the  fonuula  by 
which  it  is  made. 

This  coffee,  put  up  in  one-pound  papers,  and  labelled  ''fine  old  Java,"  is 
made  -as  follows  : — For  ever}  one  hundred  pounds  there  are  sixty  i)ounds  of 
peas,  twenty  pounds  of  chickory,  and  twenty  pounds  of  coffee. 

ThLs  compound  sells  for  12Je.  per  pound,  and  any  person  can  judge  of  the 
value  of  it  as  cotleo,  containing  as  it  does  but  twenty  per  cent,  of  that  .sub- 
stance. 

There  are  many  upright  and  honorable  men,  however,  vvho  discountenance 
any  such  hnposition  upon  the  public,  in  all  branches  of  trade ;  and  we  feel  a 
proud  satisfaction  in  referring  to  them,  whether  members  of  oiu:  profession  or 
not  In  our  oicn  ranks  we  know  there  are  many  upon  whom  the  public  can 
rely ;  and,  in  closing,  we  can  only  urge  upon  this  association,  once  more,  the 
importance  of  this  subject,  earnestly  soliciting  the  hearty  co-operation  of 
every  member  to  raise  the  standard  of  our  profession,  and  as  far  as  possible  to 
difjcourage  and  expose  fraud  and  deception. 

Subsequently.  Prof.  Charles  T.  Jackson,  who  had  listened  to  the  reading  of 
the  report,  made  ^  some  remarks  about  adulterations  that  had  come  within  hi^ 
knowledge.  In  Boston  and  vicinity  corn  meal  and  bran  are  used  in  adultera- 
tion, instead  of  ship-bread,  as  in  New  York,  and  bran  is  substituted  for  red 
lead  in  the  manufacture  of  red  pepper.     Com  meal  is  used  in  mustard  to  the 


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344  Emphyment  of  Yeralina. 

extent  of  from  thirty  to  fifty  per  cent  The  cream  of  tartar  used  in  makmg 
bread  is  made  up,  in  part,  of  ground  rice  and  alum.  Gum  tragacanth  enters 
into  the  composition  of  opium,  and  spices  and  blistering  flies  are  ground  in 
the  same  mill.  At  the  request  of  Mr.  Brewer,  of  Boston,  he  also  explained 
his  method  of  ascertaining  when  leather  was  colored  by  Nicaragua  wood  in- 
stead of  cochineal. 

Remarks  upon  this  subject  were  made  by  several  other  gentlemen. 

Mr.  HoUis,  of  Boston,  said  com  meal  was  used  in  ground  cinnamon,  and 
soda  ash  was  sold  for  saleratus. 

Mr.  Dix,  of  New  York,  said  that  it  was  within  his  knowledge  that  one  firm 
in  that  city  used  annually  100  tons  of  soda  ash  in  manufacturing  saleratus, 
and  other  establishments  used  smaller  amounts. 

Remarks  were  also  made  by  several  gentlemen  upon  the  importation  of  im- 
pure scammony,  from  Smyrna,  and  the  discussion  was  kept  up  till  the  conven- 
tion took  a  recess,  at  six  o'clock. 


Employment  of  Yeratria  in  Acute  Diseases  of  the  Chest. 

M.  Aran  has  called  the  attention  of  practitioners  to  the  remarkable  effects 
produced  by  the  internal  use  of  veratria  in  febrile  diseases,  and  especially 
pneumonia.  In  the  Sardinian  Medical  Gazette  an  article  has  appeared,  in 
which  Dr.  Ghiglia,  without  any  knowledge  of  M.  Aran's  researches,  recom- 
mends the  use  of  veratria  in  the  same  circumstances,  except  that  he  never  em- 
ploys this  alkaloid  alone,  but  associates  it  almost  always  with  opium,  some- 
times in  the  form  of  pill,  sometimes  as  a  syrup.  The  dose  of  veratria  is  five 
millegrammes  (.077  of  a  Troy  grain)  in  a  pill,  with  the  same  quantity  of  opi- 
um, and  the  number  of  piUs  to  be  taken  in  the  twenty-four  hours  varies  from 
six  to  seven,  and  even  twelve,  according  to  the  circumstances.  In  this  dose, 
according  to  M.  Ghiglia,  vomiting  rarely  occurs,  but  nausea  and  the  other  de- 
pressing effects  of  veratria  are  present.  The  results  obtained  by  M.  Ghiglia 
in  certain  cases  of  pneumonia,  bronchitis,  and  broncho-pneumonia  hdve  been 
sometimes  most  remarkable,  and  the  following  are  the  results  arrived  at  by 
this  author: — "1.  The  inflammation  of  the  respiratory  organs,  when  they 
have  arrived  at  such  a  period  as  to  produce  disorp;anization  of  the  parts,  arc 
not  improved  by  the  use  of  veratria.  2.  The  action  of  this  substance  is  the 
more  favorable  in  proportion  as  the  disease  is  more  recent.  #  -3.  The  tolerance 
is  very  various,  accoruing  to  individual  habits,  and  perhaps  also  according  to 
certain  peculiarities  which  are  not  well  understood.  4.  The  more  easily  the 
tolerance  ceases  the  more  marked  is  the  depression.  5.  Veratria  is,  in 
many  respect^,  a  preferable  medicine  to  others  which  are  more  constant  in 
their  action  but  less  easy  to  take.  And  0.  It  is  perhaps  prudent,  in  severe  in- 
flammations of  the  respiratory  organs,  to  order  a  few  bleedings  before  pre- 
scribing  the  veratria. — Bullet  hi   General  lU    Theraiytntiiiue,   January  CO, 


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Cure  of  Faded  Neuralgia. — Tannin,  346 

Easy  and  Certain  Cure  of  Facial  Neuralgia. 

By  Dr.  Burdadi^  of  Luckau, 

Dr.  Burdach  recommends  corrosive  sublimate  as  a  specific,  never- failing  reme- 
dy, in  cases  of  facial  neuralgia.  lie  has  used  it  for  more  than  thirty  years, 
and  always  obtained  a  prompt  and  certain  cure,  no  matter  how  severe  a  form 
the  disease  had  assumed.  The  formula  he  employs  is  the  same  which  he  re- 
commended in  Hufeland's  Journal  for  1820  and  ls:^0,  in  the  treatment  of  rheu- 
matic gout.     It  is  the  following  : — 

IJ. — Liquor.  Hydrarg.  Bichlorid.  corrosiv.  (Pharmac.  Borus.)    3  jss. ; 
Vini  Semin.  Colchici,  fss. — M. 
S.  Thirty  to  sixty  drops  every  two  hours. 

Cases  re(iuiring  the  latter  dose  were  extremely  rare.  (The  LU\.  Hydrarg. 
Bichlorid.  corros.  of  the  Prussian  Pharmacopoeia  contains  corrosive  sublimate 
and  hydrochlorate  of  ammonia,  one  grain  of  each  to  the  ounce  uf  water.)" 
Each  dose  of  the  medicine  should  be  followed  by  a  draught  of  the  species  ad 
deooctum  lignorum,  (the  species  ud  decoct,  lignor.  consists  of  guaioum-wood, 
two  parts ;  lappa  and  saponaria,  one  part  of  each ;  liquorice-root  and  sassafras, 
half  a  part  of  each.  One  ounce  of  this  inixturc  is  used  to  a  pint  of  water.) 
There  is  about  one-thirtieth  to  one  iiflctnth  of  a  grain  of  sublimate  given  in 
each  dose,  a  quantity  which  is  jxencrally  well  borne  by  the  patients.  In 
order  to  assist  the  cure,  Dr.  Burdach  sometimes  ordered  the  local  application 
of  veratria  ointment,  but  in  the  generality  of  cases  it  could  be  dispensed  with, 
as  the  sublimate  acte<l  promptly  without  it.  In  very  sensitive  patients,  acetic 
acid,  chlorofonu,  or  tincture  of  opium,  might  be  added  t6  the  given  formula ; 
such  an  addition,  however,  is  not  to  be  recommended. 

To  obtain  prompt  action  of  the  remedy,  it  is  absolutely  necessary  to  give  it 
in  fluid  form,  and  at  the  inter\als  prescribed  above,  for  in  the  form  of  pills  it 
seems  to  exercise  but  little  control  over  the  disease. — Mtdizinische  Cent.  7Ae- 
tung^  and  North  Amer.  Med.  Ghir.  Reciew. 


Employment  of  Tannin  in  Large  Doses  in  Albuminous 

Anasarca. 

By  Dr.  P.  Oamier. 

Although  the  internal  use  of  tannic  acid  is  still  very  limited  in  France,  its 
employment  in  large  doses  has  been  much  recommended  lately  in  other  coun- 
tries, and  has  been  extended  to  numerous  cases  which,  while  proving  its  in- 
noxious character,  appear  to  exhibit  it  as  possessing  some  totally  new  proper- 
tics.  It  has  been  shown  to  be  useful  in  all  cases  where  it  is  required  to  arrest 
hemorrhages,  to  give  tone  to  organism,  or  to  remedy  morbid  secretions.  It 
has  been  employed,  for  example  with  great  benefit,  in  albuminuria,  diabetes, 
and  serous  infiltrations. 

From  these  considerations,  Dr.  Qarnier  has  been  induce!  to  employ  tannic 


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34.(y  Tanniu, — Xcv:  Disinfecting   G>)nposiiion. 

acid  in  the  albuminous  anajiarca  consecutive  to  scarlatina ;  and  he  adduces 
several  cases  illustrative  of  this  mode  of  treatment,  drawn  from  his  own  expe- 
rience and  cases  recorded  by  other  physicians.  The  cases  all  prove  that  in 
the  general  serous  infiltration  of  the  tissues  complicated  with  albuminous 
urine  there  is  a  rapid  and  simultaneous  disappearance  of  these  two  morbid 
phenomena  imder  the  influence  of  tannin  alone,  admin isterod  in  a  large  dose. 
The  conclusions  drawn  by  Di*.  Gamier  are,  that  tannin,  employed  in  doses  of 
two  to  four  grains  a  day  (3ss.  to  3j.)  cures  ana.sarca  or  a»dema  developed 
passively  and  occurring  simultaneously  with  albuminous  urine ;  that  its  cura- 
tive action  is  manifested  by  abundant  urine,  gradually  resuming  its  physiolo- 
gical characters,  by  perspiration,  easy  alvine  evacuations,  return  of  appetite, 
&C. :  that  these  signs  appear  fi*om  the  second  day  of  the  administration  of  the 
tannin ;  that,  given  in  solution  in  doses  of  twenty  to  fifty  centigrammes  at  a 
time,  tannin  causes  no  unfavorable  symptoms  affecting  the  digestive  passages ; 
and  lastly,  that  the  action  of  tannin  appears  to  be  exerted  primarily  upon  the 
fluids  of  the  economy,  the  albuminous  principles  of  which  it  coagulates  and 
rendei-s  plastic,  and  that  its  <'ons«cutive  action  on  the  solids  appears  to  be 
tonic  and  astringent. — Archurtu  Oeneralen  fff  Medichr^  Jannari/y  185P.    * 


New  Disinfecting  Composition. 

M.  Velpeau  has  recently  comnuuucated  to  the  Academy  of  8cienc-es  a  i>apcr 
from  Drs.  Dcuruux  and  (-orno,  describing  a  disinfoctint!,-  composition,  which  is 
said  to  be  <»t  jrroat  ctficafy.  Tt  is  intioduced,  with  tlic-  Jivcrani  of  scientilic 
trumi»olinp,  which  is  peculiui*,  on  the  other  side  of  the  Channel,  to  medical 
practitioners,  who  have  furbished  up  an  old  notion,  or  had  the  good  luck  to 
hit  upon  a  novel  expedient,  of  which  the  eccentricity  is  but  too  often  the  chief 
merit,  and  which  is  but  only  emulated  here  by  the  lessectf  of  operatic  or  dra- 
matic enterprise.  AVe  trust  that  the  lofty  claims  which  have  been  put  forth 
may  in  some  degree  be  realized  on  this  occasion.  This  discovery,  which  is 
described  as  being  of  the  "highest  importance  in  surgery,"  and  as  entitling 
its  inventors  **to  rank  high  amongst  the  benefactors  of  mankind,''  &c.,  con- 
sists in  the  application  of  a  compound  which  "  absorbs  pus,  and  destroys  its 
fetid  smell/'  dispensing  also  with  the  necessity  of  employing  lint  The  pre- 
scription is  as  follows : — Take  one  hundred  parts  of  plaster  of  Paris,  finely 
powdered :  of  coal  tar,  from  one  to  three  parts,  and  mix  in  a  mortar ;  add  a 
suflBcient  quantity  of  olive  oil  to  reduce  the  mixture  to  the  consistence  of 
ointment,  and  preserve  for  use  in  a  close  vessel.  This  mixture  is  of  a  dark 
brown  color,  and  has  a  bituminous  smell.  The  oil  binds  the  powder  without 
dissolving  it,  so  that  the  compound  retains  its  absorbing  quality  when  placed 
in  contact  with  a  suppurating  sore;  and  it  never  dries  sutliciently  to  become 
inconvenient  to  the  patient  by  its  hardness,  nor  can  it  do  any  injury  to  tlio 
sore.  The  application  may  be  immediate  or  mediate,  according  to  circmn- 
sU\pr«:>.  irapplitd  imi-h  (ii.iLely  Lu  l!.o  s  )io  it.  c.^i'-u-  lu.  j^uin,  auti  hh.>  a  deter- 
sive notion  favt'iiihle  Lo  ei.-aui/.alion.     'Ihe  advai.tagt.^  \\hioh  il  oii\r.>  ui'e  sun\- 


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New  Disinfecting  Composition. — Iodine. — Belladonna.        847 

mod  up  as  follows : — 1.  \  gangrenous  wound,  emitting  fetid-  and  abundant 
pus,  is  at  once  deprived  of  its  bad  smell.  2.  After  a  twenty-four  or  thirty- 
six  hours'  application  the  bandages  of  a  bad  sore  exhale  jio  more  smell  than  if 
they  had  been  applied  to  a  common  fracture.  8.  A  cancerous  ulcer  is  imme* 
diatcly  deprived  of  its  fetor.  4.  The  s«me  is  the  case  ^th  ulcers  of  the  legs. 
5.  Bandages  and  poultices  charged  'with  offensive  pus  are  at  ance  disinfected 
when  brought  into  contact  with  the  compound  above  described.  6.  Tt  also 
stops  decomposition,  keeps  away  insects,  and  prevents  the  generation  of 
worms. 

Drs.  Chevreuil,  Velpeau,  and  Cloquct  have  been  appointed  by  the  Academy 
to  report  on  this  composition.— JC<?7irfon  iMncet,  Ang,  6. 


On  the  Effect  of  Long-Continued  Doses  of  Iodine. 

By  M.  RiUict. 
M.  Rilliet,  of  Geneva,  relates  some  cases  to  the  Paris  Acad^mie  in  proirf 
that  iodine,  although  administered  in  small  doses,  if  continued  for  too  long  a 
period  may  gradually  induce  symptoms,  the  origin  of  which  may  not  alwayg 
be  obvious*  He  concludes: — 1.  The  prolonged  absorption  of  an  iodized  salt, 
whether  contained  in  water,  the  air,  or  in  food,  is  not  always  without  danger. 
2.  The  inhabitants  of  some  lo(^alilies  are  more  exposed  to  this  inthience  than 
others;  and  such  suscepti))ility  may  be  due  to  the  minute  quantity  of  iodine 
coutaiiied  in  the  air,  wator,  or  food,  employed  in  such  localiti«*s,  ''.  This  iodic 
intoxication  is  perhaps  more  to  be  feared  when  the  m«''Ucine  i.s  <:ivt  n  in  siuall 
than  in  lavL'C  quuiiMtl'  -,  ns  a  preventive  rnthcr  than  as  a  t'urativc  --^  icnt  in  a 
localized  and  confirmed  diathesis.  4.  It  is  a  very  exceptional  oc'inrence  in 
childhood,  rare  in  adult  age,  and  more  to  be  feared  as  the  subjects  advance  in 
life ;  therefore  the  administration  of  iodine  to  persons  older  than  forty  must 
be  especially  watched,  and  it  must  be  suspended  on  the  appearance  of  the  first 
symptoms  of  saturation,  as  bulimia,  emaciation,  palpitation  of  the  heart,  or 
nervous  susceptibility.  5.  The  best  remedies  in  this  kind  of  slow  poisoning 
are  milk,  restoratives,  change  of  air,  and  iron. — BulUtin  de  V  Academic. 


Poisonous  Effects  of  Belladonna  Used  Externally. 

A  lady,  aged  about  forty-three,  suffering  from  severe  pain  in  the  hypogastric 
region,  was  ordered  to  apply  the  following  liniment  twice  a  day : — Camphorated 
oil  of  henbane,  thirty,  and  extract  of  belladona,  four  parts.  Forty-eight 
hours  after  commencing  its  use  she  was  seized  with  delirium.  The  pupils  be- 
came dilate^l,  and  there  were  irregular  movements,  lipothymia,  redness  of  the 
fixce,  and  a  fixed  stare.  Sinapisms  were  applied  to  the  feet,  acidulated  drinks 
were  administered,  and  a  bleeding  was  to  be  perfo»Tncil,  when  abundant  men- 
-*  .Li!  \\.\v\.  r,^o  <;*:iiO  oi',  ai  Crliw'".!;  i\v  j.r'»rfr  < ;.  '^'i  '  >,  1  •;  '■:  .  '/v'  /*.  vs. 
The  ^vmptoms  of  poisoniinr  gradually  disappean.'d. 


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848        Uva  UrsL — Oyanide  of  Potassium, — Saline  InjectUms, 
Uva  Ursi  a  Substitute  for  Ergot  of  Rye. 

It  has  for  some  time  been  known  that  the  foetus  may  suffer  from  the  ad- 
ministration of  ergot  to  the  mother ;  and  M.  St  Claire  Deville  has  recently 
brought  forward  statistics  which  would  tend  to  show  that  the  fears  entertained 
on  the  subject  are  not  exaggerated.  (Vide  the  Lancet^  vol.  i.,  1859,  p.  62G.) 
Struck  by  these  facts,  M.  Gauchet  (Bulk  tin  de  T/tempeufique,  June  loth, 
1850,)  gave  the  uva  ursi  a  trial  in  a  case  of  lingering  labor. 

The  patient  was  forty  yeai's  of  age,  and  pregnant  for  the  fourth  time.  After 
ten  hours  of  great  suffering,  little  progress  had  been  made,  though  the  os  uteri 
was  soft  and  tolerably  dilated.  Balf  an  ouncQ  of  uva  ursi  leaves  were  now  in- 
fused in  a  quart  of  water,  for  an  hour,  and  a  teacupful  of  this  infusion  was 
taken  every  half  hour.  After  the  first  three  doses,  the  contractions,  which 
had  almost  entii;ely  ceased,  became  vigorous,  and  the  patient  was  delivered 
of  a  living  child  three  hours  after  taking  the  first  cup. 


Poisoning  by  Cyanide  of  Potassium. 

At  Ji  late  meeting  of  the  New  York  Patholoj^iral  Sofi%.ty,  T)r.  rirncll  yn^- 
scnted  a  sperimcn  of  a  stomach  removed  from  a  p'lticnt  w^o  was  junvonod 
by  cyanide  of  ])ota^sijun.  The  patient  AA'as  a  d.'i'.cuerrian  artist.  He  swal- 
lowed a  piece  of  salt  as  larirc  as  tlie  end  of  the  finger.  Iminediatoly  he  cried 
for  water,  but  before  he  coidd  get  his  month  to  the  ])ipe  of  the  hydrant  be 
died.  Death  took  place  in  from  three  to  five  minutes  after  he  swallowed  the 
poison. 

In  answer  to  a  question  from  Dr.  Clark,  he  stated  that  the  S3'mptoms  ol 
poisoning  by  this  salt  were  very  like  those  from  poisoning  b}^  prussic  acid. 
The  death  was  verV  rapid  This  was  the  third  case  he  had  met  with.  This 
man  lived  but  three  minutes,  another  lived  twelve  minutes,  and  a  third  he 
was  not  certain  how  long  he  survived ;  it  was  a  very  short  time,  however.  In 
each  of  the  cases  the  stomach  was  intensely  reddened. 

Dr.  Dalton  thought  it  was  important  to  know  that  injection  of  the  stomach 
took  place  in  so  short  a  time  as  three  minutes,  unless  most  of  the  change  was 
post-mortem. — Xashtille  Monthly  Record. 


Saline  Injections  in  Diptheritis. 

M.  Roche  states  that  he  has  been  so  successful  in  some  cases  in  which  he 
has  tried  the  injection  of  a  solution  of  chloride  of  sodium  into  the  throat,  that 
in  his  next  case  he  is  disposed  to  employ  it  as  the  sole  means  of  treatment 
He  practises,  in  fact,  a  continuous,  or  almost  continuous,  irrigation  of  the 
throat,  by  means  of  Eguisier's  irrigator,  provided  with  a  canula  having  a  very 
small  jet.  He  believes  that  it  is  in  such  irrigations,  whether  employing  salt, 
alum,  or  the  chlorates,  we  should  seek  for  curative  agents. —  Union  MSdicale, 


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PhanncLcy.  34& 


Pharmacy. 

LEMONADE    OP     IRON. 

Take  twenty  parts  of  bitartrate  of  potash,  eight  part^  of  hydrat^d  sesqut 
oxide  of  iron,  one  part  of  pure  iodine.  Make  a  tartrate  of  potash  and  iron  by 
the  ordinary  process.  Dissolve  afterwards  three  grammes  (40 i^  grs.)  of  this 
new  salt  and  sixty  grammes  (two  ounces)  of  hot  distilled  water,  filter,  put  the 
solution  in  a  quart  bottle,  and  add  gaseous  water. 

Usually  the  preparations  of  iron  are  given  in  a  solid  state,  and  in  cases  of 
weak  and  exhausted  stomachs  are  not  well  received.  The  lemonade  of  iron 
has  cmmenagogue  properties  in  the  highest  degree.  Succeeds  well  in  phthsis 
cliloiosis,  amcnorrha»a,  t^c. — Reportolre  de  Pharmacle. 

PKEPAIIATION    FOR    BLEXSOKKII ACIA. 

The  Journal  *lc  Ml  ndne  et  th  ('hlrurrjic  Pr*ifo/iic  publislus  the  following 
formula,  by  Dr.  Clerc: — 

'  U .  CuLcl>s, C)0  grammes. 

Cop;ii))a, 20 

Catechu, 5         *' 

Coiis'vTvo  roses, q.   s. 

The  patient  should  take,  twice  a  day,  a  piece  of  the  compound,  ol  the  size 
of  a  walnut.  Sometimes  Dr.  Clerc  directs  it  to  be  divided  into  eighty  parts, 
giving  from  four  to  six  at  intervals  during  the  day. 

SYHLP    or    IODIDE    OF   POTASSILJi    IN    SVFJilLIS. 

M.  Basin  gives  iodide  of  potossium  in  this  disease,  in  doses  of  tive  to  seven 
and  a  half  grains,  till  seventy -seven  gi'ains  are  given.  Seldom  had  occasion  to 
give  more,     lie  prefers  the  following  formula: — 

IJ.  Bi-iodide  of  mercury, 8  grains. 

Iodide  of  potassium, 2^  drachms. 

S3rrup  of  saponaria, 18  ounces. 

Dose — ^B^n  with  two  teaspoonsful,  twice  a  day,  and  increase  until  four  tea- 
spoonsful  are  taken  at  a  time. 

IODIZED   LIQUID    FOR   DISINFECTING   WOl  NDS    AND    ULCERATIONS    OF   A  BAD    NATURE. 
Hf/  Marechal  (Z)e  Calvt),  M.  D, 

3-  Iodine, 15^  grains. 

Iodide  df  potassium, 31         *' 

Distilled  water, 3  pints. 

Apply  compresses  soaked  in  this  liquid  to  the  wounds,  changing  them  seve- 
ral times  a  day,  or,  without  changing  the  compresses,  keep  them  saturated 
with  the  iodized  solution. — Reportoire  de  Pharmacie, 

SOLUTION   FOR   INJECTIONS   FOR   INFLAMMATION    OF    THE   URETHRA. 

3 .  Liquid  chloride  of  zinc, 24  to  36  drops. 


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350  PluDmacy, 

Distilled  water, 3  ounces. 

Agitate  and  filter. 
Apply  two  or  three  injections  a  day.     Each  injection  to  be  made  with  a 
small  syringe,  with  very  little  of  the  liquid. — Reportoire  dc  Pharma^ie. 

JELLY     AN'D     LOTION     OF    GLYCERINE,    FOR    CUTS,    EXCORIATIONS,     FLSSCRKS    OF    THE 
NIPPLE,    LIPS    AND    HANDS. 

Jdly  of  GlycertTie, 

5  •  Gum  tragacanth, i  ounce. 

Lime  water, .'. 4        " 

Glj'cerine, 1        " 

Rose  water, ^i      " 

Make  into  a  soft  jelly,  convenient  to  be  used  as  an  embrocation. 
Lotion  of  Glycerine. 

IJ.  Biborate  of  soda, 3  to  6  grains. 

Glycerine, 1  ounce. 

Water, 4      " 

[Repertoire  ih  Pharmaeie, 

NEW    PROCESS    FOR   THE    PREPARATION   OF   LEMONADE  WITH  CITRATE  OF  MAGNESIA. 

The  preparation  of  the  lemonade  with  citrate  of  magnesia  has  become  so 
popular  that  there  is  no  little  curiosity  prevalent  for  the  ynodus  oi>crmi(li  of  a 
preparation  so  agreeable,  and  which  keeps  for  several  months. 

In  a  njiort  made  to  the  Sooiete  de  Pharmaeie  we  find  mcniioiud  a  process 
which  ha<  for  its  ohjeot  the  snpplyinj;  of  this  creat  desidiratnni.  'J'he  formu- 
\tv  given  are  for  loTnonade  of  flifforent  degrees,  the  weight  of  firticles  used 
being  expressed  in  full  numbers,  so  a.s  to  form  the  citrate  of  magnesia,  with 
twelve  eijuivalents  of  water : — 

1.  Lemonade  of  thirty  grammes — 

Citric  acid, ...  11  grammes. 

White  magnesia, 12         " 

2.  Lemonade  of  forty  grammes — 

Citric  acid, 17  grammes. 

White  magnesia, 16         " 

B.  lemonade  of  forty-five  grammes — 

Citric  acid, 20  grammes. 

White  magnesia, 18         " 

4.  Lemonade  of  fifty  grammes — 

Citric  acid, 24  grammes. 

White  maf>:nesia, 21         " 

5.  Lemomade  of  sixty  grammes — 

Citrio  acid, 28  grammes. 

White  niagiKsia 24         " 

]♦;;.. 'r  .he  <*ar^  (.1.  it  -A  Lr<-n(s..v,  in  a  ukm /tv,  \\ith  t\V(.  Lu.i'I^mI  ;u..i  tifty 
or  five  ];ui.  Ired  <j;ram]i;('S  of  water,  according  to  the  quantity  It  is  de-^ired  to 


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'  Pharmacy.  351 

:make ;  the  mixture  is  then  introduced  into  a  bottle  of  very  strong;  glass,  the 
add  then  added  in  crystals,  and  the  bottles  carefully  and  tightly  corked. 
After  six,  eight  or  ten  houi*s,  according  to  the  strength  of  the  lemonade  and 
the  quantity  of  carbonate  of  magnesia  used,  all  the  carbonate  will  have 
disappeared.  The  bottles  should  be  kept  cool,  in  a  cellar,  taking  the  pre- 
caution to  see  that  the  bottles  are  kept  well  corked,  so  that  they  will  re- 
tain all  the  gas ;  if  allowed  to  escape,  insoluble  carbonate  of  magnesia  will  be 
•formed.  To  prepare  the  lemonade^  uncork  a  bottle,  pour  the  very  gaseous 
solution  upon  a  filter,  and  receive  the  liquid  in  another  bottle  containing  eight 
grammes  of  citric  acid  and  fifty  grammes  of  syrup  of  any  kind.  The  syrup 
preserves  the  crystals  of  acid  from  the  action  of  the  liquid,  and  the  solution 
of  citrate  and  bi-carbonate  of  magnesia  is  readily  filtered,  without  decomposi- 
tion of  the  last  salt.  Fill  the  bottle  with  ordinary  water,  and  cork  well. 
Upon  shaking  the  bottle  the  syrup  is  dissolved ;  the  citric  acid  decomposes 
the  bi-carbonate  of  magnesia,  and  forms  citrate  of  magnesia  and  carbonic  acid, 
which  remains  in  solution.  Lemonade  made  by  this  process  will  keep  two  or 
"three  months  without  becoming  turbid. — Abeilh  Medicate. 

ADULTERATION    OF   VALERIANATE    OP    IKON. 

The  valerianates  are  often  adulterated,  the  adulteration  consistinjjj  of  the 
mixture  of  some  salt  with  a  certain  quantity  of  essential  oil  of  valerian.  '  M. 
Monnerat  has  given  some  easy  methods  of  detecting  these  adulterations.  lie 
found  the  false  valerianate  had  a  deeper  color  than  the  true,  and  that  it  was 
insoliible  in  alcohol  and  ether,  and  that  when  treated  with  boiling  water  it 
jraw,  after  coolinn:,  a  deposit  of  ^uhcr.rbouate  of  iron,  ajul  a  con-id<'ral)le  quan- 
tity of  e^sentml  oil  of  valerian  Houtinj^  upon  the  snrfucc  of  th<'  li(iuid.  Be- 
sides, the  true  valerianate  of  iron  is  insoluble  in  water,  but,  on  the  contnxry, 
is  entirely  soluble  in  alcohol.  Another  character  of  the  true  valerianate  is  its 
acid,  disagreeable,  persistent  smell,  which  is  very  diflferent  from  the  pene- 
-trating  odor  of  valerian  presented  by  the  false  valerianates  formed  by  the  ad- 
dition of  the  essential  oil  of  the  plant. — The  Drvggist^  Juve,  1859. 

ELIXIR   OF   CrrRO-LACTATE   OF    IR0>*. 

M.  Robineaud  gives  the  following  recipe,  in  the  Journal  de  Pharyrutcie,  for 
this  preparation : — 

5.  Citrate  of  protoxide  of  iron, 1  drachm. 

Lactate  of  protoxide  of  iron, \        " 

Distilled  water, 19     fluid  drachms. 

Alcohol  (eighty  per  cent), 14  " 

Simple  syrup, 20  *^ 

Tincture  of  lemon  peel, .* \  fluid  dracbni. 

Tincture  of  cinnamon, i 

Tincture  of  cloves, 0     drops. 

Cai-nmel, q.  s. 

Put   ihj    I-u:L-ilt'  "i"  ^^,u,   \\\   \,o\\Ak\\  \\i  aca;.-iiU,  u.i'ii  t'.c  <'.■><":.' -i  vN.it- j'; 
lic:it    ;;e'.illy    till   d'--o]s"(l;    n-ld    tlic   prolo-citr-ite    of    ircT!.    \\]:i<lj    i^.:.->-olvc> 


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352  Pharmacy. 

promptly ;  filter  the  solution  into  a  bottle  containing  previously  the  syrup  and 
alchohol,  and  lastly,  add  the  tinctures  and  caramel. 

BITTER    WINE    OF    IRON. 

By  M'lii.  S.  Thoinption. 

Having  }>ecn  requested  by  a  medical  friend  to  make  the  preparation  above 
named,  to  contain  one  gi*ain  of  Wetheriirs  precipitated  extract  of  bark  and 
two  grains  of  citrate  of  iron  in  a  teaspoonful  of  sherry  wine,  I  devised  the 
Ibllowing  formula,  after  several  experiments : — 
?.  Solution  of  persulphate  of  iron  (containing  60 

grains  of  dry  oxide  to  the  fluid  ounce), . . .  .17.V  fluid  drachms. 

Citric  acid, C     drachms. 

Sherry  wine, 24     fluid  ounces. 

Water  of  ammonia, q.  s. 

Wetheriirs  precipitated  extract  of  bark, 221  grains. 

Dissolve  the  precipitated  extract  of  bark  in  tlic  wine,  and  filter  tlirough 
paper.  Dilute  the  solution  of  persulphate  of  iron  with  a  sutlicient  quantity 
of  water  (about  one  quart),  and  add  a  suflicjent  quantity  of  water  of 
of  ammonia,  to  precipitiite  the  peroxide ;  wash  the  precipitate  in  the  usual 
manner,  drain  it  on  a  unislin  filter,  transfer  tlic  washed  nuignia  to  a  porcelain 
dish,  and  add  the  citric  acid  (previously  i educed  to  a  line  po\v<lei) ;  then  api>ly 
a  gentle  heat,  stinioL^  eon>tantly  until  the  oxide  is  dissolved,  when  add  three 
and  a  half  drachms  of  water  of  ammonia,  taking  care  that  the  latter  is  not  in 
excess.  The  bright  green  solution  of  amnion ia-percitrate  of  iron  obtained, 
should  be  reduced  by  gentle  evaporation  to  four  fluid  ounces,  and  then  poured 
into  the  twenty-four  fluid  ounces  of  vinous  solution  of  precipitated  extract  of 
bark,  above  described. 

Our  medrcal  friends  prefer,  in  some  cjises,  the  above  preparation  of  half  the 
given  strength,  which  is  prepared  by  using  wine  enough  to  make  the  whole 
measure  fifty -six  instead  of  twenty-eight  fluid  ounces.  The  flavor  of  the 
wine  may  be  improved  by  the  addition  of  a  small  quantity  of  strong  tinc- 
ture of  orange  peel,  or  a  few  drops  of  fresh  oil  of  orange. — Jounxal  TratiB. 
Md.  Col  riiarm.y  June,  1859. 

SVRUP   OF   PROTO-CARBONATE    OF    IRON. 

In  place  of  all  the  complicated  recipes  furnished  for  syrups  of  unchangeable 
protoxide,  ct  id  genus  omne,  we  give  the  following  as  a  simple  and  excellent 
preparation : — 

IJ.  SodsB  bicarbonatis  (crystalized,  if  to  be  had),. .  .1     drachm. 

Ferri  proto-sulphatis  (crystalized ), H  drachms. 

Powder  coarsely  and  shake  up,  without  applica- 
cation  of  heat,  with 

Syi*up  simplicis 6    ounces. 

One  ounce  of  the  syi-up  contains  six  grains  of  the  proto-carbonate  of 
iron. 


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Mitarial  $58 

Editorial. 

Adulteration  op  Medicine. — ^We  publish,  this  month,  the  conclusion  of 
the  interesting  report  upon  adulterations,  made  before  the  Convention  of 
Apothecaries  at  Boston,  in  September.  The  Society  have  very  wisely  con- 
tinued the  Committee  another  year,  with  Mr.  C.  T.  Carney  at  its  head ;  and 
it  is  hoped  this  subject  will  be  pursued,  and  Committees  continued,  who  will 
push  their  investigations  until  the  public  shall  have  been  thoroughly  enlight- 
ened concerning  the  frauds  going  on  around  us. 

It  has  been  urged  that  the  publication  of  the  processes  employtnl  in  adultcr- 
tion  only  give  information  whereby  it  will  become  general.  The  re]>ly  to  this 
is,  clearly,  that  the  knowledge  given  to  the  public  will  put  them  on  an  e<|ual 
footing  with  the  adulterator,  and,  knowing  his  modus  oj^mndi,  will  detect  his 
frauds  as  readily  as  he  perpetrates  them,  and  will  consc(iucntly  avoid  him.  Ji 
is  not  to  be  supposed  that  knowing  the  process  will  act  as  a  temi)tation  to  a 
skillful  physician  to  use  such  remedies  in  his  practice.  This  Association, 
knowing  the  existence  of  these  frauds,  are  in  duty  boiuid  to  investigate  and 
expose  them:  to  conceal  them  or  decline  to  investigate  them,  shutting  its 
eyes  to  what  is  daily  met  with  in  every  commercial  i)lace,  would  almost  consti- 
tute a  connivance,  and  make  it  accessory  after  the  fact,  and  deprive  it  of  the 
confidence  and  supjxjrt  of  all  respecUible  apothecaries.  There  is  but  one 
course  to  be  pursued — that  is,  trace  out  fraud  and  expose  it. 

Adulterations,  properly  defined,  consists  in  the  intentional  addition  of  any 
-article  for  the  piirpose  of  cheapening  its  production  or  its  cost — any  sub- 
.  stance,  the  presence  of  which  is  concealed,  or,  in  other  words,  is   not  ac- 
knowledged or  stated  at  the  time  of  the  sale,  or  implied  in  the  name  under 
which  it  is  sold. 

One  would  suppose  that  the  great  object  of  adulteration — gain  by  decep- 
tion— would  be  defeated  by  intimating  upon  the  label  the  absence  of  purity, 
-as  No.  1,  No.  2,  No.  3,  &c.  The  public  are  not  allowed,  in  these  cases,  to 
know  the  actual  proportion  of  pure  and  impure  articles :  they  draw  a  kind  of 
inference  from  the  price,  but  this  inference  is  a  very  erroneous  one.  Although 
the  price  is  less,  and  they  infer  that  they  are  only  paying  a  proportionate 
price,  they  often  pay  fifty  per  cent,  more  than  if  they  purchased  the  pure 
article.  This  apparent  honesty  is  but  a  fraud,  and  it  will  be  found  that  each 
are  as  much  below  the  arbitrary  standard  assumed,  or  what  they  ought  to 
he,  as  the  secret  adulteration  is  below  the  pure  standard.  AYere  it  otherwise, 
the  object  of  reducing  the  standard  would  be  defeated,  and  no  money  would 
be  made  by  the  operation.  Indeed,  the  liability  of  detection  in  the  case  of  the 
second  quality  is  much  less  than  in  the  pm*e,  and  we  have  often  remarked 
that  parties  were  more  successful  in  this  system  of  operation,  by  having  all 
grades  of  purity  for  the  accommodation  of  the  public. 

We  make  the  suggestion,  that  this  Committee  may  procure  an  assortment 
of  grades,  as  put  forth  by  many  houses,  and  let  the  public  know  the  per  cent- 
age  of  dilution  which  forms  the  standard,  and  make  a  comparison  of  price 
.and  quality. 


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3Q4  3liioriaL 

1 1    should    be    rip:idly   insisted   that    when    grades   of  aiticlcs  are  c&tab- 

lislie'l  thitl  (I'c  j)rup)j-ti<»n  of  each  shouLl  bo  stated  upon  the  package.     - 

It  orteii  o  fiirs  that  an  admixture  of  some  subst.tnoe  Is  necc«<ary  with  a 
preparation,  to  make  it  <M>iivonicut  for  di<pen<ing,  or  to  preserve  it.  In 
such  ins(an(*3  tlie  kind  anl  pn>portion  of  admixture  >b  vild  be  stated,  that  the 
(k>se  can  be  vsiimatetl  ac.  urately. 

CoNiixi  IN  (ioNuHiuKKA. — Wo  havc  scveral  letters  making  inquiries  concern- 
ing the  use  of  this  article  in  the  above  disease.  It  has  been  tried  by  Dr. 
Statts,  of  Aibiaiy,  etfectually,  in  d','Si  s  of  two  to  four  grains,  depending  w\WTi 
the  charactei-  of  the  complaint.  Dr.  Dodd,  of  the  United  States  Navy,  says 
Dr.  Fiberle  "has  used  extra  t  of  conium  with  great  success;  generally  re- 
moved the  d;>case  in  three  or  four  days,  but,  under  unfavorable  circumstinces, 
the  ru''e  cannot  be  effected  under  eight  or  ten  days.  lie  employs  extract  of 
conium,  one  di-achm ;  opium,  ten  grains — made  into  ten  pills,  two  of  which 
are  to  be  taken  every  two  hours,  until  vertigo  and  a  dmigKccahh  fullness  of 
the  lictul  is  expcricMtd.  Ilrs  object  is  to  put  the  system  under  the  narcotic 
influence  of  conium,  and  sustain  the  influence  until  the  discharge  ceases,, 
which  seldom  requires  more  than  two  or  three  days." 

The  Dr.MAL  Cosmos. — We  are  pleased  to  place  among  our  exchanges  this 
valuable  and  interesting  journal.  Although  dev(;ted  to  dental  science  and 
dental  liteiatute,  and  lO  the  interests  of  the  dental  profession,  it  contains 
much  matter  valuable  lo  the  medical  prolcssion.  It  takes  the  place  of  the 
Dental  News-Let ter,  and  i>  issued  monthly,  )>y  Drs.  White.  M^-Quillen  and 
Zeigler,  at  No.  528  Arch  street,  Philadelphia. 

TuK  Phv>kian*s  IIand-Book  of  Phactice  for  ISiKj,  by  Drs.  Elmer  and 
Klsberg,  is  before  us.  We  arc  happy  to  notice  many  additioiis  to  the  text 
since  the  issue  for  1850. 

In  thi-^  work  the  jdiysician  has,  in  addition  to  the  conmion  memorandum- 
book  of  fonsenient  si/.e  for  the  ])0ckct,  over  a  hundred  pages  of  closely  printed 
mattei',  intended  a>  suggrstire  -^jd  for  immediate  reference,  in  the  ai)sence  of 
the  standard  medical  work>,  from  which  the  .synopsis  is  ma<lo ;  among  which 
we  find  a  cla>silication  (•!'  <liscases,  with  their  leading  symptoms  and  usual 
remedies;  Dr.  Hall's  read}' method  in  asjdiyxia ;  medicinal  weights  and  mea- 
sure.-; list  01  reiuedial  agent-^:  medicated  bath> ;  writing  pres^Ti|itiops;  poi- 
sons and  their  antidotes;  diagao.stic  examination  of  urine,  &c.,  &.c.  \  followei^ 
by  blanks  for  recording  the  symptoms  of  patients  and  their  treatment,  for 
obstetric  records,  for  lUuly  eMivie.s  of  visits  made,  and  for  general  memoninda. 

We  recommend  the  *' Hand-Book'' to  every  physician,  and  more  especially 
to  those  practising  in  the  country. 

Published  by  W.  A  Townsend,  New  York  :  i)ri'e  ^1  25.  Sent  by  mail, 
post-paid,  on  receipt  of  price. 

Correspondents  will  obhge  by  writing  plainly  their  names,  town,  county  and 
state.  Wo  have,  in  several  instances,  been  unable  to  answer  letters  because 
these  aie  omitted. 


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865 


Tarrant's  Effervescent 
Seltzer    Aperient. 

This  valuable  and  popular  medicine,  prepared 
in  conformity  with  the  analysis  ofthe  water  of  the" 
celebrated  seltzer  spring  in  Germany,  in  a  most 
convenient  and  portable  form,  has  universally 
received  the  most  favorable  recommendations  of 
the  medical  profession  and  a  discerning  public,  as 
the  most  efficient  and  agreeable  ^Hllne  Aperient 
In  U8e,  and  a*  beln^  entitled  to  special  preference 
over  the  many  mineral  spring  waters,  seifllita 
powders,  and  other  Mmilar  artickg,  both  from  it« 
oompactuess  and  greater  efficacy.  It  may  be 
UBed  with  the  best  eflfect  in  all  Bilious  and  Febrile 
diseaseu,  sick  Headache,  Loss  of  Appetite,  Indl- 
gcctioD,  and  all  similar  complaints,  peculiariy  In- 
cident to  the  spring  and  summer  seaaons. 

It  la  particularly  adapted  to  the  wants  of  travel- 
ers, by  sea  and  land,  residents  In  hot  climates, 
persona  of  sedentary  habits,  invalids  and  conva- 
lescents, captains  of  vessels  and  planters  will  find 
It  a  valuable  addition  to  their  medicine  chests. 
With  those  who  have  used  it,  it  has  high  favor, 
and  is  deemed  indispensable 

In  a  torjrid  ntaie  of  tii^  liver  it  renders  great 
service  In  restoring  healthy  action.  In  gout  and 
rfuumuiism  it  give*  the  best  satisfaction,  allay- 
ing all  inflammatory  symptoma,  and  in  many 
caseii  effectually  curing  those  afllicted.  lU  stm- 
ce«a  in  cattes  o/ffrarel,  indig$«tion^  heartburn^ 
and  cofdiv&vem  pro*g  it  to  be  a  medicine  of  the 
greatej»t  utility.  Acidity  of  the.  Htoma<ih^  and  the 
di-ht  rsMffivi/ *>.'..{■ /I  ^fiiixo  uxual  dv/in(j  pregnancy 
yields  8pee«lily  and  with  mHrked  success  under  It* 
healthful  influence.  It  ajordn  the  greafeat  reliej 
tothoi^t  ajffiicted  v  ifh,  or  suhjerl  to  Vi^  Pile^, 
acting  gently  on  the  bowels,  neutralizing  all  irri- 
tating secretions,  and  thereby  removing  all  in- 
flammatory tendencies,  lu  fact,  it  is  invaluable 
In  all  cases  where  a  gentle  aperient  or  ptrgatlve 
i«  required. 

It  is  In  the  form  of  a  powder,  carefully  put  up 
in  bottles,  to  keep  In  any  climate,  and  merely  re- 
quires water  poured  upon  It  to  produce  a  deUght- 
tuX  effervescent  beverage. 

Taken  In  the  morning,  It  never  interferes  with 
the  avocations  of  the  day,  acting  gently  on  the 
system,  restoring  the  digestive  powers,  exciting  a 
healthy  and  vi^^'orous  tone  of  the  stomach,  and 
creating  an  elasticity  of  mind  and  flow  of  spirits 
which  give  zest  to  every  enjoyment.  It  also  en- 
ables the  Invalid  to  enjoy  many  luxuries  with  im- 
punity, from  which  he  must  otherwise  be  debar- 
red, and  without  which  life  is  irksome  and  dis- 
tressing. 

Numerous  testimonials  from  professional  and 
oUier  gentlemen  of  the  highest  standng  throughout 
the  country,  and  its  i-^eauily  increasing  popularity 
for  a  series  of  years,  strongly  guarantee  its  eiBca- 
cy  and  valuable  character,  and  commend  it  to 
the  favorable  notice  of  an  Intelligent  public. 

Prepared  and  sold  wholesale  and  retail. 

Tarrant's  Compound  Extract  of 
Cubebs  and  Copaiba, 

Sanctioned  by  popular  opinion  and  high  authority 
of  the  most  distingaiihcd  of  the  medical  faculty. 
It  offers  to  the  afflicted  a  remedy,  whose  success 
has  Ln  tjtxs  Instance  supported  its  deserved 
reputation.  Being  convenient  and  agreeable  in 
its  use,  experience  has  proved  that  it  retains  In 
every  cllniate  Ita  desirable  and  truly  valuable 
character.  It  is  In  the  form  of  a  paste.  Is  tasteless. 
and  does  not  Impair  the  digestion.  It  is  prepared 
with  the  greatest  possible  care,  upon  well-tested 


{>rlnctples.  To  persons  following  the  sea,  or  going 
ong  voyages,  this  preparation  po<:*<'t»o'»3  qmljtles 
far  sur|)asblng  any  other— n<'ut  and  portable  In 
form,  speedy  ai.d  eflicarious  In  its  oppration.  suc- 
cessful both  In  the  earlie.'»t  and  worH  stages  of 
the  severest  disease,  while  the  usual  nauseous 
taste  and  unpleasant  odor  of  Copaiba  are  wholly 
avoided  in  this  preparation. 

Prepared  and  sold,  wholossle  and  retail,  by 
JOILN  A.  TARUANT  k  CO.,  27h  Greenwich,  cor. 
of  Warren  Street,  New  York  ;  and  for  sale  by  all 
the  principal  Druggists  in  tlie  United  States, 
British  Provinces, West  Indies,  and  South  America. 
^?"  Prices  current  .<ent  by  mail,  when  desired. 

~T.  MORRIS  PEROT  &  CO.,  " 

Importers  and  Wholesale  Dealers  in 

Drags,  Medicines,  Chemicals,  &e. 

WAREHOUSE, 

621  Market,  and  612  St.  James  Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Agents  for  TILDEN  A  CO'S  CELEBRA-nO)  EX- 
TRACT.<»,  and  NICHOLS'  PATENT  COMBINA- 
TION MINERAL  WATER  APPARATUS. 

Sole  Agents  for  the  United  States  for  the  PURS- 
ARAMINGO  WHITE  LEAD,  and  of  Dr.  J.  0, 
KEYSER'S  CELEBRATED  UNIVERSAL  PLAS- 
TER AND  KYK  BALSAM. 

The  old  house  of  Harris,  Orblson  k  Co.  have^ 
declined  business  in  our  favor. 


SIHIEFFELIN  BRO'S  &  CO. 

WHOLESALE  DKUGGIST8, 

IMPORTKKS   or 

Drugs,     Chemicals,     Paints, 

DYES,  PERFUMERY. 
Tooth,  Huh,  and  Nail  Bai'iiiHBe,  Faxct  Goods, 
Sponges,  Ac,  Ac. 
170  and  172  William  Street,  BT.  Y. 
Receive  constant  supplies  of 
Lubin^s^  Piver^s^  Low^s,  Society  ffygieniqus, 
and  other  celebrated  Perfumes,  direct  from    k©^ 
Uanufaoturers. 

PRICE'S  INODOROUS  GLYCERINE. 
AlUn\  Jl6rring\  J/^rc*'/*,  and y{and^''H Pre- 
parations confitantly  on  hand. 

LORD   Sl    smith, 

Successors  to  Bay  &  Baldwin,  and  Thos.  Lord,. 
43   LAKK   STREET,    CHICAGO,    ILL., 

WHOLESALE  DKaLkRS   IN 

Drugs,   Medicines,  Ciiemicals, 

PATENT  MEDICINES,  FRRPUMERY, 

DYE-STUFFS, 

PAINTS,  OILS,  VARNISHES,   BRUSH KS,  WIN- 
DOW-GLASS, HOLLOW  GLASS,  Ac,  Ac, 
A  complete  and  full  assortment  of  Tildrh's  cele- 
brated 
Fluid  and  Solid  Brtract«y  Coneevtratrd  Pre- 
paraHonSy  and  Sitpar- (looted  Pharma- 
ceutic Pill«. 
Orders  from  Merchants,  Physicians,  and  othen, 
carefully  and  promptly  attended  to. 


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HALL,  DIXON  &  CO., 

baporUn  utd  WbolaMOc  d««lMi  In 

DRUGS,  CHEMICALS,  PAINTS,  DYE- 
STUFFS,  Ac,  Ac, 

PKEFUMBRT,  FANCY  ARTICLBS,  Jfcc 

149  Ohambert  and  181  Beade  Streeti, 

Wm.  C.  H»U,        >     Kivw  vnwv      /  Edward  A.  Fmao-, 
•Owrf*  Dixon,  Jr.  J     "  "-^^  I OKK.     \  q^,  c.  HaU«a. 

BILLIARD     TABLE     MAKER, 

90  ANX  STRKKT,  Xew  York. 

Sir  different  fii»*l  rnl)li^  for  privnte  iiw  ;  prirwi  varj  injr  'rom 
♦  140  U>f4<H\  iJl  •'I'^i.-  Htiit.  »ii.l  tiru-l.'-l  in  ib.-  W»t  u.uuti.r, 
with  L.  DK'Kl  i;'s  l.MfKOVKl>  MbCHAMCAL  (JLSli- 
IONS,  J'jI.nt'H  .V.'  ">.'"  ^.  !'■>. 

Th«)  Ute«i  ftH'l  l»->i  ;i*i'r'v»-iviit  ''Vj-r  iii«<J.>  In  CiuJtioii*, 
whl.-h  wai  he  uimJ.'  «aii--.    •  rv  '.,■  nniii.  r.'i,  i,-..   .  i.- ."i. 

A  I'nll  a*ortniriu  ..{  FAULK^.  «n.l  iKIMMl.N*o  coiuJAntly 
on  tuuttl.     K«-piilr'ii4  ilout*,  (Jti . 

GEORGE  BENNETT, 

Importer  and  MaDufacturer  of 


OP  EVERY  DESCRIPTION,  AND 

CORK    SOLES, 

886  PEA&L  STBEET, 
tRANKLIN  8Q.  INJiiW  YORK. 


B.  B.  &  J.  HAO-ERTY 

M AH UFACTURBRS  OT 

C^lass  Syringes,  Homeopathic 
Case  and  Sample  Yiais, 

And  dealers  In  Dniggista*,  Perftimers*  and 
Apothecaries'  Flint  and  Green  Olassware. 

Ko.  8  PLATT  STBEET,  K.  T. 

Private  Moulds  made  to  order  and  particularly 
attended  to.  Druggists'  stores  fitted  throughout. 
Bngravlng  done  on  the  premises.  Physicians* 
Oases  and  Medicine  Chests  fumbhed  and  refitted 
at  the  shortest  notice. 

WEEKS   &.~POTTER, 
WHOLESALE  DRUGGISTS, 

164  Washington  St,  Boston,  Maai., 
Offers  to  the  trade  a  large  assortment  of 
DRUGS,    MEDICINES,    CHEMICALS,    SWE- 
DISH LEECHES,  Ac. 
Also,  a  rery  full  assortment  of 
TILDEN  k  CO'S  ALCOHOLIC  AND  FLUID  EX- 
TRACTS,    ALKALOIDS   AND    RESINOIDS, 
PHARMACEUTIC    SUGAR    COATED 
PILLS  AND  GRANULES. 
Bole  Agents  for  the  sale  of  PICKEN  A  CO., 
OLD  BOURBON  WHISKY. 

Samuel  Kidder  A  Co.*i  Tartaric  Add,  8al  Ro- 
ohelle  and  Seldllts  Mixture  constantly  on  hand. 


STEWART'S 

Superior  Flavored  Candies 

I  In  1-4  lb.  out  Papers,— «  lbs.  in  a  box. 
;  DRUGGISTS  can  sell  f^om  100  to  600  boxes  a 
'  year— extra  strons  Peppermint  Losenges,  Bog. 
j  Oil— all  kinds  of  Medicated  Losenges,  and  Los- 
enges In  OS.  rolls  very  superior. 
I  Also,  Sugar-Coated  Cardamoms,  Sweet  Flag, 
I  and  Celery  Seed  In  neat  packages,  handy  for  re- 
[tailing;  Rock  Candy,  Jujube  Paste,  Chocolata. 
,  Cream  and  Cordial  Drops,  and  more  than  150 
[  kinds  and  flavors  of  candies,  all  warranted  pure 
'  and  UNADULTERATED. 

Will  keep  hard  and  dry  in  any  climate. 

Send  in  your  orders,  and  they  shall  be  faithfully 
I  filled. 

SXEAVAJRT    5c    CO^ 

898  Pkarl  Strskt,  New  York. 

V.  W.  BRINCKERHOFF, 

Manufacturer  and  Wholesale  DeslfT  in  all 
kinds  of 

i  Surgical  and  Dental  Instruments, 

Medicine  Chests, 

Medical  Saddle  Bags, 

Ac,  k^ 

I  Amputating,  Evans'  I^ncpti, 

I  Dissecting,  Scarificators, 

!  Trepanning,  Specula, 

Pocket,  Catheters  and  Bougies, 

Cupping,  and  Stomach  and  Rectal 
Dental  Instruments,  Tubes, 

Separate  or  in  Cases,  Enema  and  Stomadi 
For  Dentists.  Pumps. 

Elastic  Trasses  and  Syringes  of  all  kinds, 

Glaciers'  Diamonds,  Thermometers, 

Electro-Magnetlo  Machines, 

PiU  Machines, 

Apothecaries'  Scales, 

Beranger  Balance  Pendulae,  of  Lyon. 

Anatomical  Preparations. 

Skeletons  of  various  grades. 

Dr.  Welch's  Celebrated  Fracture  Apparatus, 

complete  in  case. 
SUk  Elastic  Stockings,  Knee  Caps,  Ac. 
English  Flexible  Gas  Tubing,  by  the  case  or  yard. 

AXD 

X>irass:iHt8*  Ajrtioles, 
on  the  most  liberal  terms  for  cash,  or  approved 
sixtnos.  paper. 

niustrated  priced  list  sent  to  any  drug  house 
inclosing  their  card. 

I  SS  \nillam  Street,  New  York. 

Factory  at  Brooklyn,  E.  D. 


SOAP!     SOAP!!     SOAP!!! 

English  MotUed,  White,  Eraslve,  Barber's  Sha- 
ving, Variegated,  Iodine,  Tooth,  Ponclne,  Gly- 
cerine, Castile,  Old  Palm  Honey,  Almond,  Sand, 
Brown  Windsor,  Transparent,  Myrtle  Shaving, 
Walnut  Oil  Shaving,  Yankee,  Wide  Awake  Sha- 
ving, Transparent  Honey,  and  all  known  kinds  of 
family  and  fancy  Soaps,  at  the  lowest  maricet 
prices  to  be  had  of 

TITUS   G.  HOYT, 

SOiS  ?fM\  street,  N.  T. 


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THE 

JOUENAL  OF  MATERIA  MEDICA 

AND 

PHARMACEUTIC   FORMULARY. 


Vew]  DECEMBER,    1850.  [SeriM 


Remarks  on  Uva  Ursi,  Gkmltheria  Froomnbens,  Andromeda 
Arbore^v  Ledum  Palustre,  Comptonia  Asplenifolia,  Sta- 
tice  Caroliniana,  Nymphaea  Odorata,  Nuphar  Lntea,  Al- 
nus  Rubra,  Trillium  Pendulum,  Erigeron  Annuum,  and 
Spirea  Tomentosa. 

BY    CHARLS8    A«    LEB,    M.    D. 

NUMBER  XII. 

Arctostaphylos  Uva  Ursi,  {tlie  Bear-Berry^  Jbc.) — ^A  well- 
kaown  perennial  shrub,  common  to  the  northern  parts  of  Europe, 
Asia  and  America,  and  found  in  dry,  stony  and  barren  spots. 
The  leaves  only  officinal,  which  are  to  be  gathered  in  autumn. 
They  are  inodorous,  slightly  bitter  and  astringent  to  the  taste, 
leaving  a  sweetish  sensation  in  the  mouth.  The  virtues  are  ex- 
tracted by  diluted  alcohol. 

Chemical  Composition. — One  hundred  parts  yield :  tannin,  36.4 ; 
gallic  acid,  1.2;  resin,  4.4;  oxidized  extractive,  6.8;  supermalates -^ 
of  lime  and  soda,  3.3 ;  clorophylle,  6.3 ;  gum,  15.7 ;  extractive, 
17.6 ;  lignin,  9.6 ;  water,  6.*  Tannin  is  evidently  the  chief  ac- 
tive constituent,  constituting  more  than  thirty  per  cent.,  a  larger 
amount  than  is  furnished  by  any  of  our  indigenous  astringents. 

Therapeutical  Properties  and  Uses, — The  uva  ursi  may  be  ad- 
vantageously employed  for  all  purposes  for  which  vegetable  as- 


*  Mr.  Haghes  has  <UscoTcred  a  p«oallar  crysUUxable  principle  In  (he  uya  onlf  called  by  bUn  w§in^ 
which  he  found  te  be  dlor elic,  In  dowf  of  one  gt^ix,—Am4rican  Journal  of  rharmaey  xlx.,  9^. 


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368  Lee  on  Medicmal  Plants. 

tringents  are  generally  prescribed.  The  urine  assumes  a  dark 
color  under  its  use,  from  the  conversion,  by  oxidation,  of  the 
tannic  into  gallic  and  pyro-gallic  acid  in  its  passage  through  the 
i^stem ;  while  it  increases  the  quantity  of  urine,  its  quality  is  also 
modified,  the  lithic  deposits  being  much  diminished.  It  has,  more- 
over, the  power,  to  a  considerable  extent,  of  lessening  the  sensi- 
bility of  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  bladder  and  pelvis  of  the 
kidneys,  so  that  in  cases  of  cystic  and  ural  calculi  the  sufferings 
of  the  patient  are  greatly  alleviated.  We  are  inclined  to  believe 
that  all  astringent  remedies  possess  this  power,  to  a  certain  de- 
gree. In  cases  of  chronic  cystitis,  or  vesical  irritation,  with  in- 
creased secretion  from  the  mucous  membrane,  the  persevering  use 
of  the  uva  ursi  will  very  frequently  be  attended  with  decided 
efficacy  in  diminishing  or  completely  suppressing  the  muco-puru- 
lent  deposition  in  the  urine.  By  diminishing  the  quantity  of  li- 
thates,  it  thus  lessens  the  acrimony  of  the  urine,  independent  of 
any  specific  power  over  the  mucous  surfaces.  In  this  way  the 
paiti  and  frequent  desire  to  pass  urine  are  much  relieved.  It  is 
no  less  efficacious  in  catarrh  of  the  bladder,  where  there  exists  a 
secretion  of  graliular  mucus  mixed  with  phosphates.  The  cura- 
tive results  are  doubtless  partly  due  to  its  influence  over  the  di- 
gestive organs.  In  some  instances  it  has  to  be  continued  several 
days  before  any  decided  effects  will  be  perceived  from  its  use.  It 
well  deserves  a  trial  in  chronic  dysuria,  so  often  met  with  in  the 
aged,  as  well  as  chronic  bronchial  affections,  with  profuse  mucous 
or  purulent  secretion.  It  is  a  good  tonic  alterative  in  most  cases 
of  chronic  inflammation  of  mucous  surfaces. 

Preparations, — ^Decoction,  fluid  extract,  solid  extract,  tincture, 
syrup,  infusion. — The  decoction  is  made  by  boiling  an  ounce  of 
the  leaves  in  a  pint  and  a  quarter  of  water  to  a  pint,  of  which 
one  or  two  fluid  ounces  may  be  given  two  or  three  times  a  day. 
The  fluid  extract  is  now  getting  into  general  use;  dose,  half  to 
one  drachm.  The  dose  of  the  solid  extract  is  from  five  to  fifteen 
grains ;  of  the  tincture,  made  with  two  ounces  of  the  fluid  ex- 
tract to  one  pint  diluted  alcohol,  from  three  to  six  drachms  may 
be  given.  One  ounce  of  the  fluid  extract  to  one  pint  of  water 
makes  a  good  infusion,  of  which  one  to  two  ounces  is  a  dose.  To 
form  a  syrup,  add  four  ounces  fluid  extract  to  one  pint  of  syrup ; 
dofle,  two  to  four  drachms.    Hyoscyamus  is  a  good  addition  to 


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Let  on  Medicinal  Plants.  359 

this  remedy,  also  conium  and  lactucarium. 

The  Epigea  Repens  {Trailing  Arbutus)  has  the  same  medicinal 
virtues  as  the  uva  ursi,  and  may  be  substituted  for  it  It  is  a 
popular  domestic  remedy  for  gravel,  and  is  put  up  and  sold  by 
the  Shakers,  under  the  name  of  the  gravel  plant. 

Gaultheria  Prooumbens,  {Partridge  Berry.) — This  well- 
known,  small,  shrubby,  indigenous  evergreen  plant  belongs  also  to 
the  ericacecej  or  heath  tribe.  The  leaves  and  whole  plant  possess 
aromatic  properties  similar  to  sweet  birch,  which  reside  in  a  volatile 
oil.  The  leaves  contain  much  tannin,  and  are  astringent,  as  well 
as  a  cordial  stimulant — ^well  adapted  to  cases  of  chronic  diarrhoea ; 
chiefly  used  to  impart  an  agreeable  flavor  to  other  preparations. 
The  oil  or  infusion  may  be  employed :  has  considerable  reputation 
as  an  emmenagogue,  (U.  S.  P.)  The  oil  is  sold  under  the  name 
o£  oU  of  tvinlergreen.  The  oil  is  recently  ascertained,  by  M.  Ca- 
hours,  to  be  a  salycUite  of  the  oxide  of  Tnetkyly  and  composed  of  an 
acid  called  the  salycUitic  (hitherto  found  only  in  the  oil  of  spirea),. 
united  with  the  etiier  of  wood-spirit  {methylic  ether). 

Andromeda  Abborea,  {Sorrel  Tree.) — More  flmn  tw^ity  spe- 
cies of  this  genus  are  found  in  North  America,  all  of  which  have 
more  or  less  astringency.  The  leaves  and  wood  of  the  present 
species  abound  in  malic  acid,  combined  with  tannin,  which  adapte 
it  well  to  many  cases  of  disease.  Bafinesque  says  they  form  a  re- 
freshing, cooling,  anti-febrile  drink,  allaying  thirst,  &c;  useful 
where  a  refrigerant  astringent  is  needed,  and  very  similar  to  the 
finit  of  the  rhus  glabrUm. 

Prepaaraiions. — ^The  same  as  other  astringents. 

Ledum  Palustre  and  Latifolium,  {Labrador  Tea.) — Thia 
small  evergreen  shrub  is  common  to  the  Eastern  Continent  and 
to  North  America.  The  leaves  have  an  aromatic,  camphorous^ 
bitter  taste,  and  a  balsamic  odor,  and  abound  in  volatile  oil  and 
tannin,  to  which  they  owe  their  sensible  and  medicinal  properties. 
The  plant  is  tonic,  astringent  and  slightly  narcotic,  and  has  been 
used  successfully,  both  internally  and  externally,  in  some  cutane- 
ous diseases,  as  leprosy  and  scabies,  also  in  whooping  cough,  diar- 
rhoea, dysentery,  Ac,  In  Germany,  the  leaves  are  used  in  brew- 
ingi  as  a  substitute  for  hops. 

Chemical  Oomposition. — ^Your  analysis  gives  of — 


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360  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

Organic  matters, C650.08 

Inorganic  inattei's, 349.92 

Total, 7000.00 

Gum,   -        -        -        - S03.2O 

Extract, 71.30 

Starch, 20.80 

Tannin, 165.1*i 

Particular  principle, 816.00 

Sugar, 160.00 

Chlorophylle, 768.00 

Black  resin, 108.33 

Soluble  salts, 282.02 

Insoluble  salts, 67.00 

Ligneous, 4287.44 

Total, 7000.00 

Preparations, — ^The  same  as  above. 

COMPTONIA  AsPLENiFOLiA,  {Sw^t  Fern.) — ^This  well-known 
slirub,  the  only  species  of  the  genus,  possesses  medicinal  proper- 
ties which  entitle  it  to  a  place  in  every  work  on  the  indigenous 
medical  botany  of  our  country.  The  bruised  leaves  emit  a  strong 
resinous,  aromatic  odor.  The  analysis  you  have  recently  made 
diows  the  presence  of  a  large  per  centage  of  tannin,  resin,  and  a 
peculiar  sweet  principle.  The  per  centage  of  taimin  exceeds  that 
of  either  of  the  three  varieties  of  oak  examined  by  you,  and 
equal  to  some  of  the  strongest  astringents  examined.  In  the  East- 
ern States,  espedally  in  Maine,  it  is  employed  extensively  in  tan- 
ning leather,  for  which  purpose  it  is  thought  to  be  superior  to  any 
other  astringent  As  a  domestic  remedy  it  is  in  very  general  use, 
and  much  esteemed  as  a  tonic  alterative  in  scrofulous  and  cachec- 
tic affections,  in  the  form  of  beer,  also  as  a  reliable  remedy  in 
djrsentery,  diarrhoea,  hiemoptisis,  the  debility  succeeding  fevers, 
and  to  check  night  sweata  Formerly,  it  had  some  reputation  for 
the  cure  of  tape-worm.  It  may  be  safely  pronounced  a  mild 
astringent  tonic,  possessing  considerable  alterative  properties, 
which  adapt  it  well  to  cases  where  such  remedies  are  indicated. 
We  have  known  good  effects  from  a  mild  decoction  of  it,  sweet- 
ened, in  the  summer  complaint  of  young  children.  In  Pennsyl- 
vania, it  is  a  popular  remedy,  in  cases  of  dysentery,  among  the 
German  population;  also  as  a  wash  or  fomentation  in  rheuma- 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants,  361 

tisrn,  contusions,  and  poisoning  by  sumac.     A  strong  fluid  ex- 
tract of  this  plant  is  a  desideratum. 

Chemical  Composition, — Your  analysis  gives,  of — 

Organic  matters, 93.600 

Inorganic  matters, 6.400 

Total, 100.000 

Qtim  and  albtunen, 8.66i^ 

Tknnin,  sduble  in  alcohol  and  water,     ....  0.968 

Tannin, 4.867 

Sweet  principle,     -        -        - 11.617 

Sugar, 1.280 

Extractive  matter, 1.309 

Starch, 3.086 

Chlorophjlle, 6.271 

Resin, 11.702 

Soluble  salts, 0.847 

Insoluble  salts, 5.553 

Ligneous,  &c., 48.992 

Total, 100.000 

8tat[ce  Carolinian  a,  {Marsh  Rosemary,) — The  marsh  rosemary 
is  almost  the  only  astringent  vegetable,  employed  in  medicine, 
belonging  to  the  class  of  maritime  plants.  That  agent,  common 
salt,  which  proves  poisonous  to  most  vegetables,  is  the  proper 
nutriment  and  stimulus  of  others,  which  perish  when  removed 
from  their  pative  marshes.  The  statice  is  exclusively  a  marine 
plant,  and  well  known  from  its  purple  flowers  appearing  among 
the  grass,  during  the  summer  months,  in  our  salt  meadows,  and 
belongs  to  the  natural  order  of  Plumbaginaceae,  or  lead- worts. 
The  root  is  the  officinal  part.  It  contains  twelve  per  cent  of  tan- 
nin, and  is  one  of  our  most  powerful  indigenous  astringents. 
Bigelow  declares  it  "  one  of  the  most  intense  and  powerful  in  the 
vegetable  materia  medica."  He  also  detected  in  it  gallic  acid. 
Its  active  principles  seem  wholly  soluble  in  water ;  hence  it  con- 
tains little  or  no  resin  or  volatile  oil.  Prof.  V.  Mott  made  this 
the  subject  of  his  inaugural  thesis  in  1806.  lie  states  that  the 
astringency,  indicated  by  the  sulphate  of  iron,  is  greater  in  the 
tincture  than  in  the  infusion,  under  experiments  precisely  similar; 
from  which  it  might  be  inferred  that  alcohol  is  abetter  solvent  for 
this  root  than  water.     He  found  the  cold  infusion  more  powerful 


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362  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

than  the  hot,  which  may  have  been  owing  to  the  escape  of  a  part 
of  the  gallic  acid  by  evapon^tion.  The  astringency  was  found 
fully  equal  to  that  of  galls,  and  ink,  made  fix)m  equal  quantities 
of  the  two,  similarly  treated,  was  equal  in  blackness. 

The  therapeutical  uses  of  the  marsh  rosemary  are  those  of  the 
more  powerful  class  of  astringents.  Dr.  Mott  praises  it  very 
hi^ly  in  dysentery,  after  the  acute  stage  is  passed,  and  says:— 
'^  It  has  restored  patients  to  health,  after  various  tonics  and  astrin- 
gents had  been  used  to  no  eflfect" — {Inaug.  Dissert)  In  Maasa* 
chusetts,  and  other  Kew  England  States,  it  has  long  enjoyed  a 
high  reputation  in  cases  of  cynanche  maligna,  or  putrid  sore- 
throat,  used  locally  as  a  gargle,  and  also  internally.  It  is  almost 
universally  kept  in  the  cpuntry  drug  stores,  and,  according  to 
Bigelow,  larger  quantities  sold  than  of  any  other  indigenous  arti- 
cle. In  popular  practice  it  is  chiefly  employed  in  apthous  ulcera- 
tive affections  of  the  mouth  and  fences.  It  was  regarded  as  a 
useful  astringent  in  the  time  of  Pliny.  It  has  emetic  and  sudo- 
rific properties. 

A  strong  decoction  or  cold  infusion  of  the  root  is  the  only 
preparation  in  present  use,  though  a  fluid  extract,  tincture  and 
syrup  may  easily  be  prepared,  and  in  some  cases  may  be  prefer- 
able. 

Nymph^a  Odorata,  {Sweet- Scefntcd  Water  Lily.) — This  beau- 
tiful plant  was  well  known  to  the  ancients,  and  is  described  by 
Galen,  Dioscorides,  and  the  Arabian  authors,  Rhazes,  Serapion, 
Avicenna,  &c.  The  Greek  and  Latin  authorities  describe  it  as 
possessed  of  desiccative  powers,  without  pungency :  constipating 
the  bowels,  and  useful  in  female  flux,  &c.  The  Arabians  adminis- 
tered the  syrup  for  coughs  and  pleurisy,  and  state  that  it  induces 
sleep  and  cures  vertigo,  but  is  debilitating.  The  Oriental  nations 
use  it  still  for  medicind  purposes. 

Most  of  the  tribe  to  which  this  plant  belongs  are  natives  of  the 
torrid  zone,  and  this,  as  well  as  the  nuphar  lutea  (yellow  pond  lily), 
only  support  the  cold  of  our  latitude  by  the  depth  of  water  in 
which  they  vegetate,  the  roots  being  placed  at  such  a  depth, 
that  the  frost  never  reaches  them.  The  roots  of  the  nymphaea 
arc  rough,  knotted,  and  as  large  as  a  man's  arm,  while  the  porous 
stalks  are  buoyed  up  by  the  large  quantity  of  air  contained  in  the 
cellular  tissue.     The  upper  surfaces  of  the  leaves  are  highly 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants.  868 

poliflhed,  and  repel  the  water,  as  if  coated  with  varnish  or  oiL 
The  flowers,  which  have  a  peculiarly  fragrant  odor,  expand  in  the 
morning  as  soon  as  they  feel  the  warmth  of  the  sun,  and  float 
upon  the  water,  owing  to  the  concavity  of  the  calyx  and  petals. 
The  flowers  close  at  night,  and  often  sink  beneath  the  surface  till 
the  next  morning.  As  the  flower  decays,  the  germ,  or  seed,  sinks 
to  the  bottom,  and  there  ripens  its  fruit.  The  roots  of  this  plant 
are  extlremely  styptic  and  bitter  to  the  taste,  and  contain  a  large 
amount  of  tannin  and  gallic  acid.*  This  is  evident  from  the  in- 
tensely black  color  which  is  struck  by  a  solution  of  sulphate  of 
iron,  and  the  copious  precipitate  from  the  adition  of  gelatine. 
Alcohol  throws  down  a  flooctdent  substance  resembling  starch. 
The  perfume  yielded  by  the  flowers  is  not  surpassed  even  by  that 
of  the  rose,  but  is  only  perfect  when  the  flowers  are  fresh.  It  is 
very  evanescent,  and  no  method  has  yet  been  discovered  by 
which,  like  that  of  the  rose,  it  can  be  isolated  and  preserved. 
The  stamens  possess  more  of  the  odorous  principle  th^  the  petals. 
The  roots  of  this  plant  are  kept  in  many  of  the  shops,  and  used 
in  domestic  practice  to  form  poultices.  ^  In  the  regular  practice 
they  are  more  often  prescribed  in  cases  where  saturnine  applica- 
cations  and  alum  curds  are  employed.  The  European  species, 
nuphar  alba,  which  possesses  similar  qualities,  has  always  been 
regarded  as  antiphrodisiac,t  and  extensively  employed  in  dysen- 
tery and  other  morbid  discharges.  Our  own  species  has  long 
been  employed  as  a  popular  remedy  in  bowel  complaints,  and  as 
an  astringent  in  gleet,  fluor  albus,  &c.  It  has  also  been  found  a  use- 
ful gargle  in  tdcerated  sore-throat  This  is  one  of  the  Thomsonian 
remedies,  and  used  for  purposes  above  mentioned.  Whether  it 
possesses  any  antiphrodisiac  and  narcotico-sedative  properties,  as 


*  ML  Horln  de  Reunes,  a  French  chemist,  found  the  nymphea  alba  to  contain  starchy  tannic,  (^m, 
fainc  acid,  'retln,  a  regeto-anlmal  matter,  and  certain  vegetable  acids  and  salts.— Jfera^  and  Ds 

t  Herat  and  De  Lens  state  that  the  name  alone  of  (his  genus  {*^n6nuphar**-^n^mphea,)  suggesta 
Its  sedative,  calmative,  and  especlallx  its  antiphrodisiac,  properties.  The  latter  property  was  wdl 
known  to  the  ancients,  and  may  have  been  suggested,  as  these  writers  state,  by  its  habitation  In  tba 
water  and  the  virgin  whiteness  of  its  flowers.  The  French  poeU  and  naturalists  have  lavished  their 
highest  enconiums  upon  this  plant  as  an  antidote  to  the  sexual  passion,  kc.  History  informs  us  that 
the  pious  cenobites  of  the  desert  made  Arequent  use  of  It,  and  that  It  was  extensively  used  In  religions 
ddsten,  convents  and  seoiinaries,  and  that  Its  sedative  powers  were  esteemed  so  great  that  It  was  be- 
■eved  to  have  the  power  of  causing  impotence  and  sterility.  Singers  also  employed  it  to  preserve  the 
voice,  physicians  recommended  it  for  erotic  walceftilness,  Ac. 


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364  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

claimed  by  the  ancients  and  recent  French  writers,  may  well  be 
doubted.  All  the  species  contain  a  large  quantity  of  fecnla,  which 
after  repeated  washings  is  employed  for  food.  The  nuphar  htu'^ 
of  Egypt  not  only  furnished  magnificent  flowers,  with  which  to 
crown  the  heads  of  their  gods  and  kings,  but  also  served  as  food 
for  large  numbers  of  the  people,  especially  in  times  of  scarcity. 
Lotus  eaters  still  abound,  not  only  in  that  country,  but  all  over  the 
East 

The  Nuphar  Littea  and  Advena  {smaU-Jlowered  yellow  pond 
lily  and  common  yellow  pond  lily)  possess  similar  properties  with 
the  nymphcECLf  and  may  be  employed  in  the  same  cases.  The  nu- 
phar advena  is  a  popular  astringent  tonic,  containing  much  tannin 
and  starch,  and  used,  when  fresh,  to  form  poultices.  The  roots  of 
all  the  water  lilies  are  edible,  and,  though  acrid  when  raw,  are 
bland  and  nutritious  when  cooked ;  the  petioles  and  leaves  are 
eaten  for  greens.  The  leaves  form  a  good  dressing  for  blisters, 
cooling  and  emollient,  while  the  flowers  have  proved  successful 
in  dysuria. 

The  above  remarks  will  also  apply  to  the  nelurnhium  liUmm 
{great  yellow  water  lily),  found  in  our  northern  lakes,  the  rhizomes 
of  which  resemble  those  of  the  sweet  potato,  and  by  some  are 
esteemed  equally  agreeable,  farinaceous  and  wholesome.  The 
Indians,  aa  well  as  Tartars,  make  great  use  of  them  for  purposes 
of  food. 

Alxus  El'BRA,  OH  Sekrulata,  {Covimon  Alder:  Tag  Alder.) — 
The  common  alder  is  a  well-known  shrub,  growing  in  clumps,  and 
forming  thickets  on  the  borders  of  ponds  and  rivers,  and  in 
swamps.  Several  other  species  are  found  in  North  America,  all 
having  similar  properties.  The  leaves  and  bark  have  a  bitter 
and  astringent  taste.  The  inner  bark  is  emetic.  Analysis  shows 
that  the  plant  abounds  in  tannin,  bitter  extractive,  some  gallic 
acid,  &c.  It  has  been,  and  still  is,  extensively  employed  in  popu- 
lar practice  as  an  astringent  alterative  tonic  in  abdominal  fluxes, 
the  various  hemorrhages,  and  as  an  external  application  to  wounds 
and  ulcers.  The  plant  is  used  in  tanning  leather,  and  for  dying 
brown,  black  and  yellow,  with  different  mordants.  The  late  Dr. 
Williams,  of  Deerfield,  was  very  partial  to  its  use  in  hiematuria. 
As  an  alterative,  it  has  considerable  reputation  in  scrofulous  and 
cutaneous  affections ;  as  a  tonic  in  some  forms  of  dyspepsia,  it  has 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants,  365 

also  proved  successful.  Botanic  physicians  extol  this  article  as  a 
powerful  alterative,  and  very  valuable  in  the  treatment  of  chronic" 
rheumatism,  erysipelas,  gonorrhoea,  gleet,  syphilis,  gravel,  cystitis, 
&c.  The  alnuin  is  a  dry,  powdered  extract,  obtained  by  digest- 
ing the  plant  in  diluted  spirit.  It  is  of  yellowish-brown  color, 
very  bitter  and  slightly  astringent  taste,  and  recommended  in 
doses  of  three  grains  three  times  a  day ;  it  is  also  advised  in  com- 
bination with  macrotyn^  phytolaciny  euonymim,  &c.  In  some  cuta- 
neous diseases  of  a  chronic  kind,  as  impetigo,  herpes,  &c.,  the 
alnuin  produces  very  good  efiEects.  In  syphilis  and  the  various 
forms  of  scrofula  it  is  also  well  worthy  of  triaL  In  some  cases — 
perhaps  a  majority — the  fluid  extract^  now  kept  in  the  shops,  will 
prove  the  best  form  of  administration  :  dose,  one  to  two  drachms ; 
or  the  infusion  may  be  used,  made  with  3  ij.  of  the  fluid  extract 
to  one  pint  of  water.  The  dose,  of  course,  to  be  regulated  by 
the  age  and  other  circumstances  of  the  case. 

Trillium  Pendulum,  {Birt/i  Boot:  Wake  Bobtn,  etc.) — This 
is  but  one  of  eight  species  of  trillium  growing  in  the  Northern 
States.  Few  of  our  indigenous  plants  surpass  them  in  elegance 
and  beauty,  and  they  are  all  Qndowed  with  active  medicinal  pro- 
perties. The  root  of  the  71  airopurpurcum,  or  purple  species,  is 
generally  believed  to  be  the  most  active. 

The  trillium  has  somewhat  tuberous  roots,  having  a  faint, 
slightly  terebinthinate  odor  like  cedar,  and  a  peculiar  aromatic 
taste.  When  chewed  they  excite  the  salivary  glands,  and  leave  a 
sensation  of  heat  in  the  throat  and  fauces.  As  the  plant  h.as 
not  yet  been  analyzed  its  proximate  principles  are  chiefly  un- 
known. Tannin  and  bitter  extractive,  howerer,  form  two  of  its 
active  ingredients,  to  which  its  medicinal  effects  are  doubtless 
owing. 

From  all  I  have  observed,  or  can  gather  from  others,  I  am  led 
to  believe  that  the  trillium  is  one  of  our  most  valuable  tonico- 
astringent  alteratives,  and  especially  beneficial  in  most  cases  of 
passive,  atonic  hemorrhage,  as  menorrhagia,  &c.  Less  astringent 
than  many  other  plants  already  noticed,  it  is  far  more  alterative 
and  tonic;  yet  it  has  decided  efficacy  as  an  astringent  where  this 
indication  is  present.  The  late  Dr.  Williams  used  the  powdered 
root  in  all  kinds  of  active  hemorrhages,  in  doses  of  one  drachm 
to  an  adult,  repeated  according  to  the  urgency  of  the  symptoms. 


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S66  Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants. 

Dr.  Stone,  of  Greenfield,  Mass.,  has  made  very  extensive  use  of  it 
in  all  forms  of  bleeding,  especially  from  the  womb  and  lungs,  and, 
2&  he  thinks,  with  great  and  decided  benefit  In  the  various 
forms  of  scrofula  and  cutaneous  disease  he  has  also  seen  great  ad- 
vantage from  its  use.  In  popular  practice  the  birth-root  is  used  in 
parturition,  and  is  believed  to  facilitate  the  birth  of  the  child. 
Hence  its  name. 

I  found  it  employed  extensively  for  this  purpose  among  the 
Chippeway  Indians,  on  Lake  Superior,  while  sojourning  among 
them  in  1848.  They  also  believed  it  a  certain  specific  for  the  bite 
of  the  rattle-snake.  It  seemed  to  be  their  favorite  remedy  in  all 
female  complaints,  especially  those  attended  with  discharges.  In- 
deed, the  evidence  in  its  favor,  in  cases  of  vaginal  and  uterine 
leucorrhea,  is  vejy  strong  and  satisfactory :  also  in  passive  bron- 
chorrhea  and  haomoptysis. 

The  preparations  of  this  plant  are :  the  decoction,  fluid  extract, 
tincture,  syrup  and  trillin.  The  latter  is  the  powdered  hydro- 
alcoholic  solid  extract,  and  of  course  combines,  like  the  fluid  ex- 
tract, all  the  active  virtues  of  the  plant.  The  dose  of  it  is  from 
three  to  eight  grains.  It  is  a  good  preparation,  and  coming 
into  very  general  use  in  scientific  practice  as  a  tonic  alterative. 
The  trillium  deserves  a  higher  rank  in  our  vegetable  materia 
medica. 

Erigekon  Annuum,*  {Flea-Bane,  Sweet  Scabious,  Jhc.) — This 
plant  occupies  a  place  in  the  secondary  list  of  the  U.  S.  P.,  under 
the  name  of  jK  heterophyUum.  There  are  several  species  of  the 
genus,  identical  in  their  medical  properties,  and  employed  indis- 
criminately. The  whole  plant  is  ofiicinal,  and  to  be  gathered 
during  the  flowering  season.  From  the  experiments  of  the  late 
Dr.  De  Puy,  of  New  York,  we  learn  that  this  plant  contains  tan- 
nin, volatile  oil,  bitter  extractive,  albumen,  gum,  &c.  The  oil  is 
of  a  pale  yellow  color,  fluid  as  water,  acrid  to  the  taste,  and  a 
strong  lemon-like  smell.  The  leaves  are  bitter  and  astringent  to 
the  taste. 

Chemical  Composiiio^i. — The  recent  analysis  in  your  laboratory 
gives,  of — 


•  The  K.  Canadenne^  or  Canada  flea-baoe,  la  anoUier  upecles. 


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Lee  on  Medicinal  Plants.  '  367 

Organic  matters, 6416.08 

Inorganic  matters, 588.02 

Total, 7000.00 

<5um, 341.12 

Extract, 262.40 

Amidon, 23.68 

Tannin, 148.04 

•     Sugar,' 146.92 

Particular  principles, 715.62 

Oil, 161.12 

Chlerophylle, -        .        ,       896.64 

Soluble  salts, 274.72 

Insoluble  salts, 308.48 

Ligneous, -v       .        .         4221.76 

ToUl,  -..-....      7000.00 

This  plant  has  tonic  astringent  powers,  and  has  been  success- 
fully used  in  a  variety  of  diseases,  such  as  diarrhoea  and  dysen- 
tery, after  the  acute  stage,  and  as  a  styptic  in  the  various  forms  of 
hemorrhage,  external  and  internal  The  late  Dr.  Gilbert  Smith 
employed  it  with  great  success  in  the  New  York  Aims-House,  in 
1812,  using  the  decoction  and  infusion  of  the  plant.  Dr.  De  Puy, 
who  wrote  a  history  of  the  plant,  {Ti-an^,  of  Physico.  Med,  Soc,  of 
New  York^  1817,)  also  derived  great  benefit  from  its  use  in  simi- 
lar cases,  as  well  as  dysuria,  prefering  the  tincture  and  extract. 
Its  diuretic  virtues  are  well  kno¥ra,  and  it  has  long  been  a  popu- 
lar remedy  in  dropsical  cases.  An  infusion  of  the  flowers  is  a 
useful  nervine  and  antispasmodic,  and  has  been  much  employed 
in  nervous  and  hysterical  affections.  The  oil  from  this  plant  is 
supposed  to  exert  almost  a  specific  power  as  an  astringent  in 
hemorrhage ;  indeed,  to  be  one  of  the  most  powerful  styptics 
known.  An  infusion  of  the  plant  was  a  favorite  remedy  with 
the  late  Drs.  Dewees  and  Physic  in  dysury,  especially  in  children. 
Dr.  Barton  extols  it  for  relieving  painful  micturition,  attendant 
on  nephritis.  It  has  some  emmenagogue  properties,  and,  being 
used  by  the  Indians  for  this  purpose,  is  often  called  squaw- 
weed. 

The  preparations  are:  decoction,  infusion,  fluid  extract,  tinc- 
ture, syrup,  oil,  &c.  The  oil  is  supposed  to  be  most  astrin-, 
^ent.     For  diuretic  purposes  the  infusion  and  fluid  extract  arc 


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368  Lee  on  Medicinal  PlayiL^f, 

preferable. 

Spir-EA  Tomextosa,  {Hardback.) — This  beautifal  shrub  is  com- 
mon  in  low,  moist  grounds,  in  most  parts  of  the  United  States. 
It  was  known  to  the  Indians  as  an  astringent  before  it  was  adopt- 
ed  into  regular  practice.  The  bark  and  leaves  contain  most  of 
the  active  principles,  though  the  U.  S.  P.  declares  the  root  to  be 
officinal.  It  is  kept  in  the  shops,  in  the  form  of  square,  pressed 
packages.  The  leaves  have  a  bitter  astringent  taste  and  a 
smell  like  black  tea.  They  contain  tannin,  gallic  acid,  bit- 
ter extractive,  gum,  &c.  It  yields  its  medicinal  principles  to 
water. 

The  hardback  is  a  very  reliable  tonic  and  astringent,  and  sel- 
dom disagrees  with  the  stomach.  It  was  much  used  by  the  late 
Prof.  Tully  as  an  astringent,  and  recommended  highly  in  diar- 
rhoea, dysentery,  hemorrhage,  &c.  The  solid  extract  is  equal  to 
catechu,  and  might,  as  Griffith  thinks,  replace  it  Dose,  five- 
grains  to  one  scruple.  The  fluid  extract,  now  kept  in  the  shops,, 
is  an  excellent  and  reliable  preparation,  in  doses  of  five  to  twenty 
drops.  As  a  tonic  in  pure  debility,  the  spiroea  is  one  of  our  best 
indigenous  articles. 

Spiu.ea  Salicifolia,  {Queen  of  Vie  Meiuloiv.) — Chemical  Com- 
jxksition. — Your  recent  analysis  gives,  of — 

Organic  matters, 6416.08 

Inorganic  matters, 583.02 

Total, 7000.00 

(Jum, 370.56 

Extract, v  334.66' 

Amidon, 128.86 

Sugar, 143.62 

Tannin, 115.20 

Bitter  principle, 466.88 

Particular  principle, 627.86 

Clorophyle, -  466.56 

Soluble  salts, '  370.88 

Insoluble  salts, 212.32 

Lignin, :        -  3768.30 

Total, 7000.00 

Medicinal  properties  and  preparations  the  same  as  those  of  the 
hardback. 


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Therapeutical  Properties  of  Veratrum   Mindc,  869 

Therapeutical  Properties  of  Veratrum  Viride. 

BY   A.   F.   PATTEE,    M.    D. 

TiiK  indications  which  veratrum  viride  seems  to  be  capable  of 
^Ifilling  are  numerous.  As  a  sedative  no  other  medicine  is  equal 
to  it,  reducing  a  pulse  of  one  hundred  and  thirty  beats  to  seventy, 
in  fix)m  three  to  four  hours. 

The  j>reparationa  most  used  at  present  are  the  fluid  extract 
and  tincture.  I  prefer  the  fluid  extract,  as  prepared  by  Tilden 
A  Co. 

Pneumonia  is  the  disease  in  which  veratrum  viride  is  particu- 
larly indicated.  It  seems  to  have  niore  controling  power  in  this 
than  any  other  disease,  reducing  the  inflammation  and  £Bivoring 
expectoration  in  a  very  few  hours.  In  some  instances  vomiting 
is  induced,  which  is  generally  tough,  viscid  mucous ;  the  pulse 
now  rapidly  declines,  if  not  affected  before;  the  breathing  be- 
<x>mes  easy,  and  the  patient  falls  into  an^easy  sleep,  with,  per- 
haps, a  gentle  perspiration.  The  dose  now  is  to  be  so  managed 
as  to  sustain  the  depressed  state  of  the  circulation.  If  the  vera- 
trum cauaes  much  nausea,  it  may  be  conteracted  by  giving  a  lit- 
tle of  a  solution  of  morphia  or  tincture  of  opium. 

I  find  that  in  pneumonia  it  is  better  to  reduce  the  pulse  as  soon 
as  possible:  the  inflammation  being  in  a  degree  arrested,  the 
lung  is  saved  from  the  more  severe  consequences  of  the  second 
^tage  or  that  of  red  hepa^tization  of  Saennec;  for  the  concrete 
fibrinous  exudation  being  caused  by  a  peculiar  inflammatory  ac- 
tion— ^thus  the  cause  being,  in  part,  removed — ^this  exudation  is 
in  a  great  degree  arrested,  and  the  patient,  in  a  majority  of  cases, 
enters  into  a  fiivorable  convalescence. 

Having  used  the  veratrum  viride,  for  the  past  two  years, 
in  most  cases  of  pneumonia,  I  will  give  the  outlines  of  a  few 
well-defined  cases : — 

Cask  No.  1. — March  18th,  George  P.,  aged  ten  years,  was 
taken  with  chiU,  followed  by  febrile  reaction ;  pulse,  one  hundred 
and  thirty  per  minute ;  difficult  breathing,  cough,  severe  pain  in 
the  left  side,  and  rust-colored  sputa. 

Physical  Symptoms, — Crepitant  rale  over  lower  part  of  left 
lung ;  percussion  not  much  changed.     Treatment :  fluid  extract 


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370  T/ierapeultcal  Properties  of  Veratrurn   Viride, 

veratxmn  viride,  four  drops ;  fluid  extract  senna,  one  drachm — 
the  senna  as  a  purge.  Continued  the  veratrurn  viride,  in  two- 
drop  doses,  every  three  hours,  in  connection  with  ten  drops  of  solu- 
tion of  morphia  as  an  anodyne. 

14th — ^Pulse,  one  hundred — sharp ;  breathing  more  free,  cough 
less,  rust-colored  sputa,  restless  and  wakeful ;  rales  the  same,  or 
nearly  so.  Continued  veratrurn  viride,  in  two-drop  doses,  and 
solution  of  morphia,  twenty  drops,  every  three  hours. 

15th — Pulse,  eighty  per  minute  |  less  pain  in  the  chest;  expec- 
torated freely  a  yellowish  mucous,  slightly  tinged  with  blood; 
crepitant  rale  less ;  mucous  rale  in  the  upper  part  of  the  left  lung. 
Continued  the  veratrum  viride  and  morphia. 

16th — ^Pulse,  seventy-five  per  minute;  tongue  cleaning;  ex- 
pectoration copious  and  easy;  rested  well  through  the  night; 
skin  soft  and  moist  Q-ave  the  following  mixture : — Syrup  garlic, 
3  L ;  veratrum  viride,  eight  drops ;  morphia,  quarter  grain.. 
Dose — Half  a  tea8p#onful  every  four  hours.  Diet — ^Milk  and 
water. 

19th — ^No  febrile  excitement ;  cough  and  expectoration  dimin- 
ished; sat  up  two  hours.  He  was  now  placed  upon  wine 
and  quinine,  and  the  patient  recovered  without  further  treat- 
ment 

Case  No.  2. — ^March  19th,  R.  S.,  aged  twenty-one  years,  was 
taken  with  chill,  followed  by  fever,  and  pain  in  the  inferior  part 
of  the  left  lung ;  pulse,  one  hundred  and  twenty-five ;  expectora- 
tion scanty ;  tongue  covered  with  a  brownish  far ;  restless  and 
wakeful. 

Physical  Symptoms, — ^Healthy  resonance  dimished  over  lower 
portion  of  left  lung;  crepitant  rale  in  lower  portion  of  left  lung. 
Treatment — ^Castor  oil,  two  ounces,  as  a  purge ;  veratrum  viride, 
four  drops,  increasing  one  drop  every  three  hours,  with  mucilage^ 
gum  arable. 

20th — ^Pulse,  one  hundred,  soft  and  regular;  rust-colored  sputa; 
pain  less;  cough  hard ;  breathing  easy;  tongue  a  little  enlarged; 
decubitus  dorsal ;  head  and  shoulders  raised ;  not  as  much  rest- 
lessness ;  rales  similar.  Gave  the  following  pill : — ^Podophyllin^ 
one  grain ;  leptandrin,  two  grains ;  solid  extract  apocy,  canabi.^ 
one  grain — as  a  cathartic  and  alterative.    Gave  veratrum  viride^ 


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Therapeutical  Properties  of  Verat^m   Viride.  371 

three  drops  every  three  hours,  with  half  a  grain  quinine  and  mu- 
cilaginous drinks. 

21st — Much  improved;  no  pain  in  the  chest;  pulse  slow,  sLjcty 
per  minute;  cough  loose;  tongue  cleaning  and  moist;  crepitant 
and  mucous  rale  on  oscultation.  Gave  veratrum,  two  drops; 
quinine,  one  grain ;  wine,  one  drachm,  every  four  hours. 

22d — Rested  well ;  symptoms  all  improving.  Continued  vera- 
trum, quinine  and  wine. 

28d — Coughed  much  through  the  night;  pulse  regular;  sat  up 
this  morning  one  hour ;  appetite  returning.  Gave  of  the  following 
mixture : — ^Fluid  extract  veratrum  viride,  3  i ;  quinine,  gr.  10  ; 
wine,  5  y- '  syrup  of  morphine,  5  i.  One  drachm  four  times  a 
day. 

24th,  25th,  and  26th— Coughed  but  little  for  the  past  three 
days ;  tongue  mostly  cleaned ;  sat  up  four  hours ;  ordered  mix- 
ture to  be  taken  occasionally.  He  recovered  without  farther 
treatment 

Other  cases  might  be  given ;  but  I  would  say,  that  where  the 
veratrum  has  been  used  the  patient  has  not  fidled  to  recover,  ex- 
cept in  two  cases. 

I  have  used  the  veratrum  viride  in  acute  rJieuniaiismj  but 
its  influence  was  not  so  prompt  and  decided  as  in  pneumo- 
nia. Perhaps  it  could  be  accounted  for,  as  it  was  not  given 
in  as  large  doses,  and  more  morphia  was  given' in  connection 
with  it. 

The  average  duration  of  the  disease  has  been  nine  days.  I 
usually  use  the  following  formula : — 

5. — Fluid  extract  veratrum  viride, 31. 

Wine, I  iv. 

Sulphate  of  morphia^ gr.  vii. 

Dose — Teaspoonful  every  three  hours,  using,  at  the  same  time^ 
acidulated  drinks,  and  sponging  the  patient  freely  with  an  alka- 
line solution:  keeping  the  bowels  open  at  the  same  time  with 
sulphate  of  magnesia. 

I  have  used  it  in  dysentery,  as  recommended  by  Dr.  TuUy, 
with  good  effect,  and  can  confidently  recommend  it,  in  con- 
nection with  morphine,  as  one  of  the  most  efficient  remedies,  in 


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372  Theraj>€uticdl  Properties  of  Veratrum   Viride, 

the  treatment  of  simple  dysentery,  that  we  have. 

I  have  used  the  remedy  in  many  cases  of  idiopailiic  fever  with 
much  benefit,  although  it  is  in  enteric  or  typhoid  fever  in  which  the 
remedy  seems  to  have  the  most  beneficial  influence,  especially 
when  we  have  a  frequent  pulse  and  a  sthenic  condition  of  the 
system.  In  those  cases  I  usually  give  it  combined  with  morphia, 
and  in  the  asthenic  cases  with  quinine. 

I  find  that  in  enteric  fever  it  is  better  to  reduce  the  pulse 
gradually,  and  use  the  veratrum  in  as  small  quantities  as  pos- 
sible, and  always  combined  with  morphia;  and  from  two  to 
three  days  is  soon  enough  to  reduce  a  pulse  of  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  beats  to  seventy,  which  it  is  very  essential  to 
maintain,  as  it  is  very  difficult  to  reduce  the  pulse  a  second 
time. 

In  asthenic  cases  I  use  the  following  mixture: — 

5 . — Veratrum  viride, Two  drops. 

Solution  sulphate  of  morphia, Half  drachm. 

Sulphate  of  quinine, Quarter  grain. 

Aromatic  sulphuric  acid, Two  drops. 

Mix,  and  give  every  four  hours,  adding  more  of  the  veratrum 
if  the  pulse  is  not  aflPected  in  from  eight  to  twelve  hours ;  and  we 
can,  in  fact,  say  that  veratrum  viride  is  applicable  to  all  stages  of 
enteric  fever^  if  properly  combined  with  other  medicines,  and  given 
in  requisite  quantities. 

In  coughs,  resulting  from  an  inflammatory  action,  veratrum 
viride  is  one  of  the  best  remedies  we  have.  The  following  makes 
an  excellent  cough  mixture : — 

5. — Tincture  sang,  canad., 3  ii. 

Vini.  ipecac., 3  "i. 

Fluid  extract  yeratrum  viride, , Si* 

Sulphate  of  morphia, gr.  vL 

^  Alcohol, 3  "• 

Simple  s>Tup, 5  lii. 

Dose — Teaspoonful  four  times  a  day,  for  an  adult. 


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Foreign  cmd  Indigenous  Medicinal  Pianis.  873 

On  the  Therapeutio  Value  of  Foreign  and  Indigenous 
Medioinal   Plants. 

BY  H.  A.  TILDEN. 
(From  Hie  Proceedings  of  the  American  PJutrmacetUical  AssodaUon,) 

The  question  relating  to  the  comparative  therapeutic  value  of 
foreign  and  indigenous  or  cultivated  plants,  assigned  to  me  at 
the  last  meeting  of  your  Association,  I  shall  be  able  to  report 
upon  but  partially  this  year. 

To  determine  this  question  satisfiictorily,  or  conclusively,  in- 
volves experiments  and  observations  of  two  or  more  seasons;  and 
inasmuch  as  the  sessions  of  the  Association  occur  in  advance  of 
the  season  for  the  maturity  of  most  medicinal  plants,  I  am  limited 
to  such  as  have  arrived  at  maturity,  and  can,  from  the  limited 
time  allowed,  give  only  such  portions  of  the  several  experiments 
concerning  each  as  have  been  concluded. 

No  way  presented  itself  of  determining  all  the  points  involved 
in  the  question,  inasmuch  as  the  narcotic  plants  are  perhaps  the 
most  important,  or  more  particularly  referred  to  in  the  question, 
but  to  make  them,  as  a  class,  the  subject  of  particular  experiment 
and  examination,  somewhat  after  the  following  plan; — 

1.  An  analysis  of  five  specimens  of  belladonna,  hyoscyamus, 
aconite,  conium  and  digitatis :  each  specimen  of  the  different  plants 
of  different  importation. ' 

2.  The  preparation  of  an  extract  from  each  specimen ;  the  ex- 
amination of  each  extract  to  determine  the  quantity  of  alkaloids, 
resin,  &c.,  in  each ;  an  analysis  of  the  ashes  of  the  extract  of 
each  plant,  to  determine  the  inorganic  constituents  of  each,  and 
comparison  with  tiie  analysis  of  the  plant,  that  we  may  infer 
the  nature  of  the  soil  upon  which  each  grew. 

S.  An  examination  of  extracts  of  the  same  plants  of  foreign 
manufacture,  and  comparison  with  those  made  here  from  foreign 
plant 

4.  The  analysis  of  the  soil  upon  which  the  several  plants  are 
grown  here,  in  general  culture,  before  sowing  and  also  after  the 
maturity  of  the  plant. 

5.  An  analysis  of  the  plants  at  various  periods  of  growth  to 
maturity. 


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874  Foreign  and  Indigenaus  Medicinal  FJanis. 

6.  Treatment  of  each  plant  npon  the  same  soil  with  specific 
manures,  as  guano,  nitrate  of  potassa,  nitrate  of  soda,  and  also 
iriih  a  compound  of  the  three. 

7.  Analysis  of  the  soil  specifically  manured  after  the  maturity 
of  the  plant 

8.  The  preparation  of  extracts  of  each  plant  specifically  treat- 
ed, as  well  as  of  g^aeral  culture :  analysis  of  each« 

9.  The  organic  analysis  of  very  many  of  our  indigenous  medi- 
cinal plants  which  are  extensively  cultivated,  causing  the  plant, 
both  cultivated  and  wild,  to  be  collected  once  a  month :  analysis 
cf  both,  that  we  may  determine  at  what  period  of  growth  the 
largest  amount  of  medicinal  principles  are  present 

Pursuant  to  the  general  plan,  I  caused  different  sections  of  a 
large  field  of  hyoscyamus,  of  the  second  year's  growth,  to  be 
watered— -one  with  a  solution  of  nitrate  of  potassa,  another  with 
a  solution  of  nitrate  of  soda,  and  another  with  a  solution  of  guano 
— xmtil  the  plants  had  reached  maturity  or  the  period  of  full 
bloom. 

The  plants  watered  exhibited  marked  difference  in  vigor  of 
growth  over  other  portions  of  the  field,  that  portion  upon  which 
nitrate  of  potash  had  been  applied  being  of  a  much  darker  green 
color  than  that  watered  with  nitrate  of  soda,  and  both  much 
greener  than  that  watered  with  solution  of  guano.  The  same 
difference  in  appearance  was  observable  in  a  field  of  the  same 
plant  of  the  first  year's  growth. 

At  maturity  the  plants  were  collected  and  submitted  to  an  uni- 
form process  of  crushing,  expression,  and  subsequent  maceration 
of  the  pulp  in  alcohol.  The  expressed  juice  and  alcoholic  solu- 
tion were  evaporated  to  a  pillular  consistence. 

A  portion  of  each  extract  was  dried,  and  treated  by  strong  alco- 
hol to  dissolve  the  chlorophylle,  alkaloid  and  resinous  principles 
evaporated,  and  treated  with  hot  water  to  separate  the  resin  and 
chlorophylle.  The  solution  in  hot  water  was  boiled  with  oxide  of 
lead,  to  separate  the  coloring  matter,  filtered,  and  the  filtrate  eva- 
porated to  dryness,  giving  a  nearly  white  substance  having 
marked  alkaline  reactions.  Per  centage  in  the  extracts,  as  fol- 
lows:— 


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Foreign  mhd  Indigmons  MedAcirud  Pldnis. 


876 


'     OKDINABT 
I  CULTIVATIOK. 


Impure  alkaline  sub-  |      20.800 

tanoe, ■ 

ColoriDg  matter^ |       14.855 


OUANO. 


28.816 
12.888 


NITRATE  OF 
P0TA8SA. 


24.865 

12.795 


NITRATE  OF 
SODA. 


25.850 

18.445 


The  alkaline  principle,  heated  in  a  tube  witli  potassa^  disen- 
gaged ammonia  largely,  showing  the  presence  of  a  large  amount 
of  nitrogen^  and  indicating  the  presence  of  a  vegetable  alkaloid. 

The  precise  character  of  this  impure  alkaloid,  to  which  the 
pltot  undoubtedly,  to  a  great  extent,  owes  its  activity  as  a  medi- 
cinal agent,  we  are  now  unable  to  state :  reserving  this  for  far- 
ther examination. 

The  disengagement  of  strong  ammonia  indicates  the  presence 
of  an  alkaloid,  probably  hyoscyamia^  as  found  by  Brande. 

The  variation  of  this  principle  in  the  different  extracts,  afi 
shown  by  the  table  above,  enables  us  to  draw  the  inference,  fair- 
ly, that  the  different  methods  of  treatment  of  the  plant,  or  culti- 
vation, produce  a  marked  difference  in  its  development;  and  we 
have  no  doubt,  from  the  difference  in  the  ammoniacal  odor  per- 
oeptible  when  each  are  tried  with  potash,  that  the  pure  hyoscya- 
mia  will  be  foxmd  to  vary  in  similar  proportion. 

The  chlorophylk  and  resin  were  separated  by  disaolving  the  resin 
in  alcohol  of  the  specific  gravity  of  90°,  filtered,  and  the  filtrate 
e(vaporated  to  dryness. 

The  residuum  insoluble  in  alcohol  was  treated  by  cold  water,  to 
determine  the  starch;  the  soluble  portion  evaporated  to  a  synipy 
consistence,  and  the  gum  and  albumen  precipitated  by  alcohol. 

The  coloring  matter  contained  in  Ae  aqueous  part,  together 
with  the  sugar,  were  not  determined. 

The  result  of  the  examination  of  this  portion  was  as  follows : — 


Soluble  in  alcohol, . 
Alkaline  and  color- 
ing matter, 

Besin, 

Chlorophylle, 

Starch, 

Gum  and  albumen, . 


ORDINART 
CULTIVATION. 


47.244 

85.488 
11.811 

2.462 

5.490  * 


GUANO. 


49.229 

86.453 
13.076 

2.561 
6.662 


NITRATE  OF 
POTASH. 


45.269 

87.162 
5.406 
2.702 
1.992 
6,002 

Digiti 


IflTBATX  or 
80DA. 

44.829 


89.825 
4.281 
1.228 
1.999 
9.890 


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376 


Foreign  and  Indigenous  Medicinal  Plants. 


Another  portion  of  each  extract  was  dried  and  incenerated; 
the  combustion  was  not  carried  far  enough  to  produce  entire  de- 
struction of  the  carbon.  The  ashes  were  then  treated  as  fol- 
lows : — 

The  carbonic  acid  gas  was  determined,  by  weighing,  by  hydro- 
chloric acid,  on  the  apparatus  of  Will ;  the  solution  was  then 
placed  in  a  porcelain  dish,  and  evaporated  to  dryness,  then  dis- 
solved in  water,  acidulated  with  a  little  hydrochloric  acid,  and 
filtered — the  residuum  upon  the  filter  giving  carbon  and  silica. 
From  the  filtered  liquor  all  lime  was  precipitated  by  oxalate  of 
ammonia,  filtered,  and  the  lime  estimated  in  the  state  of  sulphate 
of  lime.  The  filtered  liquor  was  evaporated  to  dryness,  to  expel 
the  salt  of  anamonia  previously  added  and  the  residuum  dissolved 
in  water.  To  the  solution  was  added  ammonia,  which  precipi- 
tated the  phosphate  of  magnesia,  oxide  of  iron,  and  alumina. 
These  were  separated  fix)m  each  other  by  the  usual  known  pro- 
cess. From  the  filtered  solution  free  phosphoric  acid  was  precipi- 
tated by  sulphate  of  ammonico-magnesia. 

Another  portion  of  the  ash  was  dissolved  in  water,  acidulated 
with  nitric  acid,  filtered,  and  divided  into  three  portions.  One 
portion  was  treated  by  nitrate  of  baryta,  to  determine  the  stilphurie 
acid  and  by  nitrate  of  silver,  to  determine  the  chloinne. 

A  second  portion  was  treated  by  antimoniate  of  potash,  to  de- 
termine the  soda ;  a  ihirdj  by  chloride  of  platina,  to  determine  the 
potassa,  and  the  nitric  acid  was  estimated  from  another  portion  of 
the  ash,  by  Pelouse's  process. 

The  several  extracts  gave  as  follows : — 


"Silic*, 

Phofiphate  of  lime, . 
<^bonate  of  lime, . . 
Phosphate  magnesia,. 
Carbonate  potash,. . 
Sulphate  potash,... 
Chloride  potash, . . . 

Nitrate  potash, 

Oxide  of  iron, 

Alumina, 

Nitrate  of  soda,. , . . 


ORDINART 

CULTF^ATION. 

GUAMO. 

85.658 

26.871 

85.168 

88.815 

4.T23 

4.440 

6.982 

10.764 

7.950 

8.106 

1.895 

2.860 

2.441 

1.826 

1.509 

1.500 

1.509 

1.818 

0.928 

612 

KITBATE  OF 
1»0TASH. 


SITRATE  OP 
SODA. 


28.882 

27.892 

82.161 

33.022 

8.129 

7.144 

5.231 

6.707 

11.407 

5.761 

3.012 

1.769 

2.254 

1.19G 

4.299 

1.196 

1.832 

1.191 

1.803 

0.722 

3.391 

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Foreign  and  Indigenous  Medicinal  Plants, 


S77 


Carbonate  of  soda, . . ; 
Ix)st, 


1.407 


Total, !     100.000 


Ashes,. 


Total  salts  of  potassa, 
Total  salts  of  soda,.. 

Total  both,.... 
Total  phosphates, . . . 


17.283 
18.V96 


18.795 
42.085 


1.800 
1.588 

100.000 

23.864 

18.793 
1.800 

16.592 
49.597 


1.990 

100.000 
28.868 
20.972 


20.972 
87.892 


10.084 
1.425 

100.000 

23.048 

9.822 
18.475 

2^,297 
88. 37  (J 


It  should  be  observed  that  the  sections  watered  were  sufficiently 
near  as  not  to  cause  any  variation  in  the  character  of  the  soil.  It 
will  be  seen  that  potassa  exists  in  the  ordinary  extract  natui^ly, 
and  is  increased  by  special  treatment  nearly  fifty  per  cent.,  while 
soda  does  not,  and  by  treatment  with  soda  the  potassa  is  lessened^ 
from  the  natural  proportion  about  thirty  per  cent;  the  total 
of  soda  nearly  equals  the  total  of  potassa  in  the  natural,  and  the 
nitrate  of  soda  and  nitrate  of  potassa  taken  together,  exceeding 
the  nitrate  of  potassa  in  the  one  treated  by  it,  leaving  the  infer- 
ence that  when  potash  exists  in  the  soil  and  soda  does  not,  that 
the  latter  should  be  u.sed,  so  as  to  afford  the  largest  amount  of 
nitrates,  and  showing  the  disposition  of  the  plant  to  take  up  both, 
unless  it  shall  be  shown  by  further  investigations  that  the  plant 
in  which  nitrate  of  potash  exists  naturally  affords  the  largest 
amount  of  alkaloid,  which  is  hardly  probable. 

This  analysis  explains  the  cause  of  the  appearance  of  nitrate 
of  potash,  in  crystals,  upon  the  surface  of  the  inspissated  extracts 
of  hyoscyamus. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  determine  the  different  matters  of  which  a 
plant  is  composed,  but  it  is  quite  another  field  of  investigation 
to  determine  the  manner  in  which  these  substances  are  produced, 
and  follow  the  complicated  processes  which  constitute  vegetation. 
The  multiplicity  of  operations  continually  going  on  in  vegetation 
at  the  same  time,  the  variety  of  substances  formed  out  of  the 
.same  compound,  the  harmony,  skill  and  certainty  which  attends 
all  the  operations,  are  too  wonderful  to  pass  our  observation,  and 
too  important  not  to  challenge  thorough  investigation. 

The  researches  and  discoveries  of  agricultural  chemistry  fuller 


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378  Beniarks  on  Qmcenirated  Pteparations^  <tc. 

establish  the  fact  that  plants  require  for  their  growth  and  perfect 
development  certain  inorganic  constituents,  which  are  different  in 
different  classes  of  plants.  And  the  object  of  our  inquiry  is  to 
ascertain  what  inorganic  constituents  are  indispensable  for  the 
growth  of  the  cultivated  narcotics  and  perfect  development  of 
those  principles,  upon  which  their  value  as  a  medicinal  agent  de- 
jiend. 

The  utility  of  alkalies  in  the  form  of  nitrates,  or,  indeed,  in  any 
"form,  cannot  be  doubted;  nor  can  their  utility  in  the  formation 
of  organic  alkaloids  in  plants  be  considered  a  question. 

Liebig  says  "  the  existence  of  vegetable  alkalies  in  combination 
with  organic  acids  gives  great  weight  to  the  opinion  that  alkaline 
bases  in  general  are  connected  with  the  development  of  plants ;" 
and  it  remains  to  be  determined,  by  further  experiment  and 
analysis,  which  salt  is  most  efficient  in  the  development  of  the 
peculiar  alkaloids  upon  which  the  medicinal  activity  of  each 
narcotic  appears  to  almost  entirely  depend,  establish  the  true 
source  of  the  active  principles  of  other  classes,  and  ascertain  by 
what  process  the  development  of  resinous  and  neutral  principles 
likewise  depends. 


Remarks  on  Concentrated  Preparations,  Simple  Tests,  and 
Easy  Method  of  Analysis. 

Having  given,  fully,  the  general  rules  for  the  analysis  of  con- 
oentrated  preparations,  we  now  propose  to  consider  each  one  sepa- 
rately, its  composition,  reactions,  purity,  and  how  to  ascertain  its 
adulterations. 

When  prepared,  some  of  these  preparations  are  dry,  and  capa- 
ble of  being  easily  reduced  to  a  fine  powder ;  others,  after  the 
evaporation  of  the  water,  are  yet  greasy  or  oleagenous,  and  can- 
not be  made  into  a  powder  except  by  the  admixture  of  a  foreign 
substance — inert  or  without  medicinal  properties — which,  uniting 
with  the  oily  property,  facilitates  the  pulverization  of  the  prepara- 
tion. That  usually  employed  is  sugar  of  milk.  Latterly,  the 
powder  of  the  substance  from  which  the  article  is  made  is  em- 
ployed. Whatever  it  may  be,  it  should  be  stated  upon  the  pack- 
age, that  the  per  centage  of  admixture  inay  be  known  to  the  phy- 
sician. 


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Bemarks  on  Qmoentraied  Preparations^  Sc 


879 


These  preparations  are  finding  oonsiderable  &ror  with  the  medi- 
oal  profession,  and  are  increasing  in  number.  I  have  now  inves- 
tigated forty-four,  those  most  in  use  by  the  profession. 

For  convenience  of  consideration,  I  have  divided  them  into 
two  classes: — 

CLASS  I. 

OOirCENTRATED    PBEFABATIONS    BEBUOED    TO  A  POWDER,  WITH- 
OUT THE  ADDITION  OF  A  FOREIGN  SUBSTANCE. 

DinsioN  L 
Pure  Resins,  Alkaloids,  or  Neutrals. 
Podophyllin,  Caulophyllin,  Hydrastina, 

Jalapin,  Sanguinarin,  Corydalina, 

Cimicifugin,  Sanguinarina,  Salicin. 

Division  IL 
Resin   Mixed  with  Alkaloid,  Neutral,  or  Tannin. 
Leptandrin,  Prunin,  Ehumin, 

CJomin,  Myricin,  Khusin, 

Greranin,  Juglandin,  Eryngin. 


CLASS  n. 

CONCENTRATED  PREPARATIONS  REDUCED  TO  A   POWDER  BY  THE 
ADDITION  OP  A  FOREIGN  SUBSTANCE. 

Division  L 
Resin,  or  Oleo-Resin,  Mixed  with  a  Foreign  Substance, 
Hydrastin,  Populin,  Dioscorein, 

Asclepidin,  Corydalin,  Liatrin, 

Xanthoxylin,  Aletrin,  Iridin. 

Division  IT. 

Resin,  or    Oleo-Resin,    with   Alkaloid^    Neutral,    jtminin,    d:c.,   Mixed 

with  a  Foreign  Substance. 

Veratrin,  Chelonin,  Apocynin, 

Scutellarin,  Senecin,  Baptisin,         ^ 

liobelin,  Stillingln,  Alnuin, 

Eupatorin,  Cypripedin,  Ilelonin, 

Eupurpurin,  TriJliin,  Lupulin. 
Hyoscyamin, 


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880  BemarTcs  on  Concentrated  Preparations^  ike. 

It  ia  very  probable  that  more  will  be  found  and  introduced, 
at  this  time  the  above  are  the  only  ones  which  are  in  common 
use. 

Podophyllin  is  prepared  from  the  root  of  mandrake  {poilophyl- 
lum  peliatum)^  indigenous  to  various  parts  of  this  country. 

It  has  been  stated  by  some  writers  that  podophyllin  contains 
three  principles,  viz. :  resinoid,  neutral,  and  alkaloid.  This  is  a 
mistake.  Pure  podophylUn  is  a  pure  resinoid,  composed  of  two 
resins,  and  no  neutral  or  alkaloid  principle.  In  another  place  we 
shall  refer  to  these  principles,  and  demonstrate  that  such  podo- 
phyllin is  an  hydro-alcoholic  extract. 

Properties  of  Pure  Podophyllin. — Its  color  varies  according  to 
the  mode  of  preparation,  varying  from  a  dark  brown  to  a  lemon 
yellow.  It  is  insoluble  in  acids;  precipitated  from  its  solutions 
by  them ;  soluble  in  alkaline  solutions ;  insoluble  in  cold  or  hot 
water,  either  pure  or  acidulated ;  dissolves  entirely  by  alcohol. 
When  its  alcoholic  solution  is  evaporated  to  a  syrupy  consistence, 
and  mixed  with  water,  all  the  podophyllin  is  precipitated,  and 
the  filtered  liquor  is  colorless.  A  portion  only  is  soluble  in  ether ; 
the  insoluble  portion  is  soluble  in  alcohol.  Experiments  with  the 
root  collected  in  the  spring  and  autumn  give  the  following  re- 
sults:— 

PODOPHYLLIN       PODOPHYLLIN 
-.  FROM  THE  FROM  THE 

SPRING  ROOT.       AUTUMN  ROOT. 

Resin,  soluble  in  ether, 64.34  39.96 

Resin,  soluble  in  alcohol, 46.66  60.06 

Total, 100.00  100.00 

Properties  of  the  Alcoholic  Eoctract  of  Mandrake. — ^The  color  is 
dark  brown ;  exposed  to  the  air  it  absorbs  water,  and  becomes 
soft;  is  soluble  i^  alkalies:  partially  so  in  acids.  Water  dis- 
solves a  very  bitter  principle,  which  is  probably  the  so-called 
alkaloid,  and  neutral  alcohol  dissolves  it  entirely.  When  the 
solution  is  evaporated  to  a  syrupy  consistence,  and  added  to 
water,  a  portion  only  is  precipitated,  and  the  filtered  liquor  is 
highly  colored.  Ether  dissolves  but  a  small  portion,  being  that 
portion  of  the  resin  soluble  in  it. 

Experiments  were  made  with  the  mandrake  root  collected  in 
the  spring  and  autumn,  with  the  following  result : — 


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Remarh'  on  Concentrated  Preparations,  Ac.  381 

EXTKACT  PROM  THR      KXTRACT  FROM  THB 
SPRUti}   ROOT.  Al'TUMN    ROOT. 

Soluble  in  w»ter, 68.05  41.64 

Soluble  in  alcohol, 81.36  68.36 

Total, 100.00  100.00 

The  portion  soluble  in  water  is  the  bitter  principle ;  that  solu- 
ble in  alcohol  are  the  resins. 

Properties  of  Hie  Hydro- Alcoholic  Extract, — The  hydro-alcoholic 
extract  has  a  color  somewhat  darker  than  the  alcoholic  extract. 
It  attracts  moisture  more  rapidly  from  the  atmosphere  than  the 
alcoholic  extract;  partly  soluble  in  acids;  soluble  in  alkalies; 
partly  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether.  When  the  alcoholic  solution 
is  evaporated  to  a  syrupy  consistence,  and  mixed  with  water, 
some  podophyllin  is  precipitated. 

The  hydro-alcoholic  extract  yields : — 

Soluble  in  water, 07.05 

Soluble  in  alcohol, 32.95 

Total, 100.00 

Properties  of  Oie  Aqueous  Extract — ^Much  darker  color  than  the 
last ;  cannot  be  reduced  to  a  powder  without  the  addition  of  some 
foreign  substance;  attracts  rapidly  the  moisture  of  the  atmos- 
phere ;  soluble  in  acids  and  alkalies ;  a  portion  is  soluble  in  alco- 
hol, but  the  alcoholic  solution  does  not  precipitate  any  resin; 
insoluble  in  ether. 

It  will  be  observed  that  it  is  not  difficult  to  distinguish  podo- 
pJiyUin  from  the  extracts  of  mandrake,  for  when  treated  by  pure 
alcohol — ^if  the  article  is  entirely  dissolved — ^it  is  either  podophyl- 
lin or  an  alcoholic  extract  These  are  distinguished  by  the  quan- 
tity of  podophyllin  precipitated  by  water  from  the  alcoholic 
solution.  If  the  article  is  not  entirely  dissolved  in  alcohol  it  is 
an  hydro-alcoholic  extraCbt.  These  are  distinguished  by  adding 
water  to  the  alcoholic  solution  in  the  hydro-alcoholic  extract  that 
the  podophyUin  is  precipitated.  In  the  aqueous  extract  none  will 
be  foimd.  * 

Pitre  PodophyUin  Mioced  with  Syrup  of  Milk,  Salt,  Magnesia^  or 
Powdered  Boot — Treat  the  mixture  by  strong  alcohol  till  all  the 
podophyllin -is  dissolved;   the  foreign  substance  remains  insolu- 


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862  American  Pharnvjucmtical  Asaociation. 

We ;  filter,  wash  well  with  alcsohol,  and  dry.  The  weight  gives 
the  amount  of  adulteration.  To  determine  the  character  of  the 
adulteration,  we  refer  to  another  part  of  our  article. 

Alcoholic  Extract  Mixed  with  same  Articles. — Treat  the  same  as 
for  pure  podophyUin. 

Hydro- AlcoJwlic  Extract  Mixed  vdlh  same  Articles. — 11  the  sub- 
stance is  magnesia  or  carbonate  of  magnesia,  txeat  the  mixture 
with  alcohol,  proof  or  56"^ ;  collect  the  insoluble  residuum  on  a 
filter,  wash  it  with  alcohol,  and  dry.  Its  weight  gires  the  magne- 
sia or  carbonate.  K  the  substance  is  sugar  of  milky  treat  the  mix- 
ture by  water,  and  filter ;  pass  the  aqueoxis  solution  through  ani- 
mal black,  filter,  and  evaporate  to  dryness.  The  weight  gives 
the  quantity  of  sugar  of  milk.  If  salt,  deodorize  by  animal 
black ;  precipitate  the  chlorine  by  nitrate  of  silver,  and  use  the 
fiarmula  given  in  the  last  article. 

Aquecyus  Extract  Mixed  with  same, — If  sugar  of  milk  or  salt, 
proceed  as  above ;  if  magnesia  or  powdered  root,  dissolve  in 
water,  filter,  and  wash  residuum  well.  Its  weight  will  give  the 
quantity  of  mixture. 


American  Pharmaceutical  Association. 

TnH  Massachusetts  College  of  Pharmacy  gave  to  this  body  a  complimentaiy 
dinner,  at  the  American  House,  Boston,  on  the  15th  of  September  last,  on 
which  occasion,  in  reply  to  a  sentiment  offered  complimentary  to  the  Associa- 
tion, the  President,  S.  M.  Colcord,  made  the  following  remarks : — 

In  replying  to  your  sentiment,  and  the  call  made  upon  me,  it  would  seem 
proper  that  I  should  make  some  statements  as  to  the  origin,  the  past  doings, 
and  the  future  work  of  this  Association.  It  originated  through  a  call  made 
by  the  New  York  College  of  Pharmacy  for  a  convention  of  delegates  from 
other  Pharmaceutical  Societies,  to  meet  in  New  York  in  1851,  for  the  purpose 
o£  a  general  agreement  as  to  the  form  and  substance  of  a  memorial  to  the 
Treasury  Department  of  the  United  States  Government,  so  to  instruct  the 
special  examiners  of  drugs  at  the  different  ports  of  entry,  as  to  insure  the 
benefits  of  the  drug  law  to  the  community,  and  a  uniformity  in  its  operations. 
That  convention,  after  accomplishing  the  object  of  its  call,  adjourned,  to  meet 
the  next  year  in  Philadelphia,  and  appointed  a  committee  to  draft  a  plan  of 
operations,  constitution,  by-laws,  and  code  of  ethics,  for  a  permanent  organi- 
zation of  druggists  and  apothecaries  throughout  the  Union,  for  the  general  im- 
provement of  the  trade  and  the  more  certain  and  uniform  advancement  in 


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American  Pharmaceuiioal  AgsocicUiicn,  888 

pharmaceutic  science  and  skill.  The  result  was  a  feeble  commeiuiement  of 
Ike  present  organization. 

The  eyes  of  interested  spectators  were  turned  upon  us,  to  learn  what  would 
be  our  action  in  reference  to  drugs,  as  a  board  of  trade,  as  to  quality,  and  the 
■aeans  we  proposed  to  improye  it ;  how  we  proposed  to  meet  the  various  con* 
iiicting  interests ;  what  action  we  should  take  in  reference  to  nostrums ;  how 
we  should  define  our  position  with  reference  to  the  medical  profession ;  and 
12ie  thousand  and  one  forms  of  medical  prescribing,  from  homeopathic  nothing- 
neia  to  dangerous  doses,  from  irregular  talent  to  utter  ignorance.  These 
questions  were  of  rital  importance  to  our  existence,  and,  in  some  form  or 
<]Aher,  had  to  be  met.  The  result  is  a  matter  of  history,  recorded  in  our  past 
proceedings. 

Statistical  information  was  yery  difficult  to  get,  but  enough  was  procured  to 
reiyeal  &cts  heretdbre  unknown,  and  form  a  basis  of  action  that  has  served  aa 
-a  valuable  aid  in  the  direction  of  our  efforts. 

In  1863  the  Association  met  in  Boston,  as  the  American  Pharmaceutical 
Association,  with  a  large  accession  of  numbers.  Its  proceedings  were  pub- 
iished  in  a  pamphlet  of  some  fifty  pages.  After  much  discussion  it  adjourned, 
-to  meet  the  next  year  in  Cincinnati,  where  we  became  the  guests  of  the  Gin- 
'  oinnati  College.  Most  of  our  members  belonging  to  the  Atlantic  cities,  and 
the  cholera  somewhat  prevalent  that  year,  rendered  it  hazardous  to  travel  and 
difficult  to  leave  business  in  the  warm  and  sickly  season.  The  attendance 
was  small  frt>m  distant  portions  of  the  country ;  but  our  Cincinnati  brethren 
gave  us  a  warm  welcome,  and  sent  us  away  with  pleasant  remembrances  of 
their  hospitality,  and  considerable  accession  in  numbers. 

In  1855  the  Association  met  in  New  York,  where  we  had  again  our  usual 
success — gaining  in  strength,  in  influence,  and  in  numbers.  The  proceedings 
■  aaoh  /ear  became  more  interesting  and  instructive,  with  constant  acquisitions 
-<i  active  members,  and  contributions  to  our  stock  of  information  and  useful- 
BCMB.  This  year  a  good  delegation  met  with  us  from  Maryland.  In  Baltimore 
quite  an  interest  was  manifested  in  our  labors,  and  we  received  an  invitation 
to  meet  there  in  1850,  which  we  did,  manifestly  to  the  benefit  of  our  pro- 
fession in  that  quarter,  to  the  benefit  of  their  local  society,  and,  I  believe, 
resulting  in  the  organization  of  tbe  Pharmaceutical  Spciety  of  the  District  of 
Oolumbia.  The  glowing  descriptions  of  the  hospitality  of  our  Southern 
brethren  were  spread  abroad  through  all  the  drug  stores  in  the  land,  melting 
and  fusing  the  icicle  sharpness  of  Mason  and  Dixon's  line,  and,  as  it  were, 
oementing  a  union  where  nothing  was  wanting  before  in  our  ranks  but  to 
bring  together  the  fire,  the  crucible,  and  the  precious  metals. 

In  1857  the  Association  met  again  in  Philadelphia,  where  wc  met  with  a 
cordial  reception.  It  was  here  that  originated  tbe  idea  of  a  permanent  organi- 
zation. Here  were  its  warmest  friends  and  our  greatest  workers ;  here  is,  as 
it  were,  the  heart  and  pulse  of  medical  science  and  literature.  In  this  city  is 
properly  represented  the  actual  state  of  the  drug  trade  in  the  whole  country : 
for  here  we  have  the  scientific  professor,  with  schools  of  pharmacy  of  groat 


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884  American  Pharmaceutical  Association.^ 

merit,  aik!  well  attended ;  the  adherents  of  the  regular  pharmacopoeia  and' 
practice ;  homeopathy,  ^^'ith  its  allopathic  pretensions  and  homeopathic  rcsidts, . 
as  well  as  the  headquarters  of  nostrum^^  or,  strictly  speaking,  popular  medi- 
cines; Swain's  panacea,  with  its  array  of  vegetable  cures  for  mercurial 
diseases ;  Vice-President  Wright's  Indian  vegetable  pills,  purging  the  worlds 
of  hereditary  evils,  and  opening  the  passages  of  present  and  future  gcnera- 
ti(»is  to  imtold  health.  It  is  Philadelphia  Irotherly  lore,  more  than  any  other 
city,  that  promises  the  sure  cure  of  consumption,  our  bills  of  mortality  to  the 
contrary  notwithstanding ;  and  it  is  here  that  this  Association  finds  its  warm- 
est advocates,  its  best  friends,  reliable  working  men,  truth  seekers,  truth  im- 
parters,  scientific  investigators,  who  seek  to  be  instead  of  to  seem,  to  do  in- 
stead of  profess.  But,  Mr.  President,  it  is  unnecessary  for  me  to  laud  them : 
our  past  records  tell  the  story,  our  present  meeting  finds  them  at  their  post, 
«nd  this  evening's  entertainment  finds  them  with  us  to  tell  their  own  story. 
At  this  meeting  an  unusual  interest  was  manifested,  the  number  and  value  of 
our  papers  were  much  increased,  and  our  published  proceedings  were  double 
any  former  edition.  At  this  meeting  our  Quaker  friends  set  us  an  example 
worthy  of  imitation  by  those  of  similar  sentiments.  They  have  uniformly 
looked  with  disfavor  upon  convivial  entertainments  at  our  meetings,  as  tending 
to  injure  the  usefulness  of  our  migratory  character,  by  making  it  too  expen- 
sive, if  such  practices  continue,  to  meet  in  small  places.  I  do  not  understand 
thom  that  they  look  with  disfavor  upon  our  social  manifestations,  but  it  is  de- 
cidedly against  their  principles  to  hold  the  cup  to  their  neighbors'  lips ;  and 
while  I  hold  in  honor  their  bountiftil  but  strictly  temperance  entertainment, 
or  the  omission  of  any  fi^m  principle,  I  do  not  dislike  the  sentiments  of  those 
who  honestly  differ  from  them,  by  entertaining  their  fi*iends  according  to  the 
habits  and  disposition  of  each:  who  never  urge  an  abstemious  man,  against 
inclination,  to  the  enjoyment  of  other  people's  tastes,  and  who  provide  for  the 
enjoyment  of  their  guests  according  to  individual  inclination,  even  though  it 
may  be  against  their  own  sense  of  propriety :  for  there  are  those,  even  in  this 
temperance  State  of  Massachusetts,  who  honestly  think  that 

"  God  !n  kindness  gave  the  grape  to  cheer  both  great  and  Kmall, 
That  little  fools  thej  drink  too  much  and  great  ones  none  at  all.** 

In  1858  wc  met  at  "Washington,  by  invitation  of  the  Apothecaries*  Ass6cia- 
tion  of  the  District  of  Columbia.  This  was  by  far  the  most  successful  meet- 
ing we  have  held.  Essays  and  scientific  papers  were  presented  beyond  our 
calculation ;  our  numbers  were  very  much  increased ;  the  length  and  breadth 
of  the  land  seemed  interested  in  our  movements ;  the  Grovcmment  manifested 
their  interest  by  soliciting  our  active  cooperation  in  the  agriculture  depart- 
ment of  the  Patent  Office,  so  far  as  relates  to  the  introduction  and  improve- 
ment of  our  botanical  remedies,  and  issued  a  circular  of  instructions  to  all  its 
Indian  agencies,  to  collect  alf  *  infonnation  respecting  the  remedies  employed 
by  the  Indians,  for  publication  in  our  proceedings.- 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  opened  their  doors  to  us,  and  welcomed  us  as- 
co-laborers  in  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  among  mankind ;  their  profeasora* 


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American  Phofrmaceutioal  AssociaHan.  886 

.attended  our  nieeting,   and  with  instructiYe  speeches  and  kind  words  en- 

^couraged  us  to  cooperate  mith  them  in  their  active  labors  of  usefulness. 

Our  numbers  were  increased  by  a  large  addition  of  useful  members;  our 

*hearts  were  warmed  by  the  attentions  and  hospitalities  we  received  by  that 
small  but  chosen  band  of  wetl-wish^^  to  our  cause,  and  our  published  pro- 

.  ceedings  exceeded  in  amount,  if  not  in  value,  all  our  previous  publications. 

And  now,  Mr.  President,  we  have  met  for  the  second  time  in  Boston : 
away  in  one  corner  of  the  dominions  covered  by  the  star-sp^gled  banner. 
Our  first  meeting  was  composed  of  nine  representatives  of  the  then  Uiree 

.  existing  colleges  of  pharmacy :  we  are  now  represented  by  upwards  of  four 
hundred  members,  from  twenty-eight  States  and  eleven  local  colleges  and  asso- 
ciations. 

Have  wc  not  great  cause  for  encouragement  to  proceed  in  our  labors.  Tn 
addition  to  what  we  have  done,  our  labors  seem  to  increase  in  proportion  to 
our  development  We  have  yet  to  consummate  the  full  benefit  of  our  drug 
inspection  law ;  we  have  yet  to  purge  the  country  of  its  awfully  pernicious  in- 
fluences of  adulterations  in  food  as  well  as  in  medicines ;  we  have  yet  to  edu- 
cate a  competent  corps  of  honest  and  reliable  pharmaceutists,  on  whom  the 
country  can  rely,  in  some  measure,  as  a  sanitary  board  of  health ;  we  have 
yet  to  gain  political  influence  sufficient  to  regulate  the  sale  of  poisons,  and 
to  enable  us  to  prosecute  our  legitimate  business  as  honest  pharmaceutists, 
and  law-abiding  citisKens,  without  fear  of  the  House  of  Correction ;  we  have 
yet  to  overcome  local  jealousies,  which  alone  can  be  done  through  the  agency 
of  a  national  organization ;  we  have  yet  to  cultivate  tastes  for  scientific  at- 
tainments as  amusements,  to  be  found  inside  our  legitimate  daily  occupations, 
from  absolute  want  of  time  to  gratify  them  outside  our  daily  routine ;  we  have 
yet  to  educate  the  public  mind  as  to  the  true  value  of  nostrums;  we  have  yet 
to  demand  a  trial  by  our  peers  for  accidents  and  misdemeanors  in  our  daily  avo- 
cations ;  we  have  yet  to  cultivate  true  dependence  as  well  as  independence, 
and  harmonious  and  active  cooperation  with  the  legitimate  medical  staff;  wc 
have  yet  to  consolidate  union  of  feeling,  sentiment  and  action — ^N(»th  and 
South,  East  and  West !  So  much  to  be  desired  in  the  realization  of  our 
hopes. 

And  now,  Kr.  President,  I  have  endeavored  to  give  you  an  idea  of  our  past 
history,  and  what  I  conceive  to  be  our  mission ;  I  have  now  only  to  present 
our  Association  itself  for  your  approval  As  it  were,  a  miss  (yet  not  amiss)  of 
nine  summers,  of  fiur  promise  and  some  development,  in  hoops,  tall  as  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  surrounded  by  upwards  of  four  hundred  guardian  circles, 
and  whose  ample  skirts  already  sweep  a  continent  from  ocean  to  ocean.  Suc- 
cess to  her  perseverance ;  and  may  she  ever,  in  youthful  vigor,  preside  as  a 
goddess  of  liberty  over  the  destinies  of  pharmacy  throughout  our  entire  coun- 
try, where  she  has  "spread  herself/*  until  sickness  and  death  shall  require 
her  services  no  more. 


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886  Arnica  Montana. 

Arnica   Montana. 

The  therftpeutical  propertios  of  leopard's  bane  is  made  the  subject  of  aa 
article  in  the  Coll^;e  Journal,  by  Dn  T.  0.  Miller,  and  we  abstract  as  follow! 
the  observations  he  has  made  with  it  in  his  own  practice.     He  says : — 

I  have  been  accustomed  to  use  it  for  twenty-eight  years.  In  nerrous  fevers 
diaracterised  by  torpor  this  remedy  is  very  valuable  to  rouse  the  sinking 
energy  of  the  nerves,  particularly  the  nerves  of  the  abdominal  viscera,  whik 
at  the  same  time  it  increases  the  oontractile  power  of  the  muscular  fibres,  and 
especially  the  fibres  of  the  unstriated  muscles  of  the  walls  of  tubes  and  ducts. 
It  is  a  very  valuable  remedy  in  enteric  fever,  and  where  there  is  colliquatiyt 
hemorrhages,  passive  sweatings,  and  exanthemata  of  the  abdomen;  It  will 
not  take  Uie  place  of  valerian,  quinia,  camphor,  or  the  acids,  for  its  action  on 
the  system  is  unlike  that  of  either  and  all  of  these.  These  four  great  remedies 
have  each  its  own  distinctive  infiuence,  and  each  is  a  valuable  aid  to  tbt 
others,  when  needed. 

In  inflammations  combined  with  torpidity,  as  in  typhoid  pnuemonia,  in  in- 
flammation of  the  brain  and  its  coverings,  in  gangrene,  and  other  similar 
affections,  it  /equires  oftentimes  camphor,  quinia,  and  perhaps  opium,  to  bs 
given  in  conjunction  with  it 

In  obstinate  maltreated  intermittents,  with  torpidity  of  the  abdominal  vis- 
cera, and  engorgement  and  enlargement  of  the  spleen  and  liver,  and  perhaps 
abdominal  dropsy,  and  in  the  so-called  typhoid  cholera,  arnica  is  of  greai 
value.    My  brother,  Lewis  £.  Miller,  uses  it  in  conjunction  with  ether  in  thosa 


In  old,  atonic  gout  and  rheumatism,  especially  locally  applied,  it  always  is 
of  value.  In  dysentery,  where  the  disease  is  complicated  with  torpidity  of 
the  bowels,  or  constipation,  exhaustion,  or  colliquative  dysentery,  it  is  pecu- 
liarly indicated.     In  these  cases  I  consider  the  root  preferable  to  the  flowers. 

In  passive  hemorrhage,  of  a  scorbutic  character;  in  diachar^  from  the 
Nspiratory  or  the  reproductive  organs ;  in  bloody  or  serous  extravasations 
caused  by  contusions  and  hurts,  it  is  the  main  remedy  I  depend  upon.  It  Is 
also  very  valuable  in  atonic  dropsies.  The  external  use  of  the  flowers,  in  tinc- 
ture ix  infusion,  is  the  best  agent  I  have  tried  in  acute  hydrocephalus. 

In  paralysis,  particularly  where  the  paralysis  has  been  caused  by  mechanic 
cal  influence  upon  the  brain  or  spinal  marrow,  but  the  nerve  structure  re- 
mains intact — not  by  congestion  or  softening  of  the  ner^e  structure — and  in 
the  commencement  ot  amaurosis,  it  has  always  proved  of  utility.  TheO- 
mann,  in  treating  amaurosis,  made  use  of  an  infusion  of  three  draehms  of  the 
flowers  to  eight  ounces  of  water,  and  gave  a  large  spoonful  at  a  dose,  onoe  in 
three  hours. 

In  enlargement,  torpidity,  or  engorgement  of  any  of  the  abdominal  viscera, 
and  also  in  suppression  of  the  menstrual,  lochial  or  hemorrhoidal  discharges 
in  consequence  of  torpidity,  its  use  is  of  great  value.  Leidbeck  speaks  very 
&vorably  of  it  in  varicose  veins  of  pregnant  women.  I  have  derived  great 
benefit  from  it  in  such  cases. — Peninsular  Independent. 


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Strychnia, — Ascaridas.  387 


% 


Stryohnia  in  Chronic  Intermittents. 

In  the  New  Orleans  Medical  Netcs  and  Hospital  OoMstte,  Dr.  Harrison,  of 
Arkansas,  has  an  article  upon  the  use  of  strychnia  in  chronic  intermittents. 
The  following  is  his  formula : —    _ 

"  9.— Strychnia, gr.  iss. 

Sulphate  quinine, gr.  xv. 

Capsicum, P".  yj. 

Brandy, |  iv.         M. 

*'  Of  this  mixture,  I  direct  one  teaspoonful  (for  an  adult)  every  hour,  for 
six  or  seven  hours  preceding  the  expected  paroxysm ;  at  the  end  of  this  time 
I  require  the  patient  to  take  a  cup  of  warm  sage  tea,  and  go  to  hed,  (if  he  is 
not  already  there,)  and  remain  until  the  paroxysmal  hours  pass.  This  course 
is  to  be  repeated  on  the  next  *  chill  day,*  after  wich  a  teaspoonful  of  the  medS- 
oine  is  to  be  taken  two  or  three  times  a  day,  until  the  four  ounoes  are  ex- 
hausted." 

With  Dr.  H.  Campbell's  views  of  the  nature  of  this  disease,  and  of  its  rek- 
lion  to  the  nervous  system,  the  philosophy  of  this  treatment  becomes  at  ow» 
apparent  This,  however,  is  not  altogether  new  treatment  Dr.  Brain &rd,  of 
Chicago,  recommended  strychnine,  in  an  eighth-of-a-grain  dose,  ihne  times  a 
day,  in  similar  cases,  more  than  twelve  years  ago.  (See  Indiana  MedU^l 
Journal  for  Jxily^  1847.) 

We  are  confident  that  the  remedial  powers  of  strychnia  are  not  yet  fidly 
brought  out  So  far  as  we  know,  we  were  the  first  to  use  and  recoiumcnd  it 
in  sciatica  and  chronic  rheumatism ;  and  we  have  seen  cases  of  dyspepsia  and 
chronic  costiveness  yield  to  it  like  a  charm. 


Treatment  of  Asoaridas. 

The  treatment  for  ascarides  vcrmiculares  should  bo  entirely  local;  but,  if 
mercury  is  here  an  excellent  anthelmintic,  nitrate  of  silver  in  enemas  would 
appear  to  be  no  less  efficacious,  and  its  action  is  much  more  rapid.  Dt. 
Schultz  Bipon,  of  Daidesheim,  has  published  in  the  Deutsche  Klinh  the  for- 
mula of  the  solution  he  employs  in  this  circumstance,  and  the  effect  of  which, 
he  says,  is  in&llible.     The  following  is  the  formula : — 

3. — Argenti  nitratis  cryst., 8  gr. 

Aq.  distill, 6  oz, 

for  an  enema. 

This  enema  is  perfectly  harmless.  Three  are  usually  required  for  cure. 
The  first  is  generally  retained  imperfectly;  the  patient  returns  it  shortly 
after  it  is  administered  with  a  great  number  of  ascarides.  It  should  be  re- 
peated the  next  and  following  days,  and  it  seldom  happens  that  after  a  treat- 
ment of  four  days  the  rectum  is  not  rid  of  its  troublesome  guests,  whosa 
presence  gives  rise  to  such  various  and  strange  symptoms. 


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,388  Erysipelas. — Selections. 

£:r7six>elas. 

In  the  Medical  and  Surgical  Heporter  for  August  13th,  J.  R.  McClurg, 
M.  D.^  of  Piiiladelphia,  has  an  alile  article  upon  the  above  subject.  In  regard 
to  treatment,  alter  the  action  of  an  emetic  and  a  saline  cathartic,  combined 
with  a  mercurial,  if  there  be  symptoms  of  bilious  derangement,  he  says : — 
''*■  I  always  use  some  tonic  medicine,  and  my  favorite  prescription,  and  the  one 
I  uiiiformly  use  in  all  cases  of  erysipelas,  of  whatever  form  or  character,  as 
soon  as  the  system  is  prepared  for  it,  is : — 

*'  I^ . — Spiritus  aetheris  nitrid, ; f.  |  ij. 

Tinctura  ferri  sesqui  chloridi, £  3  ij. 

QuiniaQ  sulphatis, gr.  xvj. 

Misce  et  S.     Take  a  teaspoonful  every  three  hours.     This  constitutional  treat- 
ment I  have  found  very  successful  in  my  hands,  and  desire  nothing  better." 

Thus  corresponds  very  nearly  to  the  treatment  we  have  found  very  service- 
able. We  are,  however,  in  the  habit  of  prescribing  tiie  tincture  of  iron  in  a 
little  larger  doses,  say  twenty  drops  every  three  hours;  and  the  quinine  in 
combination  with  Dover's  powders,  from  one  to  two  grains  of  the  former  to 
five  of  the  latter,  every  four  or  six  hours. — American  Medical  Monthly, 


Seleotions. 
Nocturnal  Incontinence  op  Urine. — A  vrriter  ih  the  Bulletin  de  Thera- 
2)eutiqve  recommends  the  employment  of  mastic  in  these  cases.  It  is  given 
in  pills,  made  with  syrup.  It  is  necessary  that  thirty -two  grammes  should 
be  administered  in  four  days,  if  the  child  is  under  ten  years  of  age.  When 
under  that  age,  the  amount  mentioned  should  be  given  in  six  or  eight  days. 
If  a  cure  does  not  result  from  the  first  trial,  a  second  trial  witli  a  like  quantity 
should  be  made ;  but  if  the  incontinence  persists  after  the  second  trial,  it  is 
useless  to  continue  the  medication.  The  failures  are,  however,  exceptional,  as 
two-thirds  of  the  cases  have  been  successful,  even  in  patients  from  eighteen  to 
twenty-four  years,  who  had  been  affected  with  this  disgusting  infirmity  fh)m 
infancy. — American  Medical  Monthly, 

Treatment  op  Nasal  Polypus  bv  Tincture  of  Muriate  of  Iron. — ^Dr. 
J.  H.  Reeder,  of  Lacon,  111.,  reports,  in  the  (/hicago  Medical  Journal^  two 
cases  of  nasal  polypus,  which  he  had  successfully  treated  by  the  applicati<m 
of  the  tincture  of  muriate  of  iron,  by  injections,  and  by  means  of  a  bit  of 
sponge.  In  both  cases  the  disease  was  removed  in  a  few  days,  it  having  ex- 
isted, in  the  last  instance,  more  than  ten  years,  completely  obstructing  both 
nostrils. 

Ipecacuanha  and  Delirium  Tremens. — ^Thc  jail  physician  of  Chicago  has 
had  a  hundred  cases  of  delirium  tremens  the  past  year,  of  which  only  four 
prove<i  fatal.     Of  his  manner  of  treatment,  the  doctor  says : — "  Ipecacuanha, 


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Selectums.  88d 

which  I  have  tried  in  thirty-six  cases,  I  found  most  remarkably  succoGsful, 
quieting  the  nervous  system,  exciting  the  appetite,  acting  on  secretions,  and 
uniformly  producing  sleep.  When  a  case  is  not  of  too  long  standing,  I  give 
it  as  an  emetic  the  first  dose,  and  afterwards  I  give  from  fifte€n  to  eighteen 
grains  every  other.  Connected  with  this  remedy,  I  use  shower-baths,  and  let 
the  patient  drink  strong  beef-tea,  without  any  alcoholic  stimulants." — SoutJi^m 
Medk^l  and  Surgical  Journal, 

Atropia  in  Tetahus. — The  editors  of  the  Semi-Monthly  Medical  Newt  re- 
port the  successful  treatment  of  a  case  of  tetanus  with  atropia,.  in  doses  of 
one-twentieth  of  a  grain,  repeated  every  third  hour  until  narcotism  was  pro- 
duced They  say : — **  So  far  as  the  illustration  of  its  influence  in  the  treat- 
ment of  this  case  furnishes  us  authority  for  speaking,  we  are  satisfied  that 
our  appreciation  of  atropine,  as  a  remedy  in  tetanus,  cannot  be  over-estimated. 
It  subdued,  time  and  again,  with  a  promptitude  and  a  measure  of  extent  too 
atriking  to  be  mistaken,  the  increasing  spasms,  and  soothed  the  general  excite 
ment  of  the  system. — Ihid, 

Itcuiso  op  the  Ai«us.-^There  are  few  things  more  distresmng  and  trouble- 
■ome.  Use  ^le  following  ointment : — Qlycerine,  one  ounce ;  purified  tar,  half 
a  drachm ;  and,  with  the  aid  of  heat,  powdered  starch,  half  an  ounce.  This 
makes  an  ointment  of  thin  consistence,  and  easily  spread.  It  dries  up  exeo- 
riations,  checks  exhalation,  and  dissipates  slight  cutaneous  phlegmasiae. 
Another  preparation  of  patch  is  the  foUowing: — Cod-liver  oil,  two  parts ;  oil 
of  pitch,  one  pitfi — used  for  itdiing  and  excoriftions,  as  the  other.  (M.  Gil- 
bert,  p.  l^S^^BraWi/toaM $  BetrapeeL 

Akodtke  Liniment  in  Orms. — ^Bf.  Trousseau  recommends  the  following 
liniment  in  acute  otitis,  viz. :  a  mixture  of  the  alcoholic  extract  of  belladozma 
In  water,  with  glycerine.  A  cotton  ball  soaked  with  the  mixture  to  be  placed 
in  the  external  auditory  canaL 

Gelsemikum  in  Tenesmus. — In  an  obstinate  case  of  sporadic  dysentery, 
where  every  remedy  I  used  fiuled  to  relieve  the  severe  temesmus,  and  the 
tincture  of  gelseminum  and  Uncture  of  aconite  combined  had  also  failed,  I 
added  an  infusion  of  gelseminum  to  an  infusion  of  slippery-elm^  and  used  it 
as  an  injection.    Then  the  disease  readily  yielded. — Dr,  Miller, 

Veratrum  Viru>b  in  Dtsmenorbhcea. — So  far  as  my  experience  goes,  I  have 
fbund  the  veratrum  very  good  in  dysmenorrhoea  of  plethoric  patients ;  but 
uniformly  hurtful  to  those  who  are  ansdmic  I  have  frequently  added  a  little 
morphia  to  it  with  benefit — Hid, 

Sanoltmaria  Canad.  xk  Dtsmenorrhcea. — I  find  the  tincture  of  blood-root 
of  value  where  the  distress  ot  difQculty  of  menstruation  is  connected  with 
disease  of  the  liver  as  the  primary  afiection.  Large  doses  are  injurious,  btit 
small  ones  may  be  often  repeated. — Ihid, 

Crocus  in  Dysmenorrhcea.— The  tincture  of  saffron  is  valuable  in  that  form 
of  dysmenorrhoea  where  the  liver  is  the  primary  cause  of  the  difficulty.  It 
may  bo  given  at  the  same  time  with  the  tincture  of  blood-root — Ihid, 


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390  EdUoriaL 

Editorial. 

Our  Jouunai,. — ^The  i)rcseat  number  completes  the  ftrs»t  volume  of  the  i\i3W 
series  of  the  Jouux.vi/  of  Materia  Medica,  and  wo  arc  gratified  by  being  able 
to  say  that  our  efforts  have  been  seconded  by  the  profession  beyond  our  ex- 
pectations, which,  with  their  renewed  assurances  for  its  success,  makes  it  no 
longer  an  experiment,  but  establishes  it  as  a  permanent  journal,  which  will  be 
increased  in  size  for  the  ensuing  year :  each  number  containing  forty  pngen^ 
arid  at  the  same  ferma  an  the  present  year. 

^  We  have  tried  to  keep  faithfully  in  view  the  objects  for  which  the  Journal 
was  connnonced,  and  endeavored  to  present  in  it  whatever  of  general  intei*cst 
or  importance  have  been  published  in  the  jovn*nals  of  this  country  and  in 
forci^^n  journals,  while  in  its  original  contributions  it  has  presented  disserta 
tioiLS  on  diffei*ent  valuable  medicinal  agents  and  analyss  of  plants  never  before 
published,  the  value  of  which  to  the  profession  arc  acknowledged  in  the  nu- 
merous testimonials  from  its  subscribers ;  and  confident  that  there  is  yet  a  wide 
field  open,  we  can  assure  our  patrons  that  no  energy  or  expense  will  be 
spared  to  secure  the  cooperation  of  medical  writeTK  of  practical  experience 
occupymg  high  positions  with  the  medical  profession  as  medical  writers. 

The  interest  which  has  been  manifested  in  the  success  of  our  Journal^  and 
whieii  has  caused  an  addition  of  eight  pages  each  month  to  its  present  size,  for 
the.mext  year^  hare  indaced  us  to  devote  those  pages,  for  the  most  pu^  to  a 
digest  of  the  most  important  and  int^H)sting  matters  contained  in  the  current 
medical  publications  of  the  ooufitry,  and  in  the  more  important  foreign  jour- 
nals.    This  will  form  a  now,  important  and  interesting  feature  of  the  next  year. 

We  shall  at  all  times  welcome  to  its  pages  communications  upon  subjects  of 
medical  interest  within  the  general  range  of  our  Journal — shall  continue  the 
publication  of  new  and  favorite  formulae,  and  in  the  department  of  pharmacy 
shall  give  everything  of  interest  relating  to  progi*ess  in  this  important  branch 
of  medicine,  and  invite  the  aid  and  suggestions  of  all  interested  in  a  depart- 
ment where  the  interests  of  the  physician  and  apothecary  are  closely  allieiL 

No  effort  will  be  spared  to  make  the  Journal  worthy  of  the  confidence  and 
cordial  support  of  the  whole  medical  profession,  and  no  feature  will  be  neglect- 
ed which  shall  contribute  to  its  usefulness  and  appcamncc ;  and  we  hope  the 
time  is  not  far  distant  when  wc  shall  ajrain  be  compelled  to  enlarge  it,  to  more 
fully  supply  the  wants  of  its  patrons. 

For  terms,  Ac,  sec  Prospectus. 

Volumes  for  185t»  will  be  furnished,  bound,  at  one  dollar,  postage  prepaid. 

We  have  received  from  Messrs.  Lindsay  &  Bhickiston,  Philadelphia,  their 
''  Physician's  Visiting  List"  for  1860.  It  is  issued  in  its  usual  style,  with  good 
paper  and  binding. 

These  books  are  coming  into  very  general  use  by  the  profession,  and  are  a 
very  convenient  stylo  for  daily  records  and  memoranda,  and  their  small  cost 
should  cause  every  physician  to  procure  one. 

For  fifty  patients  tucks,  price  $1  by  nwiil,  free  of  postage,  i 


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▲N  INTRODUOnON  TO  PRAGTJOAL  FHARMAOT:  Defllgned  as  a  Texi4)ook  for  the  fltad«al| 
and  u  a  Guide  for  the  Phjaldan  and  Pharmaceutist.  With  many  Formulae  and  PrescriptioM. 
By-  Hdwihd  Pakriss,  Graduate  of  Pharmacj,  Principal  of  the  School  of  Practical  Pharmacj, 
Philadelphia,  Ac.  Second  Edition,  greatly  enlarged  and  improTed.  Wltfa  two  hundred  an4 
forty-six  nhMtratlona.  Tn  one  large  and  handsome  octaro  volume  of  T30  pages ;  extra  cloth. 
Prlee,$8  50. 

Mr.  Edward  Parrish,  its  aatboff  is  well  known  to  the  pharmaceutists  of  the 
United  States  as  a  cloor-minded,  practical  man ;  that  his  contributions  to  th« 
pharmaceutical  literature  of  this  coimtry,  his  efforts  for  the  elevation  of 
pharmacy  as  a  profession,  by  elevating  the  standard  of  pharmaceutic  educ&^ 
tion,  are  appreciated;  that  his  work  has  the  approval  of  those  it  was  designed 
to  benefit,  is  authenticated  in  a  demand  for  it  which  has  brought  out  a  second 
edition,  greatly  enlarged  and  improved. 

His  position  as  principal  of  a  school  of  practical  pharmacy,  and  proprietor 
of  a  large  dispensing  establishment,  has  given  him  such  practical  acquaintahce 
with  the  whole  subject  as  to  well  qualify  him  to  arrange  and  present  such  & 
work  to  the  public.  As  a  teacher  of  pharmacy  to  medical  students  and  others, 
he  had  long  felt  the  necessity  of  a  text-book,  as  an  aid  to  his  instructions. 

There  are  in  the  United  States  thousands  of  young  men  yearly  beginning 
the  study  of  medicine:  to  them  this  work  is  invaluable.  Pharmacy,  as  m 
branch  of  instruction,  is  sadly  neglected  in  most  medical  colleges.  This 
work,  thoroughly  studied  by  the  student,  will  greatly  aid  liim  in  his  entire 
course ;  nor  is  it  any  the  less  valuable  to  a  practitioner  of  medicvne^  who 
wishes  to  avail  himself  of  the  great  practical  advances  in  pharmacy,  in  all  its 
departments,  in  the  last  few  years,  and  to  whom  it  is  necessarily  an  important 
collateral  pursuit. 

There  are  also  thousands  of  yoimg  men  just  entering  the  drug  shop,  in 
localities  where  the  benefits  of  instruction  in  pharmacy  cannot  be  had,  as  well 
as  many  apothecaries  who  from  accidental  circumatances  have  become  so,  with- 
out that  opportunity  of  becoming  as  well  acquainted  with  its  principles  aad 
manipulations  as  they  could  have  wished :  to  them  this  work  is  highly  valu- 
able. That  our  readers  may  better  understand  the  great  variety  of  subjects 
presented,  we  give  a  synopsis  of  its  contents : — 

**  Pabt  I.  Preliminary, — Of  the  furniture  and  implements  necessary  to 
the  dispensing  shop ;  of  weights,  measures,  and  specific  gravity ;  of  the  U.  S. 
Pharmacopa'ia. 

"Part  II.  Galenical  PiMinnacr/. — Of  the  collection  and  desiccation  of 
plants ;  on  the  powdering  of  drugs,  and  on  powders ;  on  solution,  filtration, 
and  the  medicated  waters ;  on  maceration  and  the  infusions ;  on  percolatioa 
and  the  displacement  process ;  on  tinctures,  oflBcinal  and  unofficinal ;  medi- 
cated wines,  vinegars,  ethereal  tinctin^s,  elixirs,  and  cordials ;  galenical  prepa- 
rations of  opium,  ofiicinal  and  unofficinal ;  on  the  generation  of  heat  for  phar* 
maceutical  purposes ;  on  the  mode  of  applying  heat  for  phaimaceutical  pur- 
poses, and  on  decoctions;  on  evaporation  and  the  extracts,  including  concen- 
trated extracts  or  resinoids  ;  fluid  extracts,  including  oleo-resins ;  on  syrupy 
ofiicinal  and  unofficinal,  glyccrolcs  and  mineral  water  syrups ;  on  pulps,  con- 
serves, confections,  electuaries,  pastes,  lozenges,  and  candies ;  on  distillation 
and  spirits,  officinal  preparations,  essences  for  perfumery,  toilet  waters,  &c. 

"Part  III.    Pharm<p'y  in  its  Relations  to  Organic  Chemistry: — Lignin: 


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292  Smarial 

its  deriyatives,  collodion,  acetic  acid,  creasote,  &c. ;  on  fiurinaoeous,  mucilagin- 
ous, and  saccharine  principles ;  on  albuminous  and  similar  principles,  and  on 
certain  animal  products ;  fermentation,  alcohol  and  Uie  ethers,  chloroform  and 
firuit  essences ;  fixed  oils  and  fats,  glycerine,  &c, ;  volatile  oils,  camphors  and 
resins,  artificial  essential  oils,  adulterations,  &c. ;  organic  acids ;  on  the  alka- 
loids— alkaloids  of  opium,  cinchona,  strychnos,  of  the  solanacese:  temaiy 
alkaloids,  alkaloids  of  animal  origin ;  on  neutral  organic  principles,  mostly 
peculiar  to  a  limited  number  of  plants,  and  possessed  of  medicinal  properties. 

**  Part  IV.  Jiwrganie  Pharmaceutical  Freparati(m$,-—^n  mineral  adds ; 
ihe  alkalies  and  their  salts ;  on  the  earths  and  their  preparations ;  on  the  non- 
metaUic  elements  and  their  medicinal  preparations;  on  the  compounds  of 
phosphorous  used  in  medicine ;  iron  and  manganese,  and  their  preparations ; 
pr^)aration8  of  copper,  zinc,  nidcel,  cadmium,  and  cobalt;  preparations  of 
lead,  silver,  and  bismuth  ;  preparations  of  antimony  and  arsenic;  preparations 
of  mercury ;  preparations  of  platinum  and  gold. 

**  Part  v  .  Bxtemporaneotis  Fkarmaey. — On  prescriptions ;  on  the  writing 
of  prescriptions ;  on  the  art  of  selecting  and  combining  medicines ;  on  pow- 
ders and  pills — suppositories;  on  liquid  preparations,  solutions,  mixtures,  Ac.; 
external  applications — lotions,  injections,  gargles,  baths,  inhalations,  fumiga- 
tions, cerates,  ointments,  plasters,  cataplasms,  liniments,  &c.;  on  the  art  of 
dispensing  medicines — pills,  liquids :  rules  of  a  pharmaceutical  store. 

"Appendix. — Rules  of  a  sick  chamber;  articles  of  sick  diet;  physicians' 
outfits ;  list  of  plants ;  r^ipes  for  popular  medicines.'* 

A  careful  examination  and  comparison  with  the  other  edition  gives  evidence 
that  its  author  has  made  very  many  valuable  additions,  and  that  nearly  ^j 
per  cent  more  matter  has  been  added.  To  the  part  devoted  to  pharmacy,  and 
its  relations  to  organic  chemistry,  particularly,  have  large  and  valuable  addi- 
tions been  made.  The  immense  number  of  facts  collated,  classified,  and  sys- 
tematically arranged ;  the  system  of  syllabi,  before  introduced  and  now  mudi 
extended,  show  research,  investigation  and  industry,  highly  creditable  to  ite 
author. 

In  the  part  devoted  to  extemporaneous  pharmacy  have  also  valuable  addi- 
tions been  made.  Directions  are  given  for  the  preparation  of  all  new  remedies 
in  use  by  the  profession,  and  many  valuable  formulso  are  added,  and  through- 
out the  work  is  so  fully  illustrated  that  all  its  details  are  easily  under- 
stood. In  our  next  issue  we  shall  endeavor  to  find  room  to  publish  many 
excellent  extracts  from  it,  and  regret  it  was  received  too  late  to  do  so  in  this 
issue.  The  practical  and  instructive  character  of  the  work  make  it  precisely 
what  is  needed  by  the  country  practitioner  and  student,  as  well  as  the  apothe- 
Gsry,  and  hope  they  will  give  it  an  examination,  for  we  are  sure  they  will  not 
regret  the  investment 

Pharmacy.— Several  pages  upon  Pharmacy  have  been  crowded  out  by  the 
index,  which  belongs  to  this  number. 

Correspondents  will  oblige  by  writing  plainly  their  names,  town,  county  and 
state.  We  have,  in  several  instances,  been  unable  to  answer  letters  because 
these  are  omitted. 

Subscribers  will  please  libtify  us  if  they  do  not  reoeive  the  Jo  urnal  regularly. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ  IC 


GENERAL    INDEX-VoL  L 

(NEW     8ER1BS.) 


Pag« 

Acid  Nitrate  of  Silver,  therapeuticil  «eiion  of  .            .                        .800 

Aconite,  by  John  R  Cashing    . 

277 

Adulteration  of  Valerianate  of  Iron 

8^1 

Albuminoofi  Anasarca,  tannin  in  large  doses  in 

1115,  845^ 

Alkaloids  and  Rcsinoids 

Gl 

Alnus  Rubra 

864 

Alum  and  Savin  in  Condylomata 

806 

American  Medical  Association    . 

174 

American  Pharmaceutical  Association  . 

8S2 

American  Pharmaceutical  Convention  . 

:jor 

Ammonio-Ferric  Alum  .            ... 

♦ 

nii 

Analysis  of  Chimaphila  llmbelhita 

20(1 

*'        Comus  Florida 

2l>4. 

*•        Epiphe^^us  Virginianas 

:J:{2 

Flea  Bane  .            .            .       . 

U7 

**        Geranium  . 

1117 

••        Geum  Rivale 

220 

*'        Hamamelis  Virginica 

2(K» 

**        Hypericum  Pcrfoi-atum 

2:{2 

Labrador  Tea         . 

85fi 

**        Lycopus  Virginicus 
Milk 

«2() 
12r. 

Myrica  Cerifera 

3W0 

**        Prinos  Verticillatus 

820 

**        Queen  of  the  Meadow 

80S 

**        Quercus  Alba 

265 

Quercus  Rubra 

267 

'*        Quercus  Tinctoria 

266 

**        Rhatany      . 
Rhus  Glabra 

140 

195 

'*        Rubus  Villosus  and  Trivialis 

285 

''        Santonine  . 

172 

»•        Sweet  Fern 

361 

Andromeda  Arborea 

859 

Animal  and  Vegetable  Substances,  preservation 

lOf 

216 

Anodyne  I«iniment  in  Otitis 

889 

Anti-Asthmatic  Cigarettes 

56 

Apocynum  Cannabimmi  as  an  Anti-Periodic 

18 

Arnica  Cerate    ..... 

157 

Arnica  in  Tinnitus  Aurium,  by  Dr.  A.  Young 

5 

Arnica  Montana             .... 

886 

Artemisia  Santonica 

16l»,  208 

AscaridaB,  treatment  of 

887 

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396 


ihdesc 


Aficlepias  Incamata        .  . 

Asthma,  remedy  for       .  .  .       .,    . 

Astringent  Application,  new  fonn  of     . 

Atropia  in  Epilepsy        ..... 

Atropia  in  Tetanus        .  .  .  *  . 

Balsam  of  Copaiba,  tests  to  ascertain  the  genuineness  of 
Bayberry  ...... 

Beech  Dtops       .  .  .  .  . 

Belladonna  in  Mammary  Abscess,  and  Arresting  the  Secretion  of  Milk 
Belladonna  in  Arresting  the  Secretion  of  Milk,  by  H.  Clay  Sanford 
Belladonna  in  Incontinence  of  Ftecal  Matter    . 
Belladonna  Used  Externally,  poisonous  effects  of 
BethR5ot  .... 

Bismuth  in  the  Treatment  of  BlenorrhoM 

BUck  Alder 

Black  Salve 

Blackberry 

Blennorrhagia,  preparation  for 

Blood  Root,  its  use  in  Dysmenorrhoea 

Blue  Flag 

Bottles  to  Prevent  Accidental  Poisonine 

Bradycote  Treatment  of  Yellow  Fever  by  Yeratrum  VWde 

**  "  ^       "  **  Gelseminum  Sempervireos 

Bugle  Weed       .'..,.. 
Caffein  in  Coffee  Berries,  amount  of      . 
Cancerous  Tumor  Treated  with  Acid  Nitrate  of  Mercury 
Carbonate  of  Ammonia  in  Measles 
Cerate,  Arnica    ...... 

Chimaphila  Umbellata,  Lee  on  .  .  . 

Chloroform  and  Ether,  proper  mode  of  administering  . 
Cod-Liver  Oil,  various  formulas  for  the  gelatization  of  . 
Collodion  and  Castor  Oil  as  an  Artiflciu  Cuticle 
Colombo  American        ..... 

Comptonia  Asplonifolia ..... 

Concentrated  Prepurations,  &c.  .  .  . 

Constituents  of  Plants  ..... 

Confection,  compound  of  Cubebs  and  Copaiba  with  Nitrate  of  Bismuth 
Cordial,  Cherry ...... 

"•      Leptandria       ..... 

^*       Neutralizing     ..... 

Comus  Florida  ...... 

Cough  Drops,  Baker's    ..... 

Cow  s  Bfilk,  how  to  render  more  suitable  for  children 
Cream  Syrups    ...... 

Crocus  in  Dysmenorrhoea  .... 

Cyanide  of  Potassium,  poisoning  by     . 

Digitaline,  the  action  and  uses  of  .  .  . 

Diospyros  Yirginiana,  Lee  on 

Diptheritis,  saline  injections  in 

Disinfecting  Composition,  new 

Dogwood 

Dragees  of  Tar  . 

Dysmenorrhoea  . 

Dysmenorrho&a,  crocus  in 

^  sanguinaria  canad.  in  . 


Paok 
41 
218 
92 
161 
389 
249 

331 
218 

12 
118 
347 
366 
216 
429 
125 
286 
349 
UT 

72 
156 

14 

45 
826 
155 
216 
249 
167 
289 
219 

55 

98 
141 
860 
878 
110,  148,  208 
219 

25 

25 

25 
289 

69 
150 

93 
389 
348 

91 
225 
348 
346 
298 

92 
218 
889 
889 


Digiti 


zed  by  Google 


Index-, 


S97 


-{ 


Paqe 

369 

119,  152,  188,  220.  252,  2>J4,  321.  353,  390 

f   -  26.  57.  124 


Dysmenorrhoea.  Teratrui6*viride 

Editorial  19,  52, 

Sb'xir  Calis&ya  Bark 

ESlizhr  CHro-Lactate  of  Iron 

Elm  Bark  in  Taenia  Solium,  by  Dr.  J.  K.  Dowler 

Embrocation  for  Spinal  Irritation 

Epiphegus  Virginianus  . 

Erigeron  Annuam 

Extract,  Fluid,  of  Teratnmi  Viride 

"       Solid  and  fluid,  by  Chas.  A-  Lee 

'*      Colocynth,  compound,  U.  S.  P. 
Extracts,  Fluid  . 

Solid  or  pillular 
Facial  Neuralgia,  easy  and  certain  cure  of 
Feeding  In£uits  . 
Flea  Bane 

Frasera  Garolinensis,  by  H.  G.  Lungreen 
ChuiHheria  Procumbens . 
Gelseminom  in  Tenesmus 
Gelseminum  Semperyirens 
Gelseminum 

Geranium  Maculatum,  remarks  on 
Geranium 

Geum  Riyalc^,  I^iee  on    . 
Glycerine  and  Tannin — Sore  Nipples 
Glycerine,  Jelly  and  Lotion  o^  for  euta,  excoriations,  fissure  of  the 

nipple,  lips  and  hands    . 
Hardback 

Hamamelis  Tirginica,  remarks  on 
Hellebore,  American 
Henbane 
Honey  of  Roses  . 
Hyoftcyamus  Niger 
Hypericum  Perforatum,  Lee  on 


351 

381 

125 

*      825 

366 

24 

66 

75 

61 

60 

345 

149 

366 

141 

359 

369 

43,  246 

214 

197 

197 


22 

350 
368 
200 
106 

89 
261 

39 
231 


rndigenouH  Materia  Medica,  by  Charles  A.  Lee,  If.  D. 

1,  33,  65,  97,  129.  161,  193,  226,  257,  280,  825,  367 
Indigenous  Astringent  Plants,  remarks  on 

Indigenous  Medical  Botany,  abstract  of  a  report  on,  by  C.  W.  Ilaight 
Indigenous  Ter»u8  Foreign  Medicines 
Indian  Homp,  white 

Inflammation  of  the  Urethra,  solutions  for  injections  for 
Iodide  of  Potassium,  diuretic  action  of 
Iodine,  on  the  effects  of  long-continued  doses  of 
Iodized  Liquid  for  Disinfecting  Woiuids  and  Ulceratioas 
Ipecachuana  in  Delirium  Tremens 
Iris  Ver8icx)lor    . 

Iron  and  Lime,  super-phosphate  of,  a  new  preparation 
Iron  and  Strychnia,  citrate  of    . 
Iron,  bitter  wine  of       . 

"    chloride  of  ..... 

**     citro-kctate,  citrate  of      . 

"    hydrocyanate  o^  in  neuralgia 

"    hydrocyanate  of,  in  epilepsy        .  .  . 

'*     lemonade  of  .  . 

"    saccharine  proto-sulphate  of         .  .  . 


129 

274 

11 

41 

349 

305 

347 

349 

52,  388 

72 

93 

218 

352 

219 

861 

28 

116 

349 


218, 


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zed  by  Google 


Sd8 


Jndex.^ 


Iron,  syrup  of  proto-carbouatc  of 

Itch  Ointments  . 

Itching  of  the  Anus 

Jessamine,  yellow 

Krameria  Trianib^ 

Roussine 

liOe,  Charles  A.,  remarks  on  the  therapeutic  resources  furnished  hy 
the  indigenous  materia  medica  of  the  United  States 

I>ee,  Charles  A.,  on  the  medicinal,  naturalized  exotics,  and  indigenous 
materia  meilica  of  the  United  States       .... 

I^ee,  Charles  A.,  remarks  on  some  of  the  pharmaceutic  preparations 
employed  in  medicine,  solid  and  fluid  extracts   . 

liOe,  Charies  A.,  remarks  on  the  influence  of  climate,  soil,  and  culti- 
vation of  medicinal  plants  ..... 

Lee,  Charles  A.,  remarks  on  indigenous  astringent  plants 

«t  t*  »t  II  44  4* 

J^ee,  Charie^f  A.,  remarks  on  rhus  glabra,  geranium  macnlatum,  and 
hamamelis  virginica        ...... 

liCe,  Charles  A.,  rcmarkn  on  diospyros  virginiana,  geum  rivale,  hype- 
ricum  perfoiiitmn,  and  rubus  villosus  and  trivialls 

f^ee,  Charlfs  A.,  remarks  on  myrica  cerifera,  and  quercus  alba,  tinc- 
toria,  rubra,  &c.  ......  ^ 

Lee,  Charles  .\.,  remarks  on  t^imaphila  umbellata  and  comns  florida  . 

Lee,  Charles  A.,  remarks  on  lycopns  virginicu^s  prinos  verticillatu?, 
and  epi[»hej;iis  virj^iniunus  ..... 

Jite,  Charles  A.,  rcmurks  on  uva  ursi,  gaultheria  procumbeiis, 
andronieda  arborea,  ledum  paluhtre,  comptonia  asplenifoli{^ 
staticc  (mroliniana,  nympha3a  odorata,  nuphar  lutea,  alnus 
rubra,  trilliuiii  pendulum,  erigeron  annuum,  and  spirea  tomen- 
tosa 

Ledum  Palustre 

Jjcmonade  of  Iron 

Leucorrhca,  formula  for 

Life  and  T^bor  . 

Liniment,  compound  arnica 

Tii<iuid  Tartrate  of  Potash,  Ammonia, 
preparation  of     . 

iyodon,  vinegar  . 

f^ycopus  Virpnicus,  hee  on 

Marsh  Rosemary 

Medicinal  Plants,  remarks  on  the  influence  of  climate,  soil,  and  culti- 
vation of  ....... 

Medicinal  Plants,  Prof.  Chadbourne  on  cultivation  of  . 

Medicinal  Preparations,  simple  tests  for,  by  E.  R.  Sijuibb,  M.  I). 

Merrill,  l)r.,  letter  from  ...... 

Milk,  analysis  of  ......  . 

Mixture  of  Collodion  and  Castor  Oil,  in  severe  bums  and  scalds 

Mixture,  Richard*s  cough  ...... 

**  "         chalk  ...... 

Myrica  Cerifera  ........ 

Nasal  Polypus,  treatment  of  by  tincture  of  muriate  of  iron 

Nipple  Wash,  Dr.  Atlee's  ...... 

Nocturnal  Incontinence  of  Urine  .  .  .  .  . 

Nuphar  Lutea    .  .  • 

Nymphiea  Odorata        ....... 


and  Peroxide  of  Iron,  on  the 


PiGK- 

353 
251 
389 
43,  246 
187 
251 

I 

3a 

fS5 

129 
161 


225 

257 

2«9 

325 


357 
359 
349 

2« 
282 

59 

157 

57 

825 

361 

97 

167 

40.     78 

113 

123 

22 
124 
1»4 
257 
388 

58 
888 
864 
362 


Digiti 


zed  by  Google 


Index. 


399 


dysmenorrhcea,  by  Jolin  J). 


PAca 

266 

266 

265 

91 


Oak,blMk 

"red 

"    white 
Obituwry— Prof.  Wm.  Tully     . 
OUed  Paper  an  a  Substitute  for  Oiled  Silk  and  (lutt%  Percha  in  Surgi 

cal  Dressings 
dntment,  compound  sulphur    . 
Otitis,  anodyne  liniment  m 
Partridge  Berry 
Persinunon 

Pharmaceutical  Notices  .  .  22,  55,  91,  155,  2lY,  249, 

Pill,  anti-bihouB  cathartic  .... 

**    alterative    . 

**    coloc3mth.  mag.     ..... 

**    diarrhoea    ...... 

**    Eberle*8  purgative  .... 

"    fever  and  ague       ..... 

"    Judkins" 

"    Marshairs  .  . 

Pipsisscwa 
Piting  in  Small-Pox       ..... 

Poisoning  by  Cyanide  of  Potassium 

Polygala  Senega  ..... 

Potash,  iodatc  of  ....  . 

Potassium,  iodate  of,  syrup  of  in  syphilis 
Pregnancy,  ptyali.sm  of 

Preservation  of  Animal  and  Vegetable  SubBtanccF 
Prinos  Verticillatus        ..... 

Proceedings  of  the  Amcri<»an  Medical  Association 

**  **      American  Pharmaceutical  Convention 

**  **      New  York  State  Medical  Society     . 

Propylamin,  by  James  R.  Nichols 
Purity  in  Medicines,  by  Prof.  C.  B.  Guthrie    . 
Quercus  Alba     ...... 

Kubra  ..... 

*'         Tinctoria  .  .  . 

Quinia«  hypophosphate  of         ...  . 

Remarks  on  concentrated  preparations,  simple  tests,  and  easy  method 

of  analysis  .  .  .  .110,  143,  20.3,  243,  334, 

Report  to  the  Pharmaceutical  Convention  on  Home  Adulterations,  by 

C.  T.  Carney •     299,  337 

Review  of  Dr.  Tully*s  Materia  Medica  .....  16^ 

Rhatany 137 

Rheumatism,  formula  for  ......  26 

Rhus  Glabra,  remarks  on  .....  .        194 

Roses,  honey  of  .......        251 

Rubus  Villosus  and  Trivialis,  I«ee  on     .  .        235 

Sanguinaria  Canadensis:    its  use  in 

O*  Connor,  M.  D. 
Sanguinaria  Canad.  in  Dysmenorrhoea 

Sanguinaria,  therapeutic  applications  of,  by  E.  H.  Shell,  M.  D. 
Sttitonine  .......  169, 

Seneka    .... 

Simple  Tests  for  some  important  Medicinal  Preparations  46, 

SoliAine  and  Dulcamara,  therapeutical  action  of 


155 

22 

389 

359 

225 

349 

25 

125 

59 

26 

5a 

26 

124 

124 

289 

215 

348 

37 

57 

349 

213 

216 

329 

174 

307 

81 

217 

238 

265 

206 

266 

220 

37a 


117 
389 
248 
20S 
S7 

7a 

305 


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400 


Index. 


Solutions  for  Injections  for  Inflammation  of  the  Urethra 

Sorrel  Tree 

Spiraea  Tomentosa 

Statice  CaroUniana 

St.  John's  Wort 

Strychnia  and  its  iucb 

Strychnia  in  Chronic  Intermittents 

Sulphate  of  Atropia,  therapeutic  applications  of 

Sumach  ...... 

Sweet  Fern 

8weet-6cented  Water  Lily 
Syllabus  of  a  Course  of  Study,  intended  as  an  aid  to  Students  of  Phar- 
macy, by  Wm.  Procter,  Jr.         . 
Syrup,  compound  of  the  iodohydrargyrate  of  potassium  and 

**        compound  of  helianthus 

'*        compound  of  morphia  .... 

*'        cream     ...... 

*'        ipecac;  and  senega         .... 

**        morphia  ..... 

*^        phosphate  of  iron  and  aounonia 

*'        whooping  cough 
TsBnia  Solium,  elm  banc  in        . 
Tag  Alder         ...... 

Tannin  in  large  doses  in  Albuminous  Anasarca 

Tar,  dragees  of  . 

Tenesmus,  gelseminum  in    '      . 

Tests  to  ascertain  the  genuineness  of  Balsam  Copaiba  . 

Tetanus  reliered  with  Extract  of  Indian  Hemp 

Therapeutical  action  of  Solanine  and  Dulcamara 

Therapeutical  action  of  Acid  Nitrate  of  Silver  . 

Therapeutical  properties  of  Veratrum  Viride    . 

Therapeutical  value  of  Foreign  and  Indigenous  Medicinal  Plants 

The  proper  mode  of  administering  Chloroform  and  Ether 

Tonic,  formula  for         . 

To  prevent  the  recurrence  of  Ague 

Tinctoria  Rubra,  Lee  on 

Tincture  of  Water  Pepper 

Trillium  Pendulum 

Triosteum  Perforatum,  by  Dr.  J.  Kneeland 

Urine,  nocturnal  incontinence  of 

Uva  Ursi  a  substitute  for  Ergot  of  Rye 

Uva  Ursi  .... 

Valerianate  of  Iron,  adulteration  of 

Veratria  in  Acute  Diseases  of  the  Chest,  employment  of 

Veratrum  Viride,  by  D.  L,  McQugin,  M.  D. 

Veratrum  Viride  in  Dysmenorrhoea 

Veratrum  Viride,  therapeutical  properties  of     . 

Vertigo  from  Gastric  Derangement,  treatment  of 

Vinegar  Lotion 

Water  Avens 

Wintergreen 

Witch  Hazel 

Yellow  Jessamine 

YeUow  Pond  Lily 


215, 


Paqb 

359 
868 
361 
331 
U6 
387 
2U 
194 
360 
363 

49 

22 

260 

69 

93 

69 

59 

33 

68 

281 

364 

345 

92 

389 

249 

151 

306 

306 

369 

378 

219 

26 

'      125 

266 

68 

365 

340 

388 

34K 

357 

351 

344 

106 

389 

369 

283 

57 

228 

289 

200 

43,  246 

364 


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THE 


JOUBNAL  OP  MATERIA  MEDICA, 


DEVOTED   TO 


MATERIA  MEDICA,  PHARMACY,  CHEMISTRY,  &c. 


COKDUCTED  BY 


JOSEPH  BATES,  M.  D.,  and  H.  A.  TILDEH. 


VOLUME    II.— ISTETV    SERIES, 


NEW  LEBANON,  N.  Y. 
PRINTED  AND  PUBLISHED  BY  TILDEN  A  CO. 
1860.        ' 


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T  I£  E 


JOURNAL  OF  MATERIA  MEDICA. 


DEVOTED    TO 


Materia  Medica,  Pliannacy,  Cliemistry,  &o. 


VoLH.]  JANUARY,     1860.  [Ho.  L 


Tonics. 


BY    CHARLES    A.    LEE,     M.    D. 


NUMBBB  I. 


Tonics  are  agents  -which  invigorate  orgwiic  actions.  Many 
agencies  do  this  indirectly,  as  blood-letting,  cathartics,  narcotics, 
diaphoretics,  and 'counter-irritants;  but  true  tonics  either  impart 
tone  to  the  digestive  organs  by  primary  and  local  influence,  or 
they  so  impress  the  vital  properties  of  the  different  tissues  through 
the  medium  of  the  blood,  as  to  gradually  and  slowly  exalt  all  the 
functions  of  the  body.  They  may  be  supposed  to  generate  as 
well  as  extricate  nervous  influence,  on  which  depends  the  vigor  of 
all  the  vital  actions.  Some  of  them,  as  chalybeates,  supply  an 
element  essential  to  the  composition  of  healthy  blood ;  others, 
like  cod-liver  oil,  act  essentially  as  nutrients.  Taken  as  a  class, 
they  influence  all  the  vital  properties,  and  hence  are  universal  ex- 
citants to  the  functions.  Vegetable  tonics^  with  which  we  are  now 
more  particularly  concerned,  owe  their  influence  to  different 
organic  constituents,  as  alkaloid?,  neutral  principles,  volatile  oil, 
acids,  resins,  &c.  They  act  both  as  stomachics  and  hajmatics,  or 
blood  remedies,  forming^in  the  stomach  new  combinations,  which 
are  absorbed  and  afterwards  eliminated  by  the  excretory  organs. 
These  proximate  principles  have  often  been  detected  in  the  blood 
and  the  different  secretions.    Like  inorganic  substances,  however, 


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2  Lee  on  Tonics. 

this  influence  is  pardy  reflex,  especially  those  belonging  to  the 
class  of  pure  bitters.  In  no  instance  do  they  operate  upon  me- 
chanical and  chemical  principles,  as  was  formerly  supposed. 

This  class  of  remedies  may  be  called  permanent  stimulants  or 
alteratives,  and  their  office  is  to  restore  impaired  or  lost,  function, 
and  to  enable  organic  nervous  or  vital  power  to  resist  the  slow 
extension  of  disease,  or  aid  nature  in  the  establishment  and  pro- 
gress of  convalescence.  Like  all  other  medicines,  they  are  rela- 
tive agents,  acting  therapeutically  only  in  certain  morbid  condi- 
tions and  states  of  the  system ;  misapplied,  they  are  irritants  or 
sedatives.  No  fact  is  better  established  than  that  tonics^  as  often 
used,  prove  indirectly  debilitating,  and  counteract  the  recuperative 
forces.  Errors  in  pathology  lead  to  frequent  misapplication  of 
this  class  of  remedies,  especially  the  confounding  apparent  with 
true  debility.  The  property  of  healthy  excitability  is  confined 
within  narrow  limits;  if  exhausted  by  over-stimulation,  the 
chances  of  recovery  are  materially  lessened.  In  the  administra- 
tion of  tonics,  we  aim  to  elevate  depressed  vital  power,  in  a  slow 
and  gradual  manner,  to  the  healthy  standard,  aiding  and  imitating 
the  natural  recuperative  energies  by  agents  characterized,  like  the 
vital  stimuli,  by  permanency  of  action.  Remedial  agents  which 
restore  the  vitsJ  energies  vary  not  only  in  grade,  the  rapidity  and 
permanency  of  their  action,  but  also  in  respect  to  the  organ,  sys- 
tem, or  tissue,  on  which  their  influence  is  chiefly  exerted.  True 
tonics,  however,  seem  to  elevate  equally  all  the  functions ;  and  by 
administering  them  in  suitable  doses,  and  at  proper  intervals, 
their  beneficial  influence  is  propagated  throughout  the  entire  sys- 
tem. As  soon  as  one  or  more  important  functions  are  restored 
the  rest  participate  in  the  change,  and  the  whole  assume  a  regular 
discharge  of  their  offices,  owing  to  a  reciprocity  of  vital  influence 
and  function  existing  throughout  the  economy. 

Id  applying  this  class  of  remedies,  then,  we  should  carefully 
investigate  the  causes  of  the  existing  debility,  whether  it  be  ap- 
parent merely  or  the  consequence  of  oppressed  instead  of  de- 
pressed vital  power ;  whether  it  may  not  result  from  irritation  in 
some  part,  thus  abstracting  due  energy  from  others ;  whether  sim- 
ple or  complicated,  or  associated  with  change  of  structure ;  and 
after  subjecting  the  case  to  this  pathological  analysis,  passing  all 
the  various  functions  and  organs  in  review,  we  then  have  to  de- 


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Lee  on  Toyiics.  3 

cade  upon  the  choice  of  agents  best  suited  to  the  particular  cir- 
cumstances of  the  case.  And  here  great  judgment  and  dis- 
crimination are  needed.  Though  closely  allied  in  their  remedial 
virtues,  yet  no  two  tonic  agents  possess  identically  the  same  the- 
rapeutical powers.  Admitting  the  general  rule  that  vegetable 
tonics  are  best  suited  to  those  prostrate  conditions  consequent  on 
protracted  acute  diseases,  and  the  mineral  ones  to  chronic  aifec- 
tions  involving  more  especially  the  nervous  system,  and  also  that 
certain  vegetable  tonics  possess  an  antiperiodic  power  not  gene- 
rally possessed  by  this  group  of  remedies,  we  furthermore  find 
that  no  two  of  the  class  possess  identically  the  same  properties, 
and  hence  we  infer  that  none  of  them  can  well  be  spared  from  the 
materia  medica.  This  might,  in  fact,  be  inferred  a  p^iori^  from 
the  consideration  that  .in  no  two  vegetables  are  the  organic  con- 
stituents the  same.  If  they  agree  in  kind,  they  diflfer  in  quan- 
tity. Some  contain  volatile  oil  or  tannin,  in  connection  with  an 
alkaloid,  neutral  or  bitter  principle.  In  some  the  volatile  oil, 
in  others  the  tannic  acid  predominates;  and  in  a  third  group  the 
bitter  principle  is  the  prevailing  power.  Yet  it  is  solely  by  expe- 
rience and  observation  that  these  differences  have  been  established. 
This  variety  of  chemical  composition,  however,  imparting  as  it 
does  to  this  entire  group  compound  attributes  of  a  most  import- 
ant character,  is  a  wise  provision  of  nature  to  secure  an  equally 
corresponding  variety  of  eflfects.  In  this  belief,  we  shall  pass  in 
review,  in  our  succeeding  numbers,  all  our  indigenous  plants 
which  are  known  to  possess  tonic  properties :  believing  that  it  is 
better  to  have  a  large  than  a  small  catalogue  of  articles  of  this 
class  to  select  from,  we  shall  aid  to  extend  rather  than  lessen  their 
number. 

In  the  use  of  tonic  remedies  the  practitioner  must  ever  bear  in 
mind  the  paramount  importance  of  the  vital  stimuli — food,  air, 
water,  heat,  &c. — above  all  medicinal  substances  or  pharmacologi- 
cal agents  whatever :  as  on  the  former  depends  the  renovation  of 
all  the  tissues,  leaving  no  exhaustion  behind  them.  Pharmaceu- 
tical stimulants  may  excite  reaction,  but  they  probably  never  di- 
rectly increase  the  vital  force.  K  they  accomplish  this  end,  it  is 
by  enabling  the  vital  stimuli  to  exert  their  wonted  eflfects.  This 
is  well  illustrated  by  the  elfects  of  friction,  which  acts  as  a  vivify* 
ing  stimulus,  by  exalting  the  vital  properties  of  the  part,  drawing 


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4  Lee  on  Tonics, 

the  blood  to  it,  and  inducing  such  vital  and  chemical  changes  as 
to  facilitate  the  action  of  the  vital  stimuli.  It  is  now,  however, 
admitted  by  the  best  physiologists  that  there  are  some  medicinal 
agents,  which,  under  certain  morbid  conditions,  do  exert  a  local 
vivifying  and  strengthening  influence  upon  the  different  organs 
of  the  body.  Muller  has  suggested  that  this  eflbct  is  produced 
by  restoring  the  composition  of  the  organ,  or  by  so  changing  it 
as  to  facilitate  renovation  by  the  general  vital  stimuli ;  though  he 
thinks  such  cases  are  rare.  Paris  has  very  truly  observed 
that  when  the  i:  ital  movements  have  been  accelerated  by  a  stimu- 
lant beyond  a  certain  point  the  consequence  will  be  a  correspond- 
ing collapse,  and  that  an  interval  must  elapse  before  the  exhaus- 
tion can  be  supplied ;  but  it  is  not  so  with  tonics,  inasmuch  as 
they  act  slowly  yet  progressively,  so  that  time  is  allowed  for  the 
full  operation  of  the  vital  stimuli  to  supply  an  influx  of  power, 
which  shall,  at  least,  equal  the  demand  for  it,  and  consequently  no 
cx)llapse  can  take  place.  But  more  than  this 'is  efifected ;  for  sinoe 
the  restorative  functions  necessarily  partake  of  the  general  excite- 
ment, they  will  be  urged  with  increasing  activity,  and  thus  the 
energies  of  every  part  be  gradually  and  permanently  increased, 
and  the  general  standard  of  strength  raised.  To  insure,  however, 
this  desirable  result,  Dr.  Paris  dwells  upon  the  importance  of  so 
regulating  the  application  of  the  vital  stimuli,  by  a  judicious  system 
of  medical  training  as  to  insure  the  full  benefit  of  their  revivify- 
ing influence.  It  would  not  be  attended  with  any  important 
practical  results  to  speculate  upon  the  manner  in  which  these 
eflfects  are  brought  about.  We  know  that  many  of  these  agents, 
at  least,  promote  the  appetite  and  invigorate  iJie  digestive  func- 
tion, causing  a  greater  quantity  of  food  to  be  taken,  and  more 
thoroughly  digested  and  appropriated  to  the  wants  of  the  system — 
thus  enriching  the  blood,  and  rendering  it  more  stimulating  to  aU 
the  functions,  and  more  nutritive  to  the  various  tissues.  Thus, 
indirectly,  general  tonic  effects  are  produced,  and  probably  by  a 
local  influence,  on  the  digestive  organs.  Againjwe  may  believe, 
in  accordance  witii  known  physiological  laws,  and  ascertained 
facts,  that  they  enter  the  blood  vessels  and  modify  the  vital  pro- 
perties of  the  blood;  perhaps,  as  has  been  suggested,  entering 
into  the  campositioa  of  some  of  its  proximate  principles,  and  so 
influencing  their  vital  condition  as  to  favor  the  physiological 

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Lee  on   Tonics,  6 

;vctions  constant!}'  going  on  within  it,  contribnting  to  its  full  de- 
velopment and  maintenance,  and  so  enabling  it  to  perform  its 
offices  in  the  economy  with  more  vigor  and  efficiency.  That  iron 
and  cod-liver  oil,  &c.,  may  act  in  this  way,  is  not  improbable; 
or  we  may  suppose  they  sometimes  o])erate,  by  their  presence 
in  the  circulation,  upon  the  ultimate  organic  constituents  of  the 
tissues,  stimulating  into  increased  activity  that  special  power, 
which  resides  in  the  organic  cells,  or  molecules  of  the  organ. 
But  whatever  theoretical  views  may  be  adopted  in  regard  to  the 
modus  operandi  of  tonics,  no  one  can  deny  but  that  when  cau- 
tiously and  judiciously  administered,  in  cases  to  which  tihey  are 
adapted,  the  most  beneficial  eflfects  often  follow. 

Tonics  may  often  be  advantageously  combined  with  other 
remedies.  Those  which  have  an  astringent  tendency,  especially, 
should  be  combined  with  aperients,  as  first  pointed  out  by  the 
celebrated  Iloffinan :  and  to  these  an  alkali  will  often  prove  a 
valuable  adjunct.  Tbo  much  attention  cannot  be  paid  to  the  state 
of  the  secretory  and  excretory  organs,  for  torpidity  of  function 
here  is  itself  a  direct  producing  cause  of  debility.  Aloes,  rhu- 
barb, and  blue  mass  fulfill  this  indication  with  sufficient  certainty 
and  efficierKy.  It  should,  however,  be  recollected  that  while 
much  pnrgat'V^e  action  conuteracts  the  effi^ct  of  the  tonic,  a  small 
quantity  of  a  bitter  tonic  increases  very  much  the  purgative  power 
of  a  cathartic  drug.  Some  writers  have  ad\  ised  the  combination 
of  tonics  with  narcotics,  but  there  are  few  cases  where  such  union 
would  be  advisable.  There  may  be  such  a  condition  of  the 
stomach  as  not  to  tolerate  well  the  presence  of  tonics,  whi(*h  may 
be  obviated  by  an  opiate,  as  in  Home  instance3  of  intermittent 
fever.  It  is  still  customary  among  goHrmandH^  in  some  countries, 
to  take,  after  eating,  a  pastile  composed  of  opium,  cloves,  mace, 
nutmeg  and  musk,  the  compound  being  found  to  favor  instead  of 
checking  digestion.  Dr.  Tully  has  very  proi:)erly  called  attention 
to  the  fact  that,  in  order  that  many  of  the  tonics  should  sit  well 
upon  the  stomach,  and  aflfect  the  patient  agreeably,  it  is  well  to 
accompany  their  use  with  some  light,  nutritious,  and  easily, 
digestible  food,  such  as  milk  or  rice  porridge,  arrowroot  and 
milk,  &c. 

The  dose,  the  intervals  between  the  doses,  and  the  duration  of 
the  tonic  treatment,  must  be  determined  by  the  peculiar  circum- 


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6 


Lee  on    Tonics, 


stances  of  each  case. 

The  following  list,  it  is  believed,  embraces  nearly  all  known 
Korth  American  plants  possessing  tonic  virtues.  In  some — 
perliaps  many — the  tonic  property  does  not  predominate,  but 
is  allied  with  astringent,  stimulant,  diaphoretic,  alterative,  or 
other  qualities.  In  few  does  it  exist  unconnected  with  other 
virtues.  .  Some,  it  will  be  observed,  are  included,  which  have 
already  been  enumerated  in  the  class  of  astringents.  Some,  how- 
ever, already  noticed  under  that  cla^s  have  beenjiere  omitted. 
The^list  would  have  been  much  extended  by  including  other  spe- 
cies under  the  astringent  genera,  but  no  practical  benefit  would 
have  attended  it. 

( )ar  indigenous  materia  medica  abounds  more  in  astringents 
and  tonics  than  any  other  class  of  remedies.  So  numerous  are 
the  former,  that  we  may  and  should  be  entirely  independent  of 
foreign  countries ;  and  as  to  the  latter,  our  continent  furnishes 
everything  necessary.  The  cinchona,  and  other  aromatic  barks 
of  South  America,  added  to  the  bitter  tonics  of  the  United  States, 
fiirnish  the  practitioner  as  complete  an  armament  of  medicines  of 
this  class  as  can  well  be  desired.  That  their  virtues  should  be 
more  thoroughly  investigated  by  practical  men  is  ardently  to  be 
desired.     The  nomenclature  of  Torrey  and  Gray  has  been  adopted. 

Plants  Indigenous  to  thb  United  States  Possessing  Tonic 

Properties. 


POPULAR     NA3IES. 


Ran  li  n cul  aceae,  Hepatica. 
{Croufoot  Fam- 
ily.) iCoptis. 

jZantborhiza. 

;  Hydrastis. 

\  Actsea. 


'Cimicifuga. 


Magnoliaoeae,     Magnolia. 
{MagnoUaFam- 


H.  Triloba. 

Acutiloba. 
C.  Trifolia. 
Z.  Apiifolia. 
,11.  Canadensis, 
A.  Spicata. 
,Va.  Rubra. 
1        Alba. 
C.  Racemosa. 

Americana. . 


Liverwort 

Short-lobed  Hepatica. 
Gold  Thread. 
Yellow  Root 

Bancbcrry — Cohosh. 
iRed  Banebcrry. 
AVhite  Baneberry. 
Bugbane — Cohosh — Black 

Snake-Root. 
American  Bugbane. 


•\f.  Glauca.  Sweet  Bay. 

I      Acuminata.      Cucumber  Tree. 

Macrophylla.  Great-leaved  Mag.  Tree. 

Umbrella.        Umbrella  Tree. 
I      FraserL  Ear-leaved  Umbrella  Tree. 


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Lee  on  Tonics. 


SPECIES. 


POPULAR    NAMES. 


MagDoIiaeeae.     LiriodendroD. 


Asimina. 


Xelurabiura. 


Anonaceae, 
{Ciiatard  Apple 

or  Pap  aw 

Family.) 
Menisperm'ceac 
{Moo  n  iteedFa  m 

ih/.) 
Nelumbiaceae, 
(Nelumbo  FamA 

ihj.)  I 

Nymphaeaceae,  Nymphaja. 
( Water    Lily     Nuphar. 

Family.)        1 

Sarraceniaceae,  Sarracenia. 

iPiteherPVnU.) 

Hypericaceae,     Eypcricum. 
{SLjohn's  Wort 
Family.)        \ 
Zanthoxylaceae  Zanthoxylum. 


L.  Tulipifyra. 
A.  Triloba. 


Menispermum'M.  Canadense. 


N.  Luteum. 

N^.  Odorata. 
I  Afivena. 
I      Kalmiana. 

S.  Purpurea. 
Flava. 


Tulip  Tree. 

Commoi)   Papaw,   or   Custard 
Apple. 


Canadian  Moonseed. 


Water  Chinquepin. 

Sweet-scented  Water  Lily. 
Yellow  Pond  Lily. 
Spatter  Dock. 

Side-Saddle  Flower,  or  Pitcher 
Trumpets.  [Plant 


H.  Perforatum.    St.  John*8  Wort. 


It,   . 


Z.  Americaiium.  iPrickly  Ash,  or  Toothache 
;     Carolinianum.l  [Tree. 


Vitaceae,  (Fiw^iVitis. 
Family.)        \ 


Rhamnaceae,  *Ceanothus. 

{Bxuikthorn  ] 

Family.)  \ 

Hippocastana-  jAesculus. 


Aceraceae,  (f^^!Acer. 
Maple    Fam-' 

iiy-)  I 

Polygalaceae,    iPolygala. 
{Milk   Wort      • 
Family.)        j 

Legurainaceae,  Trifolium. 
{PuUe  Family.) 

Rosaceae,  (i?o«^|Prunus. 
Family.) 


Cerasus. 


T.  Labrnsca. 
'      ^stivalis. 
Cordifolia. 
I      VuFpina. 
iC.  Americanus. 


Northern  Fox  Grape. 

Summer  Grape. 

I  Winter,  or  Frost  Grape. 

!  Muscadine. 

New  Jgrsey  Tea,  or  Red  Root 


,A1.  Glabra. 
I       Flava, 
j       Pavia. 

A.  Pennsylvanica 

Saccharinum. 

Nigrum. 
P.  Senega. 

Sanguinea. 

Paiicifolia. 
1     Rubella. 
[T.  Arvense. 
I      Pratchse. 
!      Repens. 
p.  Americana. 

Maritima. 

Chicasa. 

Spinosa. 
C.  Pumila. 


Ohio  Buckeye. 
S^eet  Buckeye. 
Red  Buckeye. 


Striped  Maple. 
Sugar  Maple.. 
Black  Sugar  Maple. 
Seneca  Snake  Root 

iFlowering  Wintergreen. 
'Bitter  Polygala. 
Rabbit-Foot  Clover. 
Red 
i  White 

Wild  Yellow  or  Red  Plun* 
'Beach  Plum. 
[Chickasaw  Plum. 
iSloo— Black  Thorn. 
Dwarf  Cherry. 


Pennsylv'nicajWild  Red  Cherry. 


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8 

GENERA. 

Lee  on  Tonics. 

ORDER. 

SPEVIES. 

POPULAR     NAMES. 

Rosaceae,  {Bose 

C.  A'^iiginiana. 

Choke  Cherry. 

Faraily.) 

Serotina. 

Wild  Black  C  herry! 

Spiraea. 

S.  Opulifolia. 
Corymbosa. 

Nine  Bark. 

Salicifolia. 

Meadow  Sweet 

Tomentosa. 

Hardback. 

Lobata. 

Queen  of  the  Prairie. 

Agrimonia. 

A.  Eupatoiia. 

Common  Agrimony. 

Geum. 

G.  Rivalc. 

Water  or  Purple  AvenF. 

Potentilla. 

P.  Norvegica. 

Cinquefoil. 

Canadensis. 

Five  Finger. 

Argentea,  &c. 

Fragaria. 

N.  Virginiana. 

Strawberry, 

Rubus. 

R.  Odoratus. 

Purple  Flowering  Raspberry. 

Villosus. 

High  Blackberrj'. 

Canadensis,  &c 

Dewberry. 

Trivialis. 

Low-bush  Blackberry. 

Oalycanthaccac, 

Calycanthus. 

C.  Floridus. 

Carolina  Allspice. 

(Carolina  All- 

Laevigatus. 

Sweet-scented  Shrub. 

spice  Family.) 

Glaucus. 

Umbelliferae, 

Sanicula. 

S.  Canadensis. 

Sanicle — Black  Snake  Root. 

(ParHleif  Fa  mi- 

Mary  Ian  (lic4i. 

ii              li          ii         ti 

?.'/.•) 

Erynjriutn. 

K   Aquaticuni. 

Button  Snake  Root. 

Foetidum. 

Fever  Weed. 

Angelica. 

A.  Curtisii. 

Anj^clica. 

Archangel  ica. 

Hirsuta. 

Archanjj;clica. 

Atropurpurea. 

Great  Anjj:elica. 

Pcregrina. 

Ooniaccae, 

Cornu.^* 

C.  Florida. 

Flowering  Dogwood. 

(Dogwood  Fam- 

Circinata. 

Round-leaved  Cornel. 

iiy-) 

Sericea. 

Silky  Cornel. 

Stolonifera. 

Red  Osier  Dogwood. 

Oinchonaceae, 

Ccphalanthus. 

Occidentaiis. 

Button  Bush. 

{Cinchona  Fam- 

Chiococca. 

Racemosa. 

Snow  Berry. 

ily.) 

Pinckneya. 

Pubens. 

Fever  Tree— Bitter  Bark. 

Hamamelaceac, 

Hamamelis. 

n.  Virginica. 

Witch  Hazel. 

(Witch   Hazel 

Family.) 

[Weed 

Oompositae, 

Eupatorium. 

E.  Piirpureura. 

Joe  Pye  Weed — Trumpet 

(Composite 

Perfoliatum. 

Thorough  Wort — Boneset. 

Family.) 

Teucrifolium. 

Wild  Horehound. 

Ageritoides. 

White  Snake  Root. 

Erigeron. 

Canadense. 

Canada  Flea  Bane. 

• 

Solidago. 

S.  Odora. 

Sweet  Golden  Rod. 

Helenium. 

H.  Autumnale. 

Sneeze  Wort. 

Nfaruta.* 

Bi.  Cotula. 

May  Weed. 

Achillea. 

A.  MUlefolia, 

Yarrow. 

Cnicus* 

0.  Benodictus. 

Blessed  Thistle. 

*  Jntrodneecl  firom  Europe. 


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Lee  oil  Tonics. 

9 

ORDEK.            <         GENERA. 

SPECIE.S. 

POPULAR    NAMES. 

Compositae,       |Hieraciuni. 

IF.  Venosum. 

Hawk  Weed. 

{Composite        jNabalis. 

N.  Fraseri. 

(iall  of  the  Earth. 

Faviily.) 

Tanacetum. 

T.  Huronensis. 

Native  Tansy. 

Artemesia. 

A.  Caudata. 

Slender  Wormwood. 

Ludoviciana. 

Western  Mugwort. 

Vulgaris. 

Common         '*          (exotic). 

Biennis. 

Biennial 

Senecio. 

S.  Aureus. 

Life  Root — False  Valerian. 

1 

Arnica. 

A.  Mollis. 
Nudicaulis. 

Soft  Arnica. 

Onopordon.* 

Acanthium. 

Cotton  Thistle. 

Ericaceae, 

Arctostf^'ylos 

A.  Uva  Ursi. 

Bearberry. 

{HeathFamihj.) 

Alpina. 

Alpine  Bearberry. 

Epigaea. 

E.  Repens. 

Trailing  Arbutus.'^ 

Gaultheria. 

G.  Procumbens. 

Creeping  Wintergreen. 

Ilex. 

T.  Opaca. 

Vaocinium. 

V.  Stamineum. 

Deerberry. 

Ledum. 

L.  Latifolium. 

T^brador  Tea. 

Pyrola. 

P.  Rotundifolia. 

Round-leaved  Pyrola — ^Win- 

Uni  flora. 

Ore-flowered        "     [tcrgroen.. 

Ohimapbila. 

C.  Umbellata. 

Prince's  Pine. 

Maculata. 

Spotted  Wintergrccn. 

jMonotropa. 

M.  Uniflora. 

Indian  Pipe. 

Acjuifoliaccao,    'ilex. 

I.  Opaca. 

American  Holly. 

{HoUy  Fujiiily.)\ 

Canadensis. 

( 'anadian       *' 

jPrinos. 

P.  Vcrtici^I at  US. 

IJlack  Alder. 

1 

Lievigatus. 

Smooth  Wiiitcvberry. 

Olaber. 

fnkheny. 

Ebenaceae, 

Diospyros. 

D.  Virginiana. 

Persimmon. 

(Bbony    Fami- 

ly-) 

Plumbagineae,   Statice. 

S.  Limonium. 

Marsh  Rosemary. 

(Lead     Wort    ' 

Family.)        i 

Orobanchaceae, ,  Bpiphegus. 

E.  Virginiana. 

Beech  Drops — Cancer  Root. 

{Broom-Rape 

Family.) 
Scr'phurriaceae 

Orobanche. 

0.  Americana. 

Squaw  Root. 

Cbelono. 

C.  Glabra. 

Snake  Head. 

{FigWortFam- 

ily.) 

Labiatao,  {Mint 

Mentha. 

M.  Canadensis. 

Wild  Mint. 

Family.) 

Lycopus. 

L.  Virginicus. 

Bugle  Weed. 

Cunila. 

C.  Mariana. 

Common  Ditany. 

Hyssopus.* 

H.  Officinalis. 

Hyssop. 

Pycnanthe- 

P.  Aristatum. 

Mountain  Mint. 

, 

[mum. 

Incanum. 

Wild  Basil. 

Monarda. 

M.  Didyma. 

Oswego  Tea. 

Fistulosa. 

Wild  Bergamot. 

Punctata. 

Horse  Mint. 

Hedeoma. 

H.  Pulegioides. 

Penny  Royal. 

•ExotSc 


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10 

Lee  on  Tonics 

ORDER. 

GENERA. 

1            SPECIES. 

!                  POPULAR    NAMES. 

Labiatae,  (Mini 

Collinsonia. 

C.  Canadensis. 

Rich  Weed. 

FamUy.) 

Salvia. 

S.  Lyrata. 

Hiyre-leaved  Sage. 

Verticifolia. 

Nettle-leaved   '' 

Scutellaria. 

Lateriflora. 

Nfad  Dog  Scullcap. 

Nervosa. 

SwuUcap. 

(alentiauaceae, 

Sabbatia. 

S.  Angularis. 

American  Centaury. 

(Gentian   Fant 

Frasera. 

F.  Carol iniensis. 

'*         Col  umbo. 

ihj.) 

Gentiana. 

G.  Quinqueflora. 

Five-flowered   Gentian. 

Crinita. 

Frinjred              i    " 

Detonsa, 

Smaller  Fringed    *' 

Alba. 

Whitish 

Saponaria. 

Soap  wort                *' 

Menyanthes. 

M.  Trifoliata. 
'                    [Hum 

Buck  Bean. 

Apocyn^ceae, 

Apocynum. 

A.  Androssemifo 

-  Spreading  Dog-Banc. 

{DoffBiine  Fom 

Cannabinum. 

Indian  Hemp. 

iiy.) 

AristoVchiaceae  Asarum. 

A.  Canadcnse. 

Wild  Ginger. 

{Birth  Wort 

Aristolochia. 

Serpen  taria. 

Virginia  Snake  Root. 

Family.) 

Polygonum. 

P.  Hydropiper. 

Smart  Weed. 

Lauraceae, 

Sass'fras,(Lau-S.  Officinale. 

Sassafras. 

{Laurel    Fami 

Benzoin,  [rus 

.)  a  Odoriferum. 

Spice  Bark. 

¥) 

Melissaafolium 

Jughindaccae, 
{Walnut  Fami 

Carya. 

C.  Alba. 

Shag-Bark  Hickory. 

. 

!      Glabra. 

Fig-Nut 

ly-) 

Amara. 

Swamp 

Oupuliferae, 

Quercus. 

Q.  Alba. 

White  Oak. 

{Oah  Family,) 

1      Tinctoria. 

Black       ^^ 

Myricaceae, 
{Sweet   Gale 

Myrica. 

U,  Gale. 

Sweet  Gale. 

Cerifera. 

Bayberry. 

Family.) 

(Jomptonia. 

C.  Asplenifolia. 

Sweet  Fern. 

Betulaceao, 

Alnus. 

A.  Serrulata. 

Smooth  Alder. 

{Birch  Family,) 

Incana. 

Speckled    " 

Salicaceae, 

Salix.* 

S.  Candida. 

IloaryWillow. 

{Willoic  Fami 

'-| 

Tristis. 

Dwarf  Gray  WiUow. 

/y.) 

Humilis. 

iLow-bush            "• 

Discolor. 

Glaucous              *' 

1      Sericea. 

Silky-leaved 

i      Cordata. 

Heartleaved        ** 

1      Angustata,&c.  Narrow-leavod     *' 

(Populus. 

P.  Tremuloides. 

American  Aspen. 

Balsamifera. 

Balsam  Poplar. 

Coniferae, 

Pinus. 

i 
•  iP.  Resinosa. 

Red  Pine. 

{Pine  Family.) 

Mitis. 

Yellow  Pine. 

1      Rigida. 

Pitch  Pine. 

Strobus. 

White  Pine,  &c. 

.  Abies. 

A.  Balsamca. 

Balsam  Fir. 

! 

t      Canadensis. 

Hemlock  Spruce.                 

•  We  have  twenty-two  distinct  species  of  Willow,  all  possessing  tonic  properties. 


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Balsam  of  Oopatba. 


11 


OKDEIt,                    GENERA. 

SPECIES. 

!                  POPULAR    NAMES. 

Coniferae,          j 

A.  Nigra. 

Black  Spruce. 

(Pine  Family.) 

Alba. 

White      *» 

JuDiperus. 

J.  Communis. 

Common  Juniper. 

1 

Virginiana. 

Rod  Cedar. 

Araliaccae,         .Acorus. 

A.  Calamus. 

Sweet  Flag. 

(Arum  F(f  mil  i/.)           ' 

Orchidaceac,      'Orchis. 

0.  Spectabile. 

Showy  Orchis. 

( Orch  is    Fam i-  Cypripediuin. 

C.  Pubescens. 

i  Yellow  Ladies*  Slipper. 

ly^)            ■ 

Spectabile. 

Showy       *' 

Amaryllidaceae  Aletris. 

A.  Farinosa. 

Star  Grass. 

(Amaryllis 

Aurea. 

! 

Family.)        ; 

t 

Smilaceae,  {Sm  i-  Smilax. 

S.  Sarsaparilla. 

ln.v  Family.) 

Rotundifolia. 

J  Green  Briar. 

Trilliaceae.          TrUlium. 

T.  Cemuum. 

Wnkc  Robin. 

1 

Erectum. 

Birth  Root. 

Balsam    of    Copaiba. 

COPAIFERA  OFFICINALIS. 
(A7id  Other  Species.) 


The  vaiious  and  extended  uses  of  Copaiba,  medicinally,  ren- 
der it  a  very  important  article  with  the  medical  profession — so 
much  so,  that  I  have  considered  a  few  words  not  amiss  relative  to 
its  falsification  and  tests,  as  well  as  a  consideration  of  the  pro- 
cesses pursued  for  presenting  it  in  convenient  and  desirable  forms 
for  administration. 

Copaiba  of  commerce  presents  a  considerable  variety  of  ap- 
pearances, as  may  be  naturally  expected  from  the  great  variety  of 
its  botanical  sources;  and  it  is  not  within  the  limits  of  this  article 
to  enter  into  a  fall  description  of  each.  It  is  often  found  in  the 
shops,  badly  adulterated,  to  the  extent  of  hardly  containing  ten 
per  cent  of  Copaiba.  Balsam  of  Copaiba,  according  to  Pareira, 
is  a  clear,  transparent  liquid,  having,  for  the  most  part,  the  con- 
sistence of  olive  oil.  By  age  it  becomes  considerably  denser, 
from  the  loss  of  volatile  oil.  It  is  insoluble  in  water ;  completely 
soluble  in  alcohol,  ether,  and  the  fixed  and  volatile  oils ;  is  solj^- 
fied  by  about  one-sixteenth  of  its  weight  of  fresh  calcined  magne- 


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12  Balsam  of  Gopaiba, 

sia,  and  by  alkalies  it  yields  a  kind  of  soap  insoluble  in  water. 

Considerable  variation  consists  in  the  color,  odor,^ taste,  con- 
sistence, and  specific  gravity,  as  well  as  in'  the  relative  quan- 
tities of  volatile  oil  and  resin  yielded  by  different  varieties  of  Bal- 
sam of  Copaiba,  depending  upon  the  different  species  from  which 
it  is  produced.  Some  varieties  contain  as  high  as  eighty  per 
cent  of  volatile  oil,  while  others  yield  only  thirty  per  cent,  ac- 
cording to  the  circumstances  of  its  collection,  such  as  age,  posi- 
tion, and  season  of  collection. 

As  this  is  an  article  extensively  used,  it  has  necessarily  become 
an  object  to  substitute  for  it  coarser  or  inferior  articles,  dnd  like- 
wise to  adulterate  it  largely  with  foreign  substances,  as  fixed  oils, 
castor  oil,  oil  of  turpentine,  poppy-seed  oil,  &c. ;  but,  inasmuch 
as  the  article  derived  from  many  sources  will  vary  in  consistence, 
chemical  character  and  composition,  it  is  necessary  that  one 
should,  before  pronouncing  the  article  adulterated,  apply  the 
most  approved  tests. 

Various  are  the  plans  that  have  been  proposed  for  ascertaining 
its  parity.  All  appear  to  agree  that  when  pure  it  is  transparent, 
free  of  tur])entiiic  (jdor  when  heated,  soluble  in  two  parts  of  alco- 
hol, and  dissolves  one-fourth  of  its  weight  of  carbonate  of  mag- 
nesia with  the  aid  of  gentle  heat,  and  continues  translucent;  other- 
wise, with  alcohol,  a  turbid  mixture  results,  from  which  the  im- 
purity slowly  separates,  and  a  small  proportion  of  any  fixed  oil 
renders  the  product  with  carbonate  of  magnesia  opaque. 

Castor  oil  is  one  of  the  most  common  adulterations,  which  may 
be  easily  detected  by  mixing  three  parts  of  the  Balsam  with  one 
part  of  sulphuric  acid,  and  shaking  with  fifteen  or  twenty  parts 
of  alcohol  of  36°.  If  the  mixture  separates,  it  indicates  that  the 
Balsam  is  adulterated  with  castor  oil.  This  test  will  not  detect 
less  than  one-ninth  part  of  adulteration. 

One  part  of  potassa  dissolved  in  two  parts  of  water  forms  a 
clear  solution  with  nine  parts  of  pure  Copaiba,  and  the  liquid 
continues  clear  when  moderately  diluted  with  water  or  alcohol ; 
but  the  presence  of  one-sixth  part  of  fixed  oil  in  the  Copaiba 
occasions  more  or  less  opacity  in  the  liquid,  and  half  the  quantity 
causes  the  precipitation  of  white  flakes  in  a  few  hours. 

Boiled  with  fifty  times  its  weight  "of  water,  till  the  liquid  is 
evaporated,  if  the  Copaiba  contains  any  fixed  oil,  the  residtM 


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Balsam  of  Copaiba.  13 

wiU  be  more  or  less  soft,  according  to  the  quantity  present,  other- 
wise it  will  be  hard  and  brittle. 

A  drop  of  the  Balsam  placed  on  a  piece  of  unsized  paper,  and 
heated  until  all  the  essential  oil  is  expelled,  forms  a  semi-transpa- 
rent, well-defmed  spot;  but  if  the  Balsam  has  been  adulterated 
with  a  fatty  oil,  it  is  surrounded  by  an  oily  areola. 

Two  and  a  half  parts  of  Balsam  shaken  with  one  part  of  liquor 
of  ammonia,  sp.  gr.  0.965,  forms  a  mixture  which  becomes  clear 
and  transparent  in  a  few  moments,  and  may  be  heated  at  212** 
Fah.  without  becoming  opaque,  if  pure. 

By  agitating  the  suspected  sample  with  a  lye  of  caustic  soda, 
and  setting  the  mixture  aside  to  repose,  the  Balsam,  after  a  time, 
rises  to  the  surface,  and  the  fatty  oil  present,  if  any,  forms  a  soapy, 
thick  mass  below.  ^ 

Pure  Copaiba  may  be  adulterated  with  fifty  per  cent  of  a  fat 
oil  (castor  nut  or  almond),  without  ceasing  to  give  a  clear  solution 
with  two  parts  of  alcohol,  but  it  combines  badly  with  magnesia 
and  ammonia.  Excess  of  alcohol,  however,  separates  the  oil  in 
all  cases.  The  best  test  for  detecting  the  fat  oils  is  the  use  of 
pure  alcohol  to  which  some  caustic  potash  has  been  added.  Mr. 
Redwood  is  of  the  opinion  that  most  of  the  proposed  tests  of  the 
purity  of  Copaiba  are  liable  to  fallacy,  and  that  the  best  measure 
of  its  activity  is  the  quantity  of  volatile  oil  it  affords  by  distilla- 
tion. However  true  this  may  be,  I  have  had  no  reason  to  aban- 
don tests  which  exhibited  the  character  of  the  adulteration,  and 
with  proper  care,  a  little  experience  and  observation,  I  think  them 
as  reliable  as  the  average  of  tests  for  adulterations  in  other 
articles. 

M.  Guibourt,  after  many  experiments  with  a  great  variety  of 
specimens,  came  to  the  following  conclusions : — 

"  1.  A  Copaiba  which  possesses  the  four  properties : — Firsts  of  being  en- 
tirely soluble  in  two  parts  of  absolute  alcohol ;  second^  to  fomi  at  the  tempera- 
ture of  60®  Fah.  a  transparent  mixture,  with  two-fifths  of  its  weight  of  a 
strong  solution  of  ammonia;  thirds  to  solidify  with  one-sixteonth  of  its 
weight  of  calcined  magnesia ;  fourth^  to  produce  a  dry  and  brittle  resin  after 
prolonged  ebullition,  is  a  Balsam  which  is  certainly  pure ;  and  those  which 
present  these  four  properties  are  to  be  preferred  to  all  others. 

"  2.  The  last  character  is  an  indispensable  complement  to  the  three  first, 
which  alone  are  not  sufficient  to  certify  the  purity  of  the  Balsam.  On  the 
other  hand,  one  or  two  of  the  first  characters  may  be  wanting,  without  neces- 
sarily involving  the  adulteration  of  the  Balsam.  When  these  characters  are 
wanting,   we  must  try  to  discover  the  presence  of  some  foreign  substance ; 


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14  Balsam  of  Copaiba^ 

but  unless  we  can  prove  its  presence,  we  must  not  condude  that  the  Balsam 
has  been  adulterated — it  may  arise  from  some  unknown  properties  in  the  va- 
riety of  the  tree  from  which  it  is  produced. 

"  3.  The  characters  drawn  from  thJ  action  of  ammonia,  and  of  calcined  and 
carbonate  of  magnesia,  and  which  have  been  regarded  as  the  most  certain 
means  of  detecting  the  adulteration  of  Copaiba  by  a  fixed  oil,  are  far  from 
possessing  that  value  which  has  been  assigned  to  them.  The  soft  state  of  the 
Resin  of  Copaiba,  deprived  of  its  volatile  oil  by  boiling  water,  is  a  mueb 
more  certain  test  of  this  falsification." 

Copaiba  is  not  always  mixed  or  adulterated  with  a  single  article ; 
sometimes  two  or  more  are  added,  and  not  unfrequently  factitious 
or  compounded  articles  are  made  up  really  containing  not  a  trace 
of  Copaiba. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  numerous  formula)  in  use  for 
adulteration : — 

Balsam  of  Copaiba, 4  pounds. 

Castor  Oil, 3       ** 

Mix  well. 

Balsam  of  Copaiba, 7  pounds. 

Castor  Oil, 4      *» 

Yellow   Rosin, 2       " 

Balsam  of  Copaiba, One  part 

Canada  Balsam, "       " 

Balsam  of  Copaiba, One  part 

Canada  Balsam, **       ** 

Castor  Oil  or  Nut  Oil, "       " 

Balsam  of  Copaiba, 7  pounds. 

Nut  Oil, 3  " 

Yellow  Rosin, 2  ** 

Canada  Balsam, 1  ** 

FACTITIOrS    COPAIBA. 

Castor  Oil, 7  quarts. 

Copaiba  Bottoms, 1       ** 

Mix  warm,  and  filter  through  flannel. 

Castor  Oil,   1  gallon. 

Yellow  Rosin, 3  pounds. 

Canada  Balsam, 2       ** 

Oil  of  Juniper, 2  ounces. 

Oil  of  Savine, , 1  ounce. 

Essence  of  Orange  and  Lemon,  each ^    " 

Powdered  Benzoin, .* 1       ** 

Melt  the  Rosin  with  the  Castor  Oil  and  Benzoin,  and  when  nearly  cold  add 
the  essence?. 


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Balsam  of  Copaiba,  16 

Canada  Balsam, 8  pounds. 

Venice  Turpentine, 1       ** 

Oils  of  Fennel,  Juniper  and  Savine, q.  s. 

Used  chiefly  to  fill  cheap  capsules. 

Copaiba  has  long  been  regarded  as  a  specilic  in  gonorrhoea,  but 
the  experience  of  practitioners  is  decidedly  favorable  to  its  value 
in  other  diseases  of  the  mucous  membrane.  In  medicinal  doses 
Copaiba  is  stimulant,  cathartic  and  diuretic.  Therapeutically  it 
possesses  the  property  of  diminishing  excessive  mucous  dis- 
charges, and  at  oi?e  time  was  used  with  apparent  success  as  a 
febrifuge  in  ague.  This  use  seems  to  have  been  abandoned,  and 
the  principal  purpose  for  which  it  is  now  employed  is  the  treat- 
ment of  mucous  inflammations,  as  bronchitis  and  gonorrhoea.  Its 
use  in  the  latter  extends  from  the  commencement  of  the  last  cen- 
tury, and  is  still  the  most  approved  remedy  in  that  disease. 

There  appear  to  be  two  methods  of  treatment  by  it — one  not  to 
exhibit  it  until  the  inflammatory  symptoms  have  subsided,  the 
other  to  give  it  at  the  very  outset,  to  cut  short  or  suppress  the 
disease.  Both  systems  have  their  advocates,  and  very  cle^ly 
their  propriety  should  be  determined  by  the  characteristics  of 
the  case  presented.  ♦ 

The  greater  influence  of  Copaiba  over  the  urethral  than  over 
other  mucous  membranes  is  explained  by  experiments,  which 
sufficiently  prove  that  the  active  principle  of  the  Balsam  is  chiefly 
eliminated  by  the  kidneys,  and  exerts  a  healing  influence  on  the 
inflamed  mucous  membrane  of  the  urethra,  by  coming  directly  in 
contact  with  it,  dissolved  in  the  urine,  as  this  fluid  is  expelled 
from  the  bladder.  Dr.  Roquette  relates  some  interesting  experi- 
ments and  cases,  which  strongly  prove  its  local  action.  His  ob- 
servations and  conclusions  are  confirmed  by  Marchal,  Dallas,  and 
others,  that  the  injection  of  Balsam  of  Copaiba  is  the  most  effica- 
cious mode  of  treating  gonorrhoea.  Mr.  Dallas  employed  it  in 
sixteen  cases,  using  no  internal  remedy  either  in  recent  or  old 
gonorrhoea,  with  complete  success:  using  for  the  enema  five 
drachms  of  Copaiba,  yolk  of  one  egg,  one  grain  of  gummy  ex- 
tract of  opium,  and  seven  ounces  of  water— used  several  times  a 

day. 

The  experience  of  most  practitioners  sustains  the  statement  of 
Bicord,  and  others,  that  Copaiba  is  less  successful  in  the  gonor- 


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16  Balsam  of  Copaiba, 

rhooa  of  females  than  males,  inasmuch  as  the  disease  is  not  con- 
fined to  th<r  mucous  lining  of  the  urethra,  (on  which  the  influence 
of  Copaiba  dissolved  in  the  urine  is  principally  exercised,)  but 
extends  to  that  of  the  vagina.  This  adds  (if  further  proof  were 
needed)  additional  evidence  of  its  therapeutical  influence  locally,  ' 
and  sugj^cpts  the  local  treatment  by  injection  of  such  cases,  as 
well  as  by  the  internal  administration  of  the  article. 

In  chronic  inflammation  of  the  bhidder,  and  in  catarrh  of  the 
same  organ,  it  has  been  highly  recommended  by  Dr.  La  Roche,  of 
Philadelphia.  In  leucorrhea  it  has  been  employed  with  advan- 
tage, and  its  employment  in  chronic  jnihiKmary  caiarrh  has  been 
favorably  spoken  of  by  Drs.  La  Roche,  Armstrong,  and  others ; 
and  Pareira  refers  favorably  to  its  use  in  chronic  inflammation  of 
the  mucous  membrane  of  the  bowels,  especially  of  the  colon  and 
rectum,  and  that  Dr.  Gullen  spoke  favorably  of  its  use  in  hemor- 
rhoids, and  says : — "  Having  learned  from  an  empirical  practitioner 
that  it  gives  relief  in  hemorrhoidal  affections,  I  have  frequently 
employed  it  with  success."  Dr.  Ruschenberger  recommends  it 
locally  in  chilblains. 

The  nauseous  taste  and  unpleasant  effects  of  Copaiba,  employed 
in  the  natural  state,  has  suggested  various  methods  of  prepara- 
tion, as  solidification  hy  magnesia,  saponification  by  soda,  and 
by  enveloping  it  in  capsules. 

Copaiba  solidified  is  directed  to  be  made  by  incorporating 
one  drachm  of  calcined  magnesia  with  two  ounces  of  Copaiba,  or 
one-sixteenth  of  its  weight.  To  obtain  a  solid  mass  the  Copaiba 
must  be  thick  and  resinoid,  and  the  magnesia  recently  calcined. 
The  introduction  of  wax  in  considerable  quantity,  to  give  it  the 
consistence  required,  should  not  be  allowed.  In  this  form  it  is 
made  into  dragees,  or  oblong,  oval  pills,  which  are  coated  with 
sugar,  and  form  one  of  the  most  convenient  and  eb'gible  forms 
of  administration. 

Copaiba  saponifikd  is  produced  by  a  combination  of  soda 
and  potash  with  the  oleo-resin  of  pure  Copaiba.  Thus  solidified 
or  saponified  it  is  digestible  and  readily  assimiliable,  and  is  said 
to  produce  no  nausea,  vomiting,  or  gastric  suffering,  which  occa- 
sionally occur  with  Coi)aiba  in  the  natural  state. 

Copaiba  and  Riiatany. — In  some  instances,  and  particularly 
in  cases  of  gonorrhoea  and  gleet,  it  is  indispensable  to  associate 


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Balsam  of  Chpaiba.  17 

with  it  powerful  auxiliaries,  as  cubebs  or  rhatany.  By  its  tonic 
and  astringent  qualities  the  rhatany  moderates  its  stimulant  action 
on  the  intestines,  and  renders  it  less  purgative ;  contributes  pow- 
erfully to  the  cure  of  chronic  aflTections,  by  fortifying  the  mucous 
membrane  of  the  urethra,  the  atony  of  which  is  often  the  caus« 
of  persistent  gleets.  Ricord  recommends  the  combination  as 
much  superior  to  Copaiba  alone  in  the  treatment  of  blenor- 
xhagia. 

Copaiba  and  Citkate  of  Iron. — Especially  adapted  to  com- 
plaints of  females,  whose  peculiar  affections  require  more  particu- 
larly the  use  of  ferruginous  tonics. 

Copaiba  and  Cubebs. — Cubebs,  when  taken  in  large  or  fre- 
quent doses,  generally  diminishes  the  discharge,  and  remark- 
ably relieves  the  other  symptoms  in  a  short  time,  but  when  em- 
ployed alone  the  disorder  returns' after  some  time,  especially  if  it 
be  relinquished  or  the  dose  diminished.  Cubebs  should,  there- 
fore, be  conjoined  with  Copaiba. 

Copaiba,  Cubebs  and  Rhatany. — ^This  combination  is  much 
esteemed,  and  recommended  by  some.  The  addition  of  rhatany 
renders  the  action  of  Copaiba  less  purgative,  insures  its  more  com- 
plete absorption  into  the  system,  and  tends  to  allay  hemorrhage 
from  any  part  of  the  system. 

Copaiba,  Cubebs  and  Citrate  of  Iron. — ^The  combination 
with  iron  makes  a  valuable  preparation  for  an  endemic  condition 
of  the  system,  and  consequently  of  great  debility.  It  is  valuable 
in  chlorosis,  leucorrhea,  &c.,  like  all  preparations  of  iron ;  gives 
force  to  broken  down  powers,  and  produces  a  favorable  state  of 
the  blood :  so  much  desired  in  the  treatment  of  these  diseases. 

All  these  combinations  are  valuable,  for  their  convenience  and 
accuracy  of  preparation,  as  well  as  for  the  perfect  manner  in 
which  they  are  enveloped  in  a  coating  of  sugar. 

I  shall,  at  another  time,  refer  more  particularly  to  the  thera- 
peutical properties  of  Copaiba,  and  prepare  an  article  on  Cubebs, 
as  this  article  is  a  powerful  auxiliary  to  it,  and  one  of  the  most 
useful  remedies  we  possess  in  the  same  class  of  diseases,  as  well 
as  in  many  others  to  which  its  use  has  not  been  sufficiently 
directed. 


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18  BcmarJcs  on  OoncentrcUed  Preparations^  Ac. 

Remarks  on  Concentrated  Preparations,  Simple  Tests,  and 
E?tsy  Method  of  Analysis. 


JALAPIN. 


Jalapin  is  obtained  from  the  root  of  Ipomea  Jdlapa^  and  is 
composed  of  two  resins.  Its  color  is  gray.  Is  insoluble  in  water 
and  the  acids,  except  concentrated  sulphuric ;  is  soluble  in  alco- 
hol, and  is  precipitated  from  its  alcoholic  solution  by  water.  Of 
the  two  resins  of  which  it  is  composed  one  only  is  soluble  in 
ether.  Its  powder  is  exceedingly  irritating  to  the  nostrils  and 
throat.  It  purges  actively  in  three-grain  doses,  and  possesses  all 
the  properties  of  the  root 

It  is  often  adulterated  with  guaiacum,  resin  and  other  substances, 
besides  the  substitution  for  pure  resin  of  the  alcoholic,  hydro- 
alcoholic  and  aqueous  extracts. 

Properties  of  the  Alcoholic  Extract, — Color  much  darker  than  Jala- 
pin  ;  entirely^soluble  in  alcohol  and  alkalies,  and  partially  so  in 
water.    One  hundred  parts  gave : — 

Soluble  in  alcohol, 40.25 

Soluble  in  water, 59.75 

Total, 100.00 

Properties  of  the  Hydro-Alcoholic  Extract, — Color  darker  than 
that  of  the  alcoholic  extract ;  partially  soluble  in  alcohol,  water 
and  alkalies ;  soluble  in  proof  spirit ;  attracts  moisture  from  the 
air  rapidly.    One  hundred  parts  gave : — 

Soluble  in  alcohol, 39.61 

Soluble  in  water, 70.89 

Total, : 100.00 

Properties  of  the  Aqueous  Extract. — Color* very  dark ;  soluble  in 
water  and  alkalies.  The  alcohol  dissolves  only  a  Small  portion 
which  is  not  precipitated  by  water,  showing:  the  absence  of  any 
resin.    Insoluble  in  ether ;  attracts  moisture  irom  the  air. 

CIMICIFUGIN. 

Cimicifagin,  or  Macrotin,  is  obtained  from  the  root  of  the  Oimi- 
dfuga  Raoemosa^  or  Black  Cohosh,  and  is  a  true  resinoid    Not- 


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HeyncM'ks  on  Concentrated  Preparations^  Ac,  19 

withstanding  it  has  been  asserted  by  some  that  Cimicifugin  should 
represent  an  alkaloid,  resin  and  neutral,  all  such  preparation  which 
I  have  examined  are  only  hydro-alcoholic  extracts,  or  are  identi- 
tical  with  the  hydro-alcoholic  extracts  which  I  have  prepared 
from  the  root,  and  submitted  to  the  same  analysis. 

Propertits  of  Cimmfiigin. — Color  light  brown,  with  faint  nar- 
cotic odor,  slightly  bitter  and  nauseous  taste ;  insoluble  in  water 
and  ether ;  soluble  in  alcohol,  and  alkalies,  precipitated  by  acids 
from  ihc  alkaline  solutions. 

Properties  of  the  Akoholic  Extract, — Color  darker  than  Cimici- 
fugin ;  soluble  in  alcohol  and  alkalies,  and  partially  so  in  water. 
O^^e  hundred  parts  gave : — 

Soluble  in  alcohol, 50.20 

Soluble  in  water, 49.80 

Total, 100.00 

Properties  of  the  Hydro- Alcoholic  Extract. — Color  much  darker 
than  the  preceding ;  partially  soluble  in  alcohol ;  soluble  in  di- 
luted alcohol  and  in  alkalits ;  absorbs  moisture  from  the  atmos- 
phere  fapidly,  and  cannot  be  reduced  to  a  powder  without  the 
admixture  of  a  foreign  substance,  as  sugar  of  milk.  One  hun- 
dred parts  gave : — 

Soluble  in  alcohol, ^ 35.24 ' 

Soluble  in  water, 64.76 

Total, 100.00 

Aqueou.'i  Extract, — Color  very  dark  brown ;  soluble  in  water 
and  alkalies ;  sparingly  soluble  in  alcohol ;  water  precipitates  no 
resin  from  the  portion  soluble  in  alcohol;  insoluble  in  ether;  ab- 
sorbs moisture  rapidly,  and  requires  an  admixture  of  a  foreign 
substance  to  reduce  it  to  a  powder. 

CAULQPHYLLIN. 

Caulophyllin  is  obtained  from  the  root  of  Caulopliyllin  Thalic- 
troides,  or  Blue  Cohosh.  The  color  is  similar  to  Cimicifugin,  with 
a  greenish  tint ;  odor  strong  and  somewhat  unpleasant '/  soluble 
in  alkalies  and  alcohol,  and  insoluble  in  ether  and  acids. 

The  properties  of  the  alcoholic,  hydro-alcoholic  and  aqueous 
extracts  are  similar  to  those  of  Cimicifugia. 


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20  Eerriarlcs  on  Concentrated  Preparations,  Sc 

SANGUINARIN. 

Sanguinarin  is  obtamed  from  the  root  of  Sanguinarxn  Canadense^ 
or  Blood-Eoot,  and  is  a  resinoid.  The  presence  of  four  principles, 
as  a  resin,  resinoid,  alkaloid  and  neutral,  are  claimed  by  some 
writers ;  and  with  a  view  to  ascertaining  the  accuracy  of  these 
views,  we  have  examined  several  specimens.  In  some  we  found 
a  resin  and  an  alkaloid ;  but  in  the  one  claiming  to  present  four 
distinct  principles,  in  combination,  we  found  the  same  characteris- 
tics as  in  the  hydro-alcoholic  extract. 

Properties  of  Pure  Sanguinarxn, — Color  deep  redish  brown; 
peculiar  strong  odor ;  bitter,  nauseous  taste,  with  rather  a  persist- 
ent sense  of  pungency  in  the  fauces ;  insoluble  in  water ;  soluble 
in  alcohpl ;  partially  soluble  in  alkalies,  ether  and  acetic  acid. 
When  mixed  with  the  alkaloid  Sanguinarina,  if  treated  with 
water  slightly  acidulated,  the  alkaloid  will  be  dissolved. 

Properties  of  the  Alcoholic  Extract, — Color  very  deep  red  ;  solu- 
ble in  alcohol ;  partially  soluble  in  water,  alkalies,  &c. ;  cannot  be 
reduced  to  a  powder  without  the  admixture  of  a  foreign  sub- 
stance.    One  hundred  parts  gave : — 

Sanguinarin  and  Sanguioarina^. -68.06 

Soluble  in  water, 31.06 

Total, 100.00 

Properties  of  the  Ilydro-A  Icoholic  Extract — Color  dark ;  soluble 
in  diluted  alcohol ;  sparingly  soluble  in  alcohol,  and  liberally  so 
in  water.     One  hundred  parts  gave : — 

Sanguinarin  and  Sangiiinarina, 48.50 

Soluble  in  water, 61.60 

Total, 100.00 

Properties  of  the  Aqueous  Extract. — Color  light  brown  ;  entirely 
soluble  in  water ;  sparingly  so  in  alcohol. 

SANGUTIN-ARINA. 

Sanguinarina  is  prepared  from  the  root  of  the  same  species. 
Pure  Sanguinarina  is  a  white  or  pearl  gray  (if  not  discolorized  by 
animal  charcoal)  body,  having  a  bitter,  somewhat  acrimonious 
taste.  Soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether ;  sparingly  so  in  water ;  poB- 
sesses  well-marked  alkaline  characters ;  soluble  in  acids,  and  form- 


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The  (Xnchona  Alkaloids  aiid  their  Salts.  21 

ing  red  colored  salts  with  them ;  by  exposure  to  the  air  it  as- 
sumes  a  yellowish  tint 

HYDRASTIKA. 

Hydrastina  is  obtained  from  Hydrastis  Oanadensisj  or  Golden 
Seal.  When  pure  it  is  in  the  form  of  a  bright  yellow  powder, 
like  chromate  of  lead,  or  in  the  form  of  crystals.  It  is  entirely 
soluble  in  alcohol,  water  and  alkaline  solutions;-  is  insoluble  in 
ether,  and  possesses  a  very  bitter  taste.  Its  beautiful  yellow 
color  is  of  itself  sufficient  to  distinguish  it  easily  from  the  various 
extracts  of  Golden  Seal. 

Properties  of  the  Alcoholic  Extract — Color  of  a  brownish  yel- 
low,  resembling  the  root  in  powder ;  soluble  in  alcohol ;  partially 
soluble  in  water,  which  dissolves  the  Hydrastina,  leaving  the 
oleo-resin.     One  hundred  parts  gave : — 

•    Hydrastina, 80.26 

Resin,  &a, 69.76 

Total, 100.00 

Properties  of  the  Hydro- Alcoholic  Extract. — Color  and  properties 
are  the  same  as  the  alcoholic  extract,  and  contains  about  the  same 
per  cent  of  Hydrastina,  but  less  resin. 

P'operties  of  the  Aqueous  Extract. — Color  is  brighter  than  the 
preceding,  and  contains  about  the  same  per  centage  of  Hydras- 
tina, without  any  resin,  but  mixed  with  gum,  starch  and  extract- 
ive matters. 


The  Cinchona  Alkaloids  and  Their  Salts. 


Q  u  I N I A . 

(From  Parishes  PracUcal  Pharmacy.) 
This  alkaloid  is  prepared  from  various  species  of  cinchona  bark,  which  con- 
tain it  in  combination  with  kinic  acid  and  the  astringent  principle  called  cin- 
cho-tannic  acid.  These  combinations  being  only  partially  soluble  in  water, 
resort  is  had  t©  an  acid  which  liberates  the  alkaloid  in  a  soluble  form.  That 
used  in  our  officinal  process  for  preparing  the  sulphate  of  quinia  is  muriatic, 
which  is  mixed  with  water  in  which  the  powdered  bark  is  boiled.  The  very 
soluble  muriate  of  quinia  contained  in  this  decoction  is  decomposed,  giving  up 
it*  acid  to  the  lime,  while  the  quinia  is  liberated,  and,  being  insoluble,  is  pic- 
cipitated  with  the  excess  of  lime  added,  the  water  retaining  the  chloride  of 


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22  The*  Oinchona  Alkahids  and  their  Salts, 

calcirfm  resulting  from  the  reaction,  and  most  of  the  impurities,  in  solutioik 
The  precipitated  quinia  and  excess  of  lime  being  now  digested  in  alcohol,  the 
former  is  dissolved,  and  the  impure  quinia  is  obtained  by  evaporating  this 
alcoholic  solution.  The  remaining  part  of  the  process  consists  in  converting 
this  into  the  officinal  sulphate,  at  the  same  time  rendering  it  pure.  To  ac- 
complish this,  the  amorphous  mass  is  dissolved  in  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  and 
filtered  through  bone-black,  which  contains  sufficient  carbonate  of  lime  to 
neutralize  the  excess  of  sulphuric  acid,  and  thus  facilitate  the  c];y stall ization 
of  the  sulphate  as  the  solution  cools.  This  process  requires  to  be  repeated, 
with  the  addition  of  acid,  if  the  charcoal  is  too  alkaline,  till  a  white  and  pure 
product  is  the  result. 

The  desire  has  been  often  expressed  for  a  method  to  prepare  this  alkaloid 
without  alcohol :  the  following  is  the  process  of  Herring,  who  substitutes  in 
place  of  it  oil  of  turpentine  or  benzole: — 

Powdered  bark  is  boiled  with  caustic  soda,  to  remove  extractive,  gum  and 
coloring  matter,  exhausted  with  dilute  sulphuric  acid,  evaporated  at  abou 
120**,  filtered,  precipitated  by  caustic  soda,  washed,  re-dissolved  in  SO3,  ro- 
crystallized,  treated  with  animal  charcoal,  and  by  fractional  crystallizations 
purified  from  the  other  alkaloids. 

The.  soda  liquor  is  supersaturated  with  muriatic  acid,  evaporated,  filtered, 
treated  with  hydrate  of  lime,  from  which  precipitate  the  alkaloids  may  be  ex- 
tracted by  oil  of  turpentine  or  benzole.  On  adding  dilute  SO3,  a  solution  of 
the  alkaloid  is  obtained  to  be  puried  as  above. 

Quinia  occurs  in  silky  needles,  or  in  a  crystalline  powder,  fusible  at  194*  to 
an  electrical  mass,  soluble  in  about  400  parts  of  water,  sixty  parts  ether,  two 
parts  alcohol  or  chloroform,  twenty -four  parts  of  olive  oil,  also  in  alkalies,  car- 
bonate of  ammonia,  chloride  of  calcium,  &c.  Its  solution  in  concentrated 
nitric  acid  turns  yellow  by  heat ;  the  solution  in  sulphuric  acid  is  colored  only 
at  a  high  temperature. 

Its  salts  are  mostly  cry  stall  izable ;  their  solution  show  a  blue  fluorescence, 
which  is  rendered  green  on  the  addition  of  chlorine  water,  and  subsequently 
ammonia — too  much  chlorine  causes  a  brown  color.  A  solution  of  quinia  in 
diluted  sulphuric  acid,  mixed  with  some  acetic  acid  and  alcohol,  and  heated  to 
180°,  yields,  after  the  addition  of  tincture  of  iodine,  beautiful  emerald  green 
crystals  of  iodosulphate  of  quinia,  which  are  nearly  colorless  by  transmitted 
light.  The  solution  of  its  salts  is  precipitated  by  alkalies,  their  carbonates 
and  bicarbonates ;  but  if  they  had  been  previously  sufficiently  acidulated  with 
tartaric  acid,  bicarbonate  of  soda  produces  no  precipitate.  ,If  their  solution 
is  treated  first  with  chlorine  water,  free  from  hydrochloric  acid,  and  subse- 
quently with  finely-powdered  ferrocyanide  of  potassium,  a  red  coloration  is 
produced.  Quinia  salts  are  precipitated  by  ferrocyanide  of  potassium,  the 
precipitate  is  dissolved  on  boiling  and  by  an  excess  of  the  precipitant.  (Dif- 
ferences from  cinchonia.)  > 

Quini<B  Sulphas,  (U.  S.) — Of  the  salts,  the  neutral  sulphate  (formerly  called 
disulphate)  is  mostly  employed.  Its  mode  of  preparation  has  been  given  above. 
It  is  in  feathery  vHbite  crystals,  much  interlaced ;  of  its  eight  equivalents  of 


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The  CXncJuma  Alkahida  and  their  Salts.  28 

water,  six  are  giyen  off  by  exposure  to  dry  air,  while  the  remaining  two  are 
driven  off  at  248°.  It  dissolves  in  740  parts  of  cold  and  thirty  parts  hot 
water,  in  sixty  parts  of  alcohol,  but  scarcely  in  ether.  The  addition  of  a 
mineral  or  of  certain  organic  acids  renders  it  easily  soluble. 

The  salts  of  quinia  are  all  used  as  tonics ;  the  sulphate,  especially,  is  a  well- 
known  antiperiodic  and  febrifuge.  The  dose  varies  from  one  to  twenty  grains. 
It  is  given  in  powder,  pill,  mixture,  and  solution.     (See  Iktem,  Pharmacy,) 

The  following  unofficial  salts  are  occasionally  prescribed : — * 

Quinia  Muria^ — The  Dublin  Pharmacopoeia  orders  437  grains  of  crystal- 
lized sulphate  of  quinia  (equivalent  to  382  grains  of  the  salt  dried  at  212°) 
dissolved  in  thirty  ounces  of  boiling  water,  to  be  precipitated  by  123  grains  of 
chloride  of  barium,  and  the  filtrate  evaporated  until  a  pellicle  forms.  It  crystal- 
lizes with  3H0  in  needles  of  a  pearly  lustre,  more  soluble  than  the  sulphate. 
Baryta  is  detected  by  sulphuric  acid,  sulphate  of  quinia  by  chloride  of  barium. 

Quiniw  Ilydriodas, — Five  parts  of  effloresced  sulphate  of  quinia  dissolved 
in  alcohol,  and  decomposed  by  an  alcoholic  solution  of  three  parts  of  iodide  of 
potassium,  precipitates  sulphate  of  potaska,  and  yields,  on  cooling  and  evapo- 
rating, hydriodate  of  quinia  in  fine  crystalline  needles. 

Quinio!  Antimonias  is  precipitated  by  double  decomposition  of  antimoniate 
of  potassa  and  sulphate  of  quinia^  and  crystallized  from  hot  water  or  alcohol 
It  has  been  administered  in  periodical  diseases  in  doses  of  from  six  to  ten 
grains  during  apyrexia,  and  it  is  stated  to  be  rarely  necessary  to  give  it  a 
second  time. 

Quinifp,  Amen  IK — Quinia  is  precipitated  from  100  parts  of  its  sulphate, 
dissolved  in  000  parts  alcohol,  and  boiled  with  fourteen  parts  arisenious  acid ;  the 
filtrate,  on  cooling,  separates  needles  of  this  poisonous  salt.  It  may  be  given 
with  caution  in  doses  from  one-quarter  to  one-half  a  grain  several  times  a  day. 

Qulnldt  Larias  is  obtained  by  saturating  lactic  acid  with  quinia,  or  by  dou- 
ble decomposition  of  the  baryta  salt  of  the  former  with  the  sulphate  of  the 
latter,  and  crystallizes  in  soluble  needles. 

Quinia'  Tartra^  is  crystallized  in  needfes  from  the  hot  solution  of  quinia 
in  tartaric  acid. 

Quinife  Citras  is  separated  in  needles  from  the  hot  mixture  of  citrate  of 
soda  added  to  sulphate  of  quinia  until  an  acid  reaction  is  shown  to  test  paper. 

QuinicB  et  Ferri  Citras. — Dr.  Squibb  saturates  330  grains  of  citric  acid 
with  freshly-precipitated  scsquioxide  of  iron  in  a  warm  place ;  to  this  is  added 
in  the  cold  the  quinia  from  seventy-eight  grains  of  effloresced  sulphate,  and, 
after  solution,  dried  by  spontaneous  evaporation  {Am.  Jour.  Ph.^  xxvii.  204.) 
It  is  stated  to  crystallize  in  greenish  scales  by  saturating  a  hot  solution  of 
citrate  of  the  sesquioxide  of  iron  with  quinia.  As  usually  met  with,  it  differs 
Httle  in  appearance  from  the  garnet-colored  scales  of  citrate  of  iron,  and  va- 
ries very  much  in  composition.  The  usual  dose  is  from  two  to  five  grains,  in 
pill. 

Quinia  Aretas. — Seventeen  parts  of  the  effloresced  sulphate  of  quinia  if 

*  Bee  Phoqyhoroiu  Compoands  for  QnlnUo  PhofphM  and  QainlaD  Uypophotpluw. 

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"24  national  Treatmerit  of  JXsease. 

disBolvod  in  boiling  water  and  mixed  with  six  parts  of  crystallized  acetate  of 
soda;  acetate  of  quinia  crystallizes  in  white  feathery  needles,  nearly  insoluble 
in  cold  water.     (See  remarks  in  Am.  Jour.  Ph.,  xxx.  886.) 

Quinia  Valeriana*  is  officinal  in  the  Dublin  Pham\acopma^  which  prepares 
it  by  double  decomposition  between  muriate  of  quinia  and  valerianate  of  soda. 
It  is  also  obtained  by  dissolving  freshly-precipitated  quinia  in  diluted  valerianic 
acid,  heating  to  near  the  boiling  point,  and  crystallizing  by  cooling;  the 
mother  liquors  are  evaporated  below  125°.  It  combines  the  tonic  properties 
of  quinia  with  the  antispasmodic  effects  of  the  valerianates. 

Quinia  Tannas. — Tannic  add  precipitates  tannate  of  quinia  from  all  solu- 
tions which  have  not  been  too  much  acidulated ;  it  has  little  taste  on  account 
of  its  solubility  in  neutral  liquids. 

Quinia  Gallas  is  obtained  by  double  decomposition  between  a  hot  solution 
of  sulphate  of  quinia  and  gallate  of  potassa.  It  is  in  crystalline  granules,  or 
a  white  powder,  almost  insoluble  in  water,  soluble  in  alcohol  and  dilute  acids. 

Quinia  Kinas. — ^To  obtain  this  neutral  salt  directly  from  the  bark,  the  fol- 
lowing process  is  given  by  Henry  and  Plisson  : — The  extract  is  dissolved  in 
three  parts  of  water,  nearly  neutralized  by  carbonate  of  lime,  then  cautiously 
neutralized  by  hydrated  oxide  of  lead ;  from  the  filtrate  the  lead  is  removed 
by  sulphuretted  hydrogen,  after  which  the  evaporated  liquid  is  treated  with 
alcohol  of  0.842,  the  alcohol  distilled  off  and  the  residue  repeatedly  treated 
with  water  and  alcohol  until  nothing  is  separated  by  these  liquids.  It  is  ob- 
tained in  white  crystalline  warts,  soluble  in  four  parts  of  water  and  eight  parts 
of  alcohol. 

Quinia  Hydroferrocyanas. — One  part  sulphate  of  quinia,  one  and  a  half 
parts  ferrocyanuret  of  potassium,  and  seven  parts  of  boiling  water  yield  the 
salt  on  cooling,  which  is  to  be  recrystallized  from  alcohol.  It  appears  in  green- 
ish-yellow needles,  which  are  insoluble  in  water.  Pelouze  asserts  it  to  be  qui- 
nia mixed  with  some  Prussian  blue.     DoUfuss  found  it  to  be  C4oHj,4N904-f  2 

(FeCy+2HCy)  +  6HO. 

[to  bb  ooktinvhd.] 


Rational  Treatment  of  Disease. 
The  following  propositions  form  the  conclusion  of  a  long  paper  read  by  M. 
Piorry  before  the  French  Imperial  Academy  of  Medicine,  in  May  and  June 
last:— 

1.  The  treatment  of  disease  is  founded,  almost  entirely,  on  our  knowledge 
of  anatomy  and  physiology,  aided  by  physical  and  chemical  facts,  and  matured 
by  clinical  observation. 

2.  Positive  therapeutics  can  only  be  established  upon  such  knowledge  as 
shall  enable  us  to  appreciate  the  causes,  the  development,  and  the  effects  of 
lesions  which  have  been  previously  verified  by  a  rigorously  exact  diagnosis. 

8.  Rationalism,  which  ever  since  Descartes,  has  been  the  method  followed 
by  genuine  observers,  must  be  the  foundation  of  medicine,  as  it  is  of  the  other 


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Therapeutic  Properties  of  Belladonna,  26 

natural  sciences. 

4.  Before  seeking  new  ren^edies  for  a  disease  we  must  learn  to  define  ex- 
actly the  existing  organic  and  physiologic  condition  of  the  system,  and  care- 
ftilly  study  the  effects  of  known  medicaments  and  hygienic  agents  upon  this 
condition. 

6.  By  far  the  greater  part  of  the  progress  of  therapeutics  is  due  to  medical 
rationalism  guided  by  exactness  of  diagnosis. 

(J.  Specific  medicines — that  is,  those  which  are  applied  to  an  unknown  cause 
of  disease,  and  which  are  only  discovered  by  accident — are  very  few,  and  ought 
only  to  be  adopted  in  practice  when  they  are  indicated  by  Nationalism  and  the 
most  positive  diagnosis. 

7.  Some  physicians  err  in  censuring  rational  medicine  (from  which  results  a 
•ystem  of  therapeutics  characterized  by  good  sense),  in  order  to  extol  the 
treatment  by  specifics,  which  has  no  other  foundation  than  accident,  and  ia 
only  supported  by  the  fancy  and  credulity  of  an  ignorant  public,  who  are  the 
enemies  of  science,  and  who  are  easily  seduced  by  the  marvels  of  mysticism, 
and  by  deceitful  promises. — Boston  Med,  and  S^urg.  Journal. 


Therapeutic  Properties  of  Belladonna. 

By  M,  Dubois, 

[We  reproduce  with  pleasure  the  following  conclusions,  at  which  the  author 
arrives  in  a  prize  essay  on  this  subject,  for  we  believe  that  the  remedy  which 
he  extols  is  underrated  by  the  profession  in  this  country.  Trousseau,  in  th* 
best  book  on  therapeutics  that  has  ever  been  written,  places  belladonna  ia  the 
aame  rank  with  calomel,  opium  and  iodine,  and  the  opinion  of  such  a  man  alone 
ahould  induce  physicians  to  make  a  faithful  trial  of  the  remedy.  We  feel  con- 
fident that  those  who  do  so  will  not  be  disappointed  in  the  result.] — Virginia 
Med,  and  Surg.  Journal, 

1.  That  belladonna  is  not  without  efficacy  in  some  phlegmasiae,  especially 
in  those  of  the  globe  of  the  eye ; 

2.  That  it  is  the  best  remedy  known  in  the  photophobia  which  so  frequent- 
ly accompanies  inflammations  of  the  eye ; 

3.  That  its  power  as  a  prophylactic  in  scarlatina  can  hardly  be  contested ; 

4.  That  it  sometimes  cures  Certain  hemorrhages,  such  as  haemoptysis,  hiem- 
atamcrais  and  metrorrhagia ; 

5.  That  it  is  the  remedy  par  excellenee  for  neuralgia,  for  whooping  cough, 
and  most  of  the  neuroses ; 

6.  That  it  is  the  remedy  yy^r  exrellevre  to  combat  pain,  especially  when  ex- 
ternal; 

7.  That  it  alleviates  more  than  any  other  remedy  the  pains  of  cancer,  and 
oures  sometimes,  if  not  cancer,  diseases  closely  resembling  it ; 

8.  That  it  can  be  advantageously  employed  in  spasmodic  contraction  and 
<>oclusion  of  the  pupU ;  to  reduce  procidentia  of  the  iris  and  to  break  up  adhe- 


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26  Qlycerine  Ointment  for  the  Itch, 

«ion8 ;  to  prevent  the  inflammation  of  the  iris  so  frequent  after  this  operati(m  ; 
to  maintain  dilation  of  the  pupil,  and  to  diminish  the  chances  of  adhesions 
after  the  operation  of  couching ;  to  prevent  secondary  cataract ;  to  reestablish 
vision  temporary  at  least,  when  the  lens  is  opaque  in  the  centre,  or  when  there 
are  opacities  of  the  cornea ;  to  assist  the  diagnosis  in  some  diseases  of  the  eye  ; 

9.  That  it  is  of  real  efficacy  in  some  cases  of  strangulated  hernia ; 

10.  That  its  property  of  facilitating  labor  in  spasmodic  constriction  of  the 
uterine  neck  is  powerful  and  incontestible. 

11.  That  it  produces  advantageous  results  in  some  cases  of  fissure  of  the 
anus^ 

12.  That  its  employment  may  be  more  or  less  useful  in  spasmodic  contrao- 
tion  of  the  bowels,  in  constipation,  in  spasmodic  constriction  of  the  rectum,  of 
the  anus,  and  of  the  vulva;  in  phimosis  and  paraphimosis,  spasmodic  stric- 
ture of  the  urethra,  retention  of  urine,  strangury,  spasmodic  stricture  of  the 
larynx  and  escophagus ;  in  blepharospasm,  incontinence  of  urine,  ncphretic 
colic,  hemorrhoids,  &c. 

13.  Finally,  that  belladonna  should  be  placed  in  the  first  rank  of  medicinal 
substances. — Bulletin  of  the  Medical  Society  of  Gand-^iGazette Medicate.) 


Grlyoerine  Ointment  for  the  Itch. 

M.  Bourguignon,  so  well  known  in  Paris  by  his  successful  researches  on 
"the  acarus  scabiei,"  has  published  in  the  Gazette  Medicate  the  following  for- 
mula. One  general  friction,  not  preceded  by  soap  ablutions,  is  sufQcient  :— 
Yelks  of  two  eggs;  essence  of  lavender,  lemon,  and  mint,  of  each  120  drops; 
gum  tragacanth,  half  a  drachm ;  wcll-pounded  sulphur,  twenty-six  drachms ; 
glycerine,  thirty- two  drachms.  Total  weight,  nearly  eleven  ounces.  Mix  the 
essence  with  the  yelk  of  egg,  add  the  gum  tragacanth,  make  a  good  mucilage, 
and  then  add  very  gradually  the  glycerine  and  sulphur.  Many  cures  have 
been  obtained  by  this  preparation,  which  has  the  advantage  of  giving  no  pain. 
The  well-known  Ilelmeric  ointment  being  really  useful,  M.  Bourguignon  has 
modified  it,  and  substituted  glycerine  for  the  axunge.  In  the  altered  form  the 
preparation  is  not  any  deafer,  as  efficacious,  and  less  painful  than  the  original 
ointment.  It  docs  not  grease  the  clothes,  and  has  an  agreeable  perfume  :— 
Gum  tragacanth,  fifteen  grains  ;  carbonate  of  potash,  thirteen  drachms;  well- 
pounded  sulphur,  twenty-six  drachms ;  glycerine,  fifty-two  drachms ;  essences 
of  lavender,  lemon,  mint,  cloves,  apd  cinnamon,  of  each  fifteen  drops.  Total 
weight,  eleven  eleven.  Make  a  mucilage  with  the  gum  and  one  ounce  of  gly- 
cerine, add  the  carbonate,  mix  until  it  is  dissolved,  and  then  gradually  add  the 
sulphur  and  glycerine ;  lastly;  pour  in  the  essences.  With  this  compound,  M. 
Bourguignon  advises  two  general  frictions  of  half  an  hour,  within  twelve 
hours  of  each  other,  and  followed,  twenty -four  hours  afterwards,  by  a  simple 
warm  bath,  as  the  glycerine  is  soluble  in  water.  Two-thirds  of  the  prepara- 
tion should  be  used  for  the  first  friqtion,  the  other  third  for  the  second. — Lor^ 
don  Fharm.  Journal^  from  Lancet, 


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Belladonna  in  Prei'eniing  the  Secretion  of  Milkj  &c.         27 

Belladonna  in  Preventing  the  Secretion  of  Milk,  and  in    - 
Mammary  Abscess. 

(Read  before  tbe  Aarora  City  Medical  Association,  at  Aurora,  111.,  Oct.  8,  18^9.) 
By  A,  Hard,  M.  D. 

There  has  been  much  said  of  late  of  the  virtues  of  belladonna  in  preventing 
and  arresting  the  secretion  of  milk ;  and  having,  with  others,  labored  under 
the  inconvenience  of  possessing  no  reliable  remedy  to  fulfill  such  indications, 
I  resolved  to  test  its  virtues,  and  I  propose  to  give  the  result  of  its  use  in  six 
cases,  in  which  I  have  endeavored  to  give  it  a  fair  triaL 

In  the  first  three  it  was  desirable  to  prevent  the  secretion  of  milk  in  one 
breast  (from  the  entire  want  of  development  of  the  nipple)  without  interfering 
with  the  other.  All  three  patients  had  previously  suffered  from  mammary 
abscesses,  and  they  looked  fomard  to  their  approaching  accovchement  with 
"  fear  and  trembling."     Immediately  after  delivery,  I  ordered  the  following : — 

5 . — Extract  of  belladonna, ^ ij. 

Aqua   font, 3  ij. 

Misce. 

With  this  solution  bathe  the  one  breast  every  four  hours,  until  the  flow  of 
milk  is  established  in  the  other ;  then  apply  less  frequently,  but  continue  its 
use  a  week  longer. 

In  one  patient  there  was  no  milk  secreted  in  the  breast  thus  treated,  while 
the  other  breast  afforded  the  usual  amount  and  appeared  unaffected.  In  the 
other  two  cases  there  was  a  little  milk  secreted,  but  not  sufficient  to  distend 
the  gland  so  as  to  produce' inconvenience,  while  the  opposite  breasts,  like  that 
of  the  first  case,  performed  their  functions  unimpaired.  The  fourth  was  a 
case  of  premature  delivery  at  the  sixth  month,  as  the  result  of  placenta  prae- 
via.  The  solution  of  belladonna  was  applied  to  both  breasts.  But  little  milk 
was  secreted,  which  was  soon  absorbed. 

The  fifth  was  a  case  of  abortion.  The  belladonna  was  not  applied  until  the 
breasts  became  distended  and  painful.  I  ordered  that  the  milk  be  drawn  with 
a  breast  pump  once,  then  applied  the  belladonna,  and  had  no  further  trouble. 

In  the  last  case  a  large  abscess  had  formed  in  one  breast,  which  was  dis- 
charging, and  extensive  swelling  and  inflammation  existed  in  the  other,  at  the 
time  I  was  called.  The  patient  had  been  a  great  sufferer  for  four  weeks,  both 
from  the  "  cold  water  treatment"  and  the  mammary  inflammation.  I  applied 
the  belladonna,  as  in  the  other  cases,  also  warm  fomentations,  had  the  bowels 
moved  by  sulphate  of  magnesia,  and  ordered  the  following : — 

5. — Sulph.  quinine, t 15  grains. 

Pulv.  opii, 2       " 

Misce. 
Div.  in  chart.  No.  4.     Dose,  one  every  three  hours. 

Under  this  treat^nent  suppuration  was  prevented,  the  inflammation  wag 
subdued,  and  convalesoenoe  soon  followed.     There  was  but  little  constitutional 


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28         A  Nhw  IKsinfictajit  for  Ih-essing  Putrid  SoreSj  Jcc, 

effect  of  belladonna  perceptible.  In  two  cases  the  pupils  of  the  eyes  were  a 
little  dilated :  the  children  were  not  effected  by  it  However,  I  took  the  pre- 
•aution  to  guard  against  its  inhalation  either  by  the  mother  or  child. 

If  belladonna  proves  as  useful  in  the  hands  of  others  as  it  has  in  mine,  in 
these  unpleasant  complications  consequent  upon  child-bearing,  a  vast  amount 
of  pain  and  suffering  will  be  mitigated,  if  not  entireiy  prevented.  I  would 
eall  the  attention  of  the  Association  particularly  to  its  application  to  one 
breast,  leaving  the  other  undisturbed. — Chicago  Medical  Journal^  Nof^em- 
Ur,  1869. 


A  New  Disinfectant  for  Dressing  Putrid  Sores  and  Ulcers. 

Considerable  discussion  has  recently  taken  place  in  the  French  Academy, 
respecting  a  new  preparation,  introduced  by  MM.  Demeauz  and  Come,  for 
dressing  and  disinfecting  putrid  sores  and  ulcers.  It  consists  of  a  mixture  of 
one  hundred  parts  of  commercial  plaster  of  Paris  in  a  very  fine  powder,  and 
from  one  to  three  parts  of  coal  tar.  This  mixture  forms  a  powder  of  a  more 
or  less  grayish  color,  and  a  slightly  bituminous  odor.  For  application,  it  may 
also  be  made  into  a  paste  with  olive  oil,  which  binds  the  powder  together 
without  destroying  its  absorptive  power.  The  following  are  the  properties  of 
this  substance,  as  described  by  the  above  gentlemen : — A  gangrenous  sore, 
with  an  abundant  fetid  suppuration,  treated  with  this  dressing,  is  immediately 
freed  from  all  disagreeable  odor,  and  the  bandages,  even  ailer  twenty-four  or 
thirty-six  hours,  exhale  no  more  odor  than  if  taken  from  a  simple  fracture. 
An  ulcerated  cancer,  producing  a  fetid,  serous  suppuration,  dressed  with  this 
substance,  is  entirely  deprived  of  odor  as  long  as  the  dressing  remains  on. 
So  also  the  linen  saturated  with  pus,  cataplasms  impregnated  with  the  suppu- 
ration, &c.,  placed  in  contact  with  this  substance  lose  all  their  disagreeable 
odor ;  the  infectious  liquid  produced  by  gangrene,  clots  of  decomposed  blood, 
tissues  in  a  state  of  advanced  putrefaction,  treated  with  this  substance  are  im- 
mediately disinfected.  Its  action  appears  to  be  to  arrest  the  work  of  decom- 
position; it  removes  the  insects,  and  prevents  the  production  of  maggots. 
The  consistence  acquired,  either  by  the  powder  alone  or  the  paste  with  oil, 
does  not  cause  the  least  pain  to  the  patient  or  harm  to  the  sore.  Its  applica- 
tion may  be  indirect  or  direct ;  the  latter  produces  no  harm,  but  rather  exer- 
cises a  detersive  action  favorable  to  cicatrization.  This  dressing  has  the 
double  power  of  disinfecting  the  pus  and  other  morbid  products,  and  of  ab- 
sorbing them ;  the  last  circumstance  is  of^  the  greatest  importance,  because  it 
enables  the  use  of  lint  to  be  dispensed  with.  Fifty  kilogrammes  of  this  pow- 
der may  be  made  in  Paris  for  one  franc.  M.  Vclpeau,  at  the  Hopital  de  la 
Charite,  and  several  other  French  surgeons,  have  employed  this  preparation 
with  great  success,  and  speak  very  highly  of  its  disinfecting  properties.  Mr. 
Crace  Calvert,  of  Manchester,  has  addressed  a  letter  to  the  French  Academy, 
in  reference  to  this  subject,  pointing  out  the  great  variation  which  exists  in 


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Warren^s  Ecemostatic,  2t 

the  oompofiitioD  of  coal  tar,  and  the  consequent  necessitj  for  more  accurately 
ascertaining  to  which  of  the  constituents  the  disinfecting  properticj?  are  really 
due,  in  order  to  insure  the  uniform  action  of  the  preparation.  From  the  re- 
sults of  his  own  experiments  be  considers  that  the  antiseptic  properties  of  the 
tar  are  entirely  due  to  the  carbolic  acid  present.  lie  states  that  a  corpse  in- 
jected with  a  weak  solution  of  this  acid  was  preserved  from  decomposition  for 
.scTcral  weeks,  and  that  a  piece  of  flesh  steeped  in  carbolic  acid  was  exposed 
to  the  air  for  three  years  without  change.  He  also  states  that  a  small  quan- 
tity added  to  urine  wiy  preserve  it  from  decomposition  for  some  weeks,  and 
that  it  is  also  capable  of  preventing  the  gallic  fermentation  from  taking  place 
in  the  solutions  of  tanning  substances. — London  Pharm,  Journal ^  and  Phila- 
ddphia  Joitmal  of  Pharmacy, 


Warren's  Haemostatic. 

A  correspondent  requests  us  to  publish  the  formula  for  Warren^  s  haemos- 
tatic, or  $typtie  haUam,  as  it  is  very  improperly  called.  This  preparation  has 
been  highly  recommended  in  haemoptysis,  haematenesis,  epistaxis,  and  monor- 
rhagia. 

It  is  said  to  act  by  its  sedative  power  in  diminishing  the  force  of  the  circu- 
lation, and  by  its  astringent  qualities  in  contact  with  the  bleeding  vessels. 

The  formula,  and  its  mode  of  preparation,  is  as  follows : — 

5  • — Acid,  sulph.  (by  weight), 3  v. 

OL  terebinth, 

Sp.  vini  rect  a<r,, f.   f  ij. 

Place  the  acid  in  a  wedgewood  mortar,  and  the  turpentine  slowly,  stirring  it 
constantly  with  the  pestle ;  then  add  the  alcohol  in  tho'same  manner,  and 
continue  stirring  it  until  no  more  fumes  arise,  wlien  it  may  be  bottled,  and 
should  be  stopped  with  a  ground  stopper. 

It  should  be  prepared  from  the  purest  materials,  and  when  done  it  should 
exhibit  a  dark  but  clear  red  color  like  dark  blood ;  but  if  it  be  a  pale,  dirty 
red,  it  will  be  unfit  for  use.  The  dose  is  forty  drops,  and  the  method  of  using 
it  is  as  follows : — 

Put  a  teaspoonful  of  brown  sugar  in  a  common  sized  tea-cup,  and  rub  in 
forty  drops  of  the  preparation  until  it  is  thoroughly  incorporated,  and  then 
slowly  stir  in  water  until  the  cup  is  nearly  full,  when  it  should  be  immediately 
swallowed.  This  dose  may  be  repeated  at  intervals  of  an  hour,  until  three  or 
four  doses  arc  taken,  if  necessary,  and  its  use  should  be  discontinued  when 
fresh  blood  ceases  to  flow. 

After  standing  a  few  days  a  pellicle  forms  upon  the  surface,  which  should 
be  broken,  and  the  liquid  below  it  used.  It  does  not  deteriorate  by  age,  if 
tightly  stopped. — Philadelphln  Medical  and  Sirghal  Reptrrtcr,  Deceniber 
10,  1850. 


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80  Selections. 

Selections. 


The  Empirical  Treatment  of  Phthisis, — The  Lancet  says: — *'Dr.  Watson 
remarks,  with  great  propriety,  in  his  excellent  lectures,  that  the  more  intract- 
able the  disease  the  greater  the  number  of  remedies  proposed.  No  one  is  sur- 
prised at  the  various  modes  of  treating  tuberculosis,  which  have  been  extolled, , 
for  it  is  quite  natural  that  new  weapons  should  be  sought  against  an  enemy 
who  proves  invulnerable  by  the  old  ones.  But  we  protest  against  unnecessa- 
rily teazing  and  tormenting  the  unfortunate  individuals  whose  lungs  are  being 
destroyed  by  tuberculous  deposits,  and  whose  organism  is  wasting  under  the 
effects  of  the  local  mischief  and  morbid  diathesis.  M.  Beau,  physician  to  the 
Paris  Charity  Hospital,  for  instance,  proposes,  and  has  practiced  the  following 
method: — *Give  carbonate  of  lead  in  phthisis,  because  painters  hardly  ever 
•uffer  from  the  disease ;  and  substitute  one  cachexia  for  the  other.'  Then  we 
have  a  paper  addressed  by  M.  Aussandon  to  the  Academy  of  Medicine  of  Paris, 
'•  on  the  treatment  of  pulmonary  consumption.'  The  author,  who  has  noticed 
that  bakers,  and  generally  those  who  sleep  in  the  day  and  watch  at  night, 
bear  the  symptoms  of  the  latter  stages  of  phthisis  better  than  others,  straight- 
way advises  to  keep  consumptive  patients  awake  at  night  and  send  them  to 
bed  in  the  day  time !" — Philadelphia  Med,  and  Svrg.  Reporter, 

Scarlatina  and  Measles. — Mr.  Witt  has  just  published  a  letter  to  Mr. 
Simon  on  the  use  of  ammonia  in  scarlatina  and  measles.  Mr.  Witt  looks 
upon  the  treatment  by  ammonia  in  these  diseases  as  a  specific,  as  much  so  as 
quinine  in  intermittents.  The  late  Mr.  Wilkinson  stated  that  Dr.  Peart  had 
introduced  the  remedy,  and  did  not  lose  one  patient  out  of  three  hundred 
cases  of  scarlatina ;  and  Mr.  Wilkinson  adds  that  for  seventeen  years  he  has 
never  lost  a  patient  from  this  disease,  nbr  ever  had  a  case  that  even  appeared 
dangerous.  'Mr.  Ricardo,  who  attended  many  large  schools,  had  not  lost  a 
single  patient,  out  of  some  hundreds,  during  twelve  or  fourteen  years.  The 
dose  is  from  three  to  seven  grains  ever  hour  for  the  first  twenty-four  hours, 
and  every  second  hour  for  the  next  day.  All  acid  drinks  are  carefully  avoid- 
ed. This  is  a  matter  of  interest  just  now  that  the  power  of  ammonia  in  re- 
tarding coagulation  of  the  blood  has  been  established,  and  it  is  curious  as  an 
illustration  of  the  success  attending  opposite  methods  of  treatment ;  for  the 
use  of  acetic  acid  in  the  treatment  of  scarlatina  has  been  gaining  ground  very 
rapidly  of  late,  and  the  success  which  has  followed  its  use  has  been  very 
great- — Medical  Times  and  Gazette. 

Epilepsy  Treated  by  the  Hydrocyanate  op  Iron. — M.  Fabre  reports 
seven  canes  of  confirmed  and  well-marked  epilepsy,  in  which  pills  of  this  sub- 
stance have  operated  cures.  He  alludes  also  to  numerous  cases  in  which  it 
has  been  successfully  employed  by  M.  Roux,  of  BrignoUes,  and  adduces  the 
testimony  of  Dr.  Dilasiauvc,  physician  to  the  Bic6tre,  and  others,  in  support 
of  the  advantageous  effects  of  this  preparation.  The  hydrocyanate  of  iron 
has  been  successfully  employed  in  chorea  and  other  neuroses  complicated  with 


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'  SelecU'am.  81 

chlorosis  since  1829.  It  seems  to  exert  a  powerful  influence  over  the  uterine 
functions,  and  has  succeeded  in  menstrual  disorders  after  other  ferruginous 
preparations' had  failed.  We  must  refer  thoFe  who  desire  further  information 
on  this  subject  to  the  article  of  M.  Fabre. — Ixhue  de  MaJgaigne^  (March, 
1853,  p.  139.) 

Tannatb  of  Quinia  in  Nocturnal  Sweats.— M.  Delioux,  chief  of  the 
French  naval  surgeons,  after  numerous  experiments  with  the  diflerent  prepa- 
rations of  bark  in  the  treatment  of  colliquative  sweats,  which  occur  during 
sleep  in  phthisis  and  other  diseases,  considers  the  tannate  of  quinia,  intro- 
duced by  Barreswil,  the  most  appropriate  remedy  in  this  affection.  This 
agent  is  supposed  to  be  peculiarly  applicable  to  two  essential  conditions  in 
this  symptom :  organic  debility  and  ]|beriodicity.  M.  Delioux  cites  many  cases 
in  support  of  his  views.  He  administers  this  agent  in  two  or  three  doses  of 
six  or  eight  grains  during  the  afternoon.  It  is  insipid,  and  causes  neither 
wakefulness  nor  indigestion. — IJ  Union  Medicale^  No.  43. 

Ghrojuc  Acid  in  Syphilitic  Vegetations. — ^Mr.  Hairon,  after  describing 
the  advantages  derivable  from  the  chromic  acid  in  certain  forms  of  the  granu- 
lar eyelid,  (a  disease  of  common  occurrence  in  the  Belgian  army,)  observes 
that  the  trials  he  has  made  of  the  acid,  as  recommended  by  Marshall  and 
Heller  in  syphilitic  vegetation,  have  been  attended  with  the  most  complete 
and  rapid  success.  Moreover,  its  application,  whether  to  these  syphilitic 
vegetations  or  to  the  fungus  granulations  of  the  conjunctiva,  is  never  at- 
tended with  pain  or  reaction,  notwithstanding  the  rapid  destruction  of  tissue 
that  takes  place. — Annailes  and  Oeculistique, 

Tannin. — Introduction  of  tannin  within  the  uterus  is  accomplished  by  means 
of  crayons  formed  of  tannin  or  gum  tragacanth,  one-sixth  of  an  inch  in  diameter 
and  an  inch  long.  They  are  passed,  by  means  of  forceps  and  speculum,  through 
the  OS  uteri  into  the  cavity  of  the  uterus,  in  which  they  are  kept  by  means  of 
charpie,  moistened  with  a  concentrated  solution  of  tannin.  The  crayon  slowly 
softens  and  dissolves,  when  it  is  replaced  by  another.  M.  Becquerel  recom- 
mends this  treatment  in  hemorrhage  and  diseases  of  the  mucous  lining  of  the 
womb. — Philadelphia  Med,  and  Surg.  Reporter, 

Poisoning  by  Opium  or  Belladonna. — Opium  and  beUadonna  are  mutually 
remedial,  when  either  has  entered  the  circulation  in  a  poisonous  dose.  From 
this  cause,  if  both  be  prescribed  together,  as  with  a  view  to  lull  cerebral  ex. 
citement,  the  effect  desired  will  not  be  produced,  whilst  if  the  other  be  given 
separately  it  will.  In  cases  of  poisoning  by  opium,  give  a  solution  of  bella. 
donna — say  a  drachm  of  the  tincture  every  half  hour,  or,  if  it  cannot  bo  swal- 
lowed, inject  it  subcutaneoasly.  Conversely,  in  a  case  of  poisoning  by  bella- 
donna, opium  may  be  used.  Several  cases  are  recorded  illustrating  this  sub- 
ject— Braithwaite's  Eetro82>ect. 

loDATE  OF  Potash. — The  action  of  this  salt  is  more  powerful  than  that  of 
the  chlorate  of  the  same  base,  and  has,  in  our  hands,  yielded  excellent  results 
where  the  chlorate  of  potash  had  failed. — Ibid, 


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32  Selections.  • 

loDiDB  OF  Calcium. — ^This  salt  is  verj  valuable  in  cases  in  which  the  iodide 
of  potassium  is  inadmissible.  It  does  not  occasion  idiosm,  or  resorption  of 
the  healthy  tissues ;  it  does  not  excite  the  circulation,  nor  irritate  the  stomach 
and  bladder,  by  passing  off  too  rapidly  by  the  kidneys.  Its  solution  in  milk  it 
perfectly  tasteless.  It  is  particularly  useful  in  squamous  diseases  of  the  skin, 
and  chronic  and  metallic  poisoning  by  mercury,  lead  and  copper. — BraitK- 
xoaith^g  Retrospect 

HAEMOPTYSIS. — ^Recently,  after  a  trial  of  many  other  agents,  without  avai], 
and  the  tincture  of  gelseminum  alone  giving  only  momentary  relief,  I  found  a 
mixture  of  it  with  tincture  of  veratrum  viride,  in  doses  of  twenty-five  drop* 
of  the  gelseminum  with  twelve  drops  of  veratrum  viride,  answered  completely. 
I  have  also  found  the  extract  of  rhatany,  combined  with  gelseminum  or  vera- 
trum viride,  of  value. — Dr,  Miller, 

Erysipelas. — In  some  severe  cases  of  erysipelas  I  gave  of  the  tincture  of 
veratrum  viride  six  drops  every  three  hours,  and  each  morning  a  small  do8t 
of  podophyllin.  In  some  cases  where  the  brain  was  affected  I  gave  six  gndng 
of  sulphate  of  quinia  at  a  dose,  once  in  eight  hours,  in  conjimction  with  tht 
veratrum. — Ih  id. 

Pertussis — Oxidk  of  Zinc. — In  the  latter  stages  of  whooping  cough  I  find 
the  oxide  of  zinc,  in  connection  with  the  sulphate  of  quinia,  quite  valuable. 
Small  doses  seem  to  act  better  than  larger  ones.  Tannic  acid  is  also  fire- 
quently  indicated. — Thid. 

Chalybeates. — ^Iron  should  never  be  given  in  the  enormous  doses  advised 
by  some.  One,  or  at  most  two,  grains  at  a  dose,  and  repeated  two  or  thret 
times  a  day — and  from  four  to  eight  days,  with  an  intermission  of  a  few  days, 
and  then  its  use  recommenced,  will  do  far  better  than  its  continuous  use. 
Boerhave  said: — ''Give  chalybeates  in  the  most  simple  form,  and  we  will 
have  all  wg  desire." — Ihid, 

Chloroform  as  a  Narcotic. — Wlien  opium  is  contra-indicated,  or  fails  to 
act,  in  cases  where  it  is  desired  to  procure  sleep,  give  thirty  or  forty  minima 
of  chloroform  suspended  in  a  little  acacia  mixture,  or  some  other  mucilaginous 
liquid.  It  generally  succeeds  in  procuring  for  the  patient  two  or  three  hours 
of  tranquil  sleep. — Braithicaite^s  Betrospect 

Chlorate  of  Soda. — Chlorate  of  soda  is  considerably  more  soluble  than 
the  corresponding  potash  salt ;  it  may  consequently  be  given  in  a  much  smaller 
quantity  of  vehicle,  and  moreover  the  taste  is  less  disagreeable.  It  has  been 
employed  with  uniform  success  in  several  cases  of  diphtheria. — Jbid. 

Dkjitaline  in  Speksiatorrhcka. — Dr.  Lucien  Corvisart,  a  pupil  of  M.  Cho- 
mel,  reports  three  cases  of  obstinate  nocturnal,  and  even  diurnal,  seminal 
losses,  which  were  completely  cured  by  the  use  of  di};italine.  Wo  refer  those 
who  desire  to  learn  the  details  of  the  treatment  to  Dr.  Corvisart's  paper. — 
Bulletin  de  Therapen^iqve. 


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Pharmacy.  88 

Pharmacy. 

PROCESS   FOR  PREPARING  IODIDE   OF  SODIUM. 
By  M.  Gripelcoven, 

B . — Iodine, 12  parts. 

Iron,  in  powder, 3      '' 

Distilled  water, 32      " 

After  the  iodide  of  iron  is  made  by  the  ordinary  process,  pour  into  the 
liquid,  unfiltered — 

Iodine, 6  parts. 

Caustic  soda  at  87% 12     " 

Mix  by  shaking  well  together,  then  add 

Caustic  soda, 9     " 

If  the  liquid  contain  an  excess  of  iron,  separate  it  by  carbonate  of  soda. 
Try  the  solution  with  litmus  paper,  and  if  it  manifest  an  alkaline  reaction 
allow  it  to  stand  and  settle ;  then  filter  and  evaporate  to  dryness ;  dissolve  in 
equal  parts  of  distilled  water,  filter  and  evaporate. 

ELECTUARY  FOR  INCONTINENCE  OF  URINE  OF  CHILDREN- 
CHLOROSIS  AND  LEUCORRHEA. 

By  if.  Orineaud, 

»       3. — Cannella,  in  powder, 875  grains. 

Iron,  in  powder, 1000      " 

Ergot, 140       " 

Sugar, 

Honey, 

Mix  well.  Take  one  grain  of  it  morning  and  evening. — Report oire  de 
PharmaoU. 


\  CM.  1000 


SYRUP   OF  COFFEE  FOR  WHOOPING  COUGH. 

By  JC  Delairaye. 

9 . — Coflfee,  in  powder, 600  grains. 

Boiling  water, q.  s. 

Obtain  by  displacement  1000  grains  of  tho  liquid. 

Alcoholic  extract  of  belladonna, 10  grains. 

"  "  "  ipecaa, 10       " 

Sugar, 2000       " 

Melt  in  a  water  bath,  and  filter.  Dose,  fbr  children  three  to  five  years  old, 
fifteen  grains  morning  and  noon,  and  double  the  quantity  at  evening,  in  two 
or  three  tea-spoons  of  hot  w&ter.  For  children  of  less  age,  half  the  quan- 
tity.— Jovmal  d«e  Oom.  Med.  • 


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34  Pharmacy. 

TREATMENT  OF  SCARLATINOUS   ANGINE  BY  IODINE. 

B . — Iodide  of  potassium, 1  grain. 

Iodine,. 0.1       " 

Chlorate  of  potassa, v . . .     4  grains. 

Nitrate  of  **     6      " 

Aqueous  solution  of  potash, 4  .    ** 

Water, S40      " 

Administer  one  or  two  teaspoonsfiil  erery  four  hoiu^  according  to  ag«  of 
the  patient.— 6^a««t<«  MedicaU  de  Lyon. 


RED  DROPS. 

By  M.   LseanU. 

B . — CamomUIt, (JO  grains. 

Opium, 8      " 

Saffron, %      «« 

Cannella, 1       " 

CloTes, 1      " 

Alcohol, 800      " 

Macerate  for  eight  days ;  express  and  filter.  Dose,  from  fire  to  20  drops, 
seyeral  times  a  diy,  on  sugar,  in  gastrology,  diarrhoea,  Ac. — Seporioirs  d4 
PMrmacie* 


ALUMINOUS  PASTILKS. 
By  Dr,  ArgenPL 

1$. — ^Alum,  gum,  and  sugar, aa.  Equal  parte. 

Water  of  laurel, q.  a. 

Make  into  pastiles  weighing  four  grains,  and  which  contain  from  half  to  ont 
grain  of  alum.  Much  used  in  ulcerations  of  the  mouth. — Bulletin  GhrUraU 
de  TMrapeutique, 


METHOD   OF  DETERMINING  EASILY  AND  EXACTLY  THE  QUAN- 
TITY  OF  IODINE  IN  ANY  TINCTURE. 

This  method  consists  in  the  direct  transformation  of  iodine  in  a  given  weight 
of  tincture  into  iodide  of  zinc  by  a  known  weight  of  pure  zinc,  in  excess,  and  de- 
termining afterwards  by  a  simple  calculation  based  on  chemical  equiyalentt; 
after  having  weighed  the  undissolved  zinc,  the  quantity  of  iodine  correspond- 
ing to  the  weight  of  zinc  dissolved,  and  formed  into  iodide  of  lina — Joumml 
de  Okimie  MedicaU. 


FORMULA  FOR  NEURALGIA. 

Dr.  Charles  Mabean,  of  Baltimore,  recommends  the  followittg  formula  I 
that  painful  disease,  neuralgia  of  the  head  and  face: — 


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Pharmacy,  35 

5. — Extract  of  belladonna, 4  grains. 

Aq.  ammonia, 6    fluid  ounces. 

Spirit  terebinth, i     '»         ** 

Tincture  opii, 2       "         *' 

Oil  of  olive, i     '' 

Mix.     Apply  during  the  paroxysme. 


OINTMENT  FOR'ACUTE  INFLAMMATION  OF  THE  TYMPANUM. 

Dr.  Kramer,  whose  excellent  work  on  the  special  diseases  of  the  ear  is  well 
known,  extols  the  employment  of  the  following  ointment  when  inflammation 
of  the  tympanic  membrane  has  not  yielded  to  the  action  of  antiphlogistics : — 

Tartar  emetic, 4  grms. 

Simple  cerate, 8      " 

Oil,. 8      '•  M. 

This  ointment  is  used  by  friction  over  the  mastoid  process.  This  measure 
is  intended  to  prevent  the  organic  alterations  which  ordinarily  take  place  at 
this  period  of  the  discaee. 

In  case  the  affection  has  passed  into  the  chronic  state,  and  gives  rise  to  a 
slight  otorrhoea,  mucous  or  purulent,  M.  Kramer  recommends  aiding  the  ac- 
tion of  the  antimoniated  ointment  by  the  employment  of  simple  injection,  and 
then  with  the  solutions  thus  made : — 

Water, 80  grms. 

Sulphate  of  zinc  or  acetate  of  lead, 5  to  50  ctgrms. 

Or  nitrate  of  silver,  or  biohlor.  of  mercury, .  1  to    6       " 

TThen  the  membrane  of  the  tympanum  is  perforated,  he  does  not  employ 
these  injections  except  after  blunting  the  sensibility  of  the  mucous  membrane 
♦f  the  tympanic  cavity,  by  a  tepid  solution  composed  of — 

Sulphate  of  potassa, 6tol5  ctgrms. 

Water, 30  grms. 

The  physician  ought  always  to  perform  these  little  operations  himself  with 
the  end  of  suspending  them  if  too  great  irritation  supervenes. — Bulletin  de 
Tlmrapeutique^  and  Druggist.    ■ 

TREATMENT    OF    DYSPEPSIA. 

Memrs.  Editors: — In  the  course  of  a  long  practice  in  cases  of  indigestion,  I 
have  found  the  following  prescription  i^  have  done  good  service : — 
5. — Prepared  carbonate  of  iron,  calcium  of  magnesia,  pul- 

'  >Hverized  elm  bark,  each |  i. 

Pulverized  cubebs, |  ss.    , 

M. 
Take  a  teaspoonful,  half  an  hour  before  eating,  i^half  a  teacupful  of  water  — 
Boston  Med.  and  Surg,  Journal, 


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86  Pharinacy. 

SYRUP   OF  PHOSPHATE  OF   IRON  AND  MANGANESE. 

In  the  absence  of  any  authorized  formula  for  this  syrup,  and  in  answer  to 
several  correspondents,  we  insert  the  following : — 

5 . — ^Phosphate  of  iron, 72  grains. 

Phosphate  of  manganese, 48      " 

Glacial  phosphoric  acid, 3  yi. 

Sugar, ' I X. 

Water,  sufficient  to  make  f. |  xij. 

Dissolve  the  phosphoric  acid  in  a  small  quantity  of  the  water,  add  the  phos- 
phates, and  apply  heat  till  dissolved,  then  add  the  sugar  and  the  remainder  of 
the  water,  so  that  the  product  may  measure  twelve  fluid  ounces. — Phcmnaeeu- 
iical  Journal. 


BROWN  MIXTURE. 

By   CJiarles  S,    Tilyard. 

Brown  mixture,  if  prepared  in  the  following  manner,  may  prove  more  satis- 
tory  than  after  the  old  method : — 

IJ. — Pulverized  extract  of  liquorice, |  j.    # 

Gum  arabic,  in  lump, 5  J* 

Paregoric, fl.  5  iv. 

Ant  wine, fl.  §j. 

Wine  of  ipecac, fl.  |  j. 

Sweet  spirit  of  nitre, fl.  |  j. 

Cold  water, q.  s. 

Mix  the  paregoric,  antimony  wine,  spirits  nitre  and  wine  of  ipecac  to- 
gether, in  a  bottle  holding  one  quart ;  turn  in  the  pulverized  extract  <^ 
liquorice ;  set  aside  for  twelve  hours,  with  frequent  agitation,  then  pour  in 
gradually  twenty  fluid  ounces  of  cold  water ;  set  aside  again  for  twelve  or 
twenty-four  hours,  frequently  shaking. '  Filter  through  a  well-plaited  filter, 
allow  the  gum  to  dissolve  in  the  liquid,  and  when  dissolved  pour  it  into  a 
bottle  containing  one  and  a  half  pounds  (avordupois)  of  white  sugar  in 
4oane  powder;  shake  frequently  until  the  sugar  is  dissolved,  or  hasten 
it  by  setting  the  bottle  in  warm  water.  The  whole,  when  finished,  should 
measure  two  pints. 

The  proportions,  it  will  be  observed,  are  the  same  as  in  the  Mistura  Gly- 
cyrrhizse  Composita  of  the  U.  S.  D.,  with  the  exception  of  the  sagtr, 
also  in  substituting  one  ounce  of  wine  of  ipecac  for  one  ounce  of  wine  of 
antimony.  ^ 

The  result  is  a  thin,  transparent,  dark  syrup,  retainining,  it  is  believed, 
the  virtue  of  its  com